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  • GUT precursors and entwined SUSY: The phenomenology of stable nonsupersymmetric strings

    Abel, Steven; Dienes, Keith R.; Mavroudi, Eirini; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-06-25)
    Recent work has established a method of constructing nonsupersymmetric string models that are stable, with near-vanishing one-loop dilaton tadpoles and cosmological constants. This opens up the tantalizing possibility of realizing stable string models whose low-energy limits directly resemble the Standard Model rather than one of its supersymmetric extensions. In this paper we consider the general structure of such strings and find that they share two important phenomenological properties. The first is a so-called "GUT-precursor" structure in which new GUT-like states appear with masses that can be many orders of magnitude lighter than the scale of gauge coupling unification. These states allow a parametrically large compactification volume, even in weakly coupled heterotic strings, and in certain regions of parameter space can give rise to dramatic collider signatures which serve as "smoking guns" for this overall string framework. The second is a residual "entwined-SUSY" (or e-SUSY) structure for the matter multiplets in which different multiplet components carry different horizontal U(1) charges. As a concrete example and existence proof of these features, we present a heterotic string model that contains the fundamental building blocks of the Standard Model such as the Standard-Model gauge group, complete chiral generations, and Higgs fields-all without supersymmetry. Even though massless gravitinos and gauginos are absent from the spectrum, we confirm that this model has an exponentially suppressed one-loop dilaton tadpole and displays both the GUT-precursor and e-SUSY structures. We also discuss some general phenomenological properties of e-SUSY, such as cancellations in radiative corrections to scalar masses, the possible existence of a corresponding approximate moduli space, and the prevention of rapid proton decay.
  • Global Climate and Atmospheric Composition of the Ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-103b from HST and Spitzer Phase Curve Observations

    Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael R.; Parmentier, Vivien; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Louden, Tom; Bonnefoy, Mickäel; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Stassun, Keivan; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bean, Jacob L.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam P.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Arcangeli, Jacob; Univ Arizona, Dept Planetary Sci; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-07)
    We present thermal phase curve measurements for the hot Jupiter WASP-103b observed with Hubble/WFC3 and Spitzer IIRAC. The phase curves have large amplitudes and negligible hotspot offsets, indicative of poor heat redistribution to the nightside. We fit the phase variation with a range of climate maps and find that a spherical harmonics model generally provides the best fit. The phase-resolved spectra are consistent with blackbodies in the WFC3 bandpass, with brightness temperatures ranging from 1880 +/- 40 K on the nightside to 2930 +/- 40 K on the dayside. The dayside spectrum has a significantly higher brightness temperature in the Spitzer bands, likely due to CO emission and a thermal inversion. The inversion is not present on the nightside. We retrieved the atmospheric composition and found that it is moderately metal-enriched ([M/H] = 23(-13)(+29) x solar) and the carbon-to-oxygen ratio is below 0.9 at 3 sigma confidence. In contrast to cooler hot Jupiters, we do not detect spectral features from water, which we attribute to partial H2O dissociation. We compare the phase curves to 3D general circulation models and find that magnetic drag effects are needed to match the data. We also compare the WASP-103b spectra to brown dwarfs and young, directly imaged companions. We find that these objects have significantly larger water features, indicating that surface gravity and irradiation environment play an important role in shaping the spectra of hot Jupiters. These results highlight the 3D structure of exoplanet atmospheres and illustrate the importance of phase curve observations for understanding their complex chemistry and physics.
  • Future prospects of mass-degenerate Higgs bosons in the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model

    Bian, Ligong; Chen, Ning; Su, Wei; Wu, Yongcheng; Zhang, Yu; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-06-07)
    The scenario of two mass-degenerate Higgs bosons within the general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) is revisited. We focus on the global picture when two CP-even Higgs bosons of h and H are nearly mass-degenerate. A global fit to the signal strength of the 125 GeV Higgs measured at the LHC is performed. Based on the best-fit result of the 2HDM mixing angles (alpha, beta), theoretical constraints, charged and CP-odd Higgs boson direct search constraints and the electroweak precision constraints are imposed to the 2HDM parameter space. We present the signal predictions of the (4b, 2b2 gamma) channels for the benchmark models at the LHC 14 TeV runs. We also study the direct Higgs boson pair productions at the LHC, and the Z-associated Higgs boson pair production search at the ILC 500 GeV runs, as well as the indirect probes at the CEPC 250 GeV run. We find that the massdegenerate Higgs boson scenario in the Type-II 2HDM can be fully probed by these future experimental searches.
  • Fungal communities associated with almond throughout crop development: Implications for aflatoxin biocontrol management in California

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Moral, Juan; Puckett, Ryan D.; Morgan, David P.; Cotty, Peter J.; Michailides, Themis J.; Univ Arizona, USDA ARS, Sch Plant Sci (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-06-20)
    Interactions between pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal species in the tree canopy are complex and can determine if disease will manifest in the plant and in other organisms such as honey bees. Seasonal dynamics of fungi were studied in an almond orchard in California where experimental release of the atoxigenic biopesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 to displace toxigenic Aspergillus strains has been conducted for five years. The presence of the vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36, to which AF36 belongs, in the blossoms, and the honey bees that attend these blossoms, was assessed. In blossoms, A. flavus frequencies ranged from 0 to 4.5%, depending on the year of study. Frequencies of honey bees carrying A. flavus ranged from 6.5 to 10%. Only one A. flavus isolate recovered from a blossom in 2016 belonged to YV36, while members of the VCG were not detected contaminating honey bees. Exposure of pollinator honey bees to AF36 was detected to be very low. The density of several Aspergillus species was found to increase during almond hull split and throughout the final stages of maturation; this also occurred in pistachio orchards during the maturation period. Additionally, we found that AF36 effectively limited almond aflatoxin contamination in laboratory assays. This study provides knowledge and understanding of the seasonal dynamics of Aspergillus fungi and will help design aflatoxin management strategies for almond. The evidence of the low levels of VCG YV36 encountered on almond blossoms and bees during pollination and AF36's effectiveness in limiting aflatoxin contamination in almond provided additional support for the registration of AF36 with USEPA to use in almond in California.
  • Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities

    Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci; Univ Arizona, Biomed Engn (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2018)
    While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.

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