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Research Practices of Indigenous Studies Scholars at the University of Arizona: An Ithaka S+R Report(The University of Arizona., 2019-01)Introduction: This report was completed at the invitation of Ithaka S+R, as part of a multi‐university qualitative study on the research practices of Indigenous Studies scholars. The University of Arizona Libraries (UAL) joined 11 other participating academic libraries in conducting interviews with scholars at their own institutions. The results of the local study are synthesized here as well as compiled, along with the other institutions’ findings, into the final Ithaka S+R report. The University of Arizona is a large public research university and land‐grant institution, founded in 1885, and situated on the lands of the Tohono O’odham Nation. Its American Indian Studies program was the first of its kind in the country to offer a Master’s degree and Ph.D. degree, in 1982 and 1997, respectively. It is home to the renowned American Indian Language Development Institute, the Native Nations Institute, and the Native American Research Training Center.
Sex-specific differences in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) functional expression at the blood–brain barrier in Sprague–Dawley rats(BMC, 2018-09-13)Background: Targeting endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of neurological diseases. Advancement of Oatp targeting for optimization of CNS drug delivery requires characterization of sex-specific differences in BBB expression and/or activity of this transporter. Methods: In this study, we investigated sex differences in Oatp1a4 functional expression at the BBB in adult and prepubertal (i.e., 6-week-old) Sprague-Dawley rats. We also performed castration or ovariectomy surgeries to assess the role of gonadal hormones on Oatp1a4 protein expression and transport activity at the BBB. Slco1a4 (i.e., the gene encoding Oatp1a4) mRNA expression and Oatp1a4 protein expression in brain microvessels was determined using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Oatp transport function at the BBB was determined via in situ brain perfusion using [H-3] taurocholate and [H-3] atorvastatin as probe substrates. Data were expressed as mean +/- SD and analyzed via one-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Bonferroni t-test. Results: Our results showed increased brain microvascular Slco1a4 mRNA and Oatp1a4 protein expression as well as increased brain uptake of [H-3] taurocholate and [H-3] atorvastatin in female rats as compared to males. Oatp1a4 expression at the BBB was enhanced in castrated male animals but was not affected by ovariectomy in female animals. In prepubertal rats, no sex-specific differences in brain microvascular Oatp1a4 expression were observed. Brain accumulation of [H-3] taurocholate in male rats was increased following castration as compared to controls. In contrast, there was no difference in [H-3] taurocholate brain uptake between ovariectomized and control female rats. Conclusions: These novel data confirm sex-specific differences in BBB Oatp1a4 functional expression, findings that have profound implications for treatment of CNS diseases. Studies are ongoing to fully characterize molecular pathways that regulate sex differences in Oatp1a4 expression and activity.
Search for supersymmetry in final states with charm jets and missing transverse momentum in 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector(SPRINGER, 2018-09-10)A search for supersymmetric partners of top quarks decaying as (t) over tilde (1) -> c (chi) over tilde (0)(1)and supersymmetric partners of charm quarks decaying as (c) over tilde (1) -> c (chi) over tilde (0 )(1)where (chi) over tilde (0)(1) is the lightest neutralino, is presented. The search uses 36.1 fb(-1) pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider and is performed in final states with jets identified as containing charm hadrons. Assuming a 100% branching ratio to c (chi) over tilde (0)(1), top and charm squarks with masses up to 850 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level for a massless lightest neutralino. For m (t) over tilde (1,(c) over tilde1) - m((chi) over tilde 10)< 100 GeV, top and charm squark masses up to 500 GeV are excluded.
Search for flavour-changing neutral current top-quark decays t -> qZ in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector(SPRINGER, 2018-07-31)A search for flavour-changing neutral-current processes in top-quark decays is presented. Data collected with the ATLAS detector from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 13TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1), are analysed. The search is performed using top-quark pair events, with one top quark decaying through the t -> qZ (q = u, c) flavour-changing neutral-current channel, and the other through the dominant Standard Model mode t -> bW. Only Z boson decays into charged leptons and leptonic W boson decays are considered as signal. Consequently, the final-state topology is characterized by the presence of three isolated charged leptons (electrons or muons), at least two jets, one of the jets originating from a b-quark, and missing transverse momentum from the undetected neutrino. The data are consistent with Standard Model background contributions, and at 95% confidence level the search sets observed (expected) upper limits of 1.7 x 10(-4) (2.4 x 10(-4)) on the t -> uZ branching ratio and 2.4 x 10(-4) (3.2 x 10(-4)) on the t -> cZ branching ratio, constituting the most stringent limits to date.
Rotating black hole geometries in a two-dimensional photon superfluid(OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2018-09-20)Photon fluids have recently found applications in the simulation of a variety of physical phenomena such as superfluidity, vortex instabilities, and artificial gauge theories. Here we experimentally demonstrate the use of a photon fluid for analog gravity, i.e., the study of the physics of curved spacetime in the laboratory. While most analog gravity experiments are performed in 1 + 1 dimensions (one spatial plus time) and thus can only mimic 1 + 1D spacetime, we present a (room-temperature) photon superfluid where the geometry of a rotating acoustic black hole can be realized in 2 + 1D dimensions by an optical vortex. By measuring the local flow velocity and speed of waves in the photon superfluid, we identify a 2D region surrounded by an ergosphere and a spatially separated horizon. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.