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  • Vestiges of a lunar ilmenite layer following mantle overturn revealed by gravity data

    Liang, Weigang; Broquet, Adrien; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Min; Evans, Alexander J.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-04-08)
    The lunar crust and mantle formed through the crystallization of a magma ocean, culminating in a solid cumulate mantle with a layer of dense ilmenite-bearing cumulates rich in incompatible elements forming above less dense cumulates. This gravitationally unstable configuration probably resulted in a global mantle overturn, with ilmenite-bearing cumulates sinking into the interior. However, despite abundant geochemical evidence, there has been a lack of physical evidence on the nature of the overturn. Here we combine gravity inversions together with geodynamic models to shed light on this critical stage of lunar evolution. We show that the observed polygonal pattern of linear gravity anomalies that surround the nearside mare region is consistent with the signature of the ilmenite-bearing cumulates that remained after the global mantle overturn at the locations of past sheet-like downwellings. This interpretation is supported by the compelling similarity between the observed pattern, magnitude and dimensions of the gravity anomalies and those predicted by geodynamic models of the ilmenite-bearing cumulate remnants. These features provide physical evidence for the nature of the global mantle overturn, constrain the overturn to have occurred before the Serenitatis and Humorum basin-forming impacts and support a deep Ti-rich mantle source for the high-Ti basalts.
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of nivolumab-chemotherapy as first-line therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer: a United States payer perspective

    Marupuru, Srujitha; Arku, Daniel; Axon, David R; Villa-Zapata, Lorenzo; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Slack, Marion K; Warholak, Terri; Department of Pharmacy Practice, R. Ken Coit College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023-05-31)
    Objectives: Nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug administration as a first-line systemic therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab-chemotherapy combination versus chemotherapy alone as a first-line therapy from a US payer perspective. Methods: An economic evaluation was conducted using a partitioned survival model in Microsoft Excel® using data from the CheckMate 649 trial. Three discrete mutually exclusive health states (progression-free, post-progression, and death) were included in the model. The health state occupancy was calculated using the overall survival and progression-free survival curves derived from the CheckMate 649 trial. Cost, resource use, and health utility estimates were estimated from a US payer perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses assessed the uncertainty of the model parameters. Results: Nivolumab-chemotherapy provided additional 0.25 life years compared to chemotherapy alone and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 0.701 and 0.561, respectively, producing a gain of 0.140 QALYs and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $574,072/QALY. Conclusion: From the US payer perspective, at a willingness to pay threshold of $US150,000/QALY, nivolumab-chemotherapy was not found to be cost-effective as a first-line therapy for locally advanced/metastatic gastric cancer.
  • Identification and characterization of a novel strain of Decapod hepanhamaparvovirus in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from Madagascar that does not cause histological lesions

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Siewiora, Halina M.; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Le Groumellec, Marc; Dhar, Arun K.; Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory, School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-04-01)
    Decapod hepanhamaparvovirus (DHPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that primarily affects the early life stages of penaeid shrimp, potentially leading to significant losses in hatchery operations. In an interesting finding, we observed that a small portion Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) originating from Madagascar harbored DHPV even in the absence of any discernible clinical signs. Detailed histopathological analysis of P. monodon post-larvae individuals revealed an absence of distinctive histological lesions typically associated with DHPV infection. However, sensitive molecular techniques, including PCR and real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) confirmed the presence of viral DNA and DHPV encoded transcripts in these specimens. The complete genome sequence of this newfound viral isolate, spanning 6254 nucleotides, showed a 96.9% nucleotide sequence similarity to a previously documented DHPV strain also originating from Madagascar. Moreover, it exhibited a genetic resemblance of 80.7% to 88.2% when compared to DHPV strains from other geographical regions. These findings underscore the unique genomic and histological characteristics of this novel DHPV isolate. This knowledge proves to be of paramount significance for the screening of broodstock and post-larvae in captive breeding programs, as it aids in identifying the presence of DHPV. Furthermore, it paves the way for future investigations into unraveling the precise role of viral-encoded proteins in shaping the clinical and histological manifestations of DHPV infections.
  • Oppositional Courage for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: A Source of White Employees’ Upward Moral Comparison

    Thoroughgood, Christian N.; Sawyer, Katina B.; Kong, Dejun Tony; Webster, Jennica R.; University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-03-29)
    When advantaged group employees courageously stand up for the rights of their colleagues with marginalized identities, research suggests that they communicate a powerful, public “message of value” to such individuals. Yet, this beneficiary-focused perspective, while valuable, does not address the self-meanings that third-party observers may derive from such oppositional courage (OC) and the implications for their behavior toward the courageous actor. Drawing on the social comparison literature, we propose that perceptions of OC can be a source of upward moral comparison information for advantaged group observers. Thus, on the one hand, we argue that perceptions of OC can convey to observers that they lack the moral character of the courageous actor, which is associated with feelings of moral inferiority and, in turn, a motivation to negatively gossip about the actor. On the other hand, we suggest that perceptions of OC can also signal to observers their moral capacity to actively contribute to an equitable, inclusive workplace, which is associated with feelings of moral elevation and, in turn, a motivation to positively gossip about the actor. Central to our theory, we argue that these different reactions depend on observers’ own self-confidence to engage in similar courageous action—what we refer to as oppositional courage self-efficacy. Using data from White employees, we conducted one pilot study (i.e., a critical incident analysis) and two main studies (i.e., an experiment and a three-wave survey), on OC for racial and ethnic minorities and found support for our hypotheses. We conclude by discussing the implications of our research.
  • Entrepreneurial community development and the everyday realities of existing enterprises

    Rioux, Revecca; Mars, Matthew M.; Department of Agricultural Education, Technology and Innovation, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-25)
    Entrepreneurship and innovation are key inputs to the revitalization and sustainability of rural communities and economies. While compelling, entrepreneurial community development models heavily favor new venture start-up activities and largely overlook the needs and potential of existing enterprises. Drawing on principles of everyday life sociology and organizational culture, we explored how a sample of Southeastern Arizona ranchers confront persistent challenges by way of their daily routines, practices, and interactions. Data were collected through extensive field work involving nearly 100 hours of direct observation and semi-structured interviews with 14 participants across four ranches. The findings show the innovative characteristics of the ranchers’ everyday practices and routines and illustrate how everyday ingenuity among the ranchers drives a problem-driven mindset and immediate, short-term action. We use the insights generated to conceptualize a temporal dynamic that if integrated with entrepreneurial community development models may better foster and support innovation within existing enterprises.

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