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Modifications decrease hepatic steatosis in Taiwanese with metabolic-associated fatty liver diseaseMetabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a growing global problem associated with increasing obesity prevalence. Lifestyle modifications are currently recommended, including weight reduction, exercise, and diet control. This study evaluated the short-term effect of lifestyle modifications on transient elastography (TE) values in an obese population with MAFLD. Thirty-two MAFLD patients were recruited for this prospective study and all subjects participated in a 3-month program of lifestyle modification. Sequential demographic parameters and biochemical tests were compared before and after program completion. Liver fat and fibrosis changes were measured using TE with controlled attenuated parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM). The mean age was 38.7 years old (10 males). The body weight (88.09 kg vs. 80.35 kg), body mass index (32.24 kg/m2 vs. 29.4 kg/m2), waist (103.19 cm vs. 95.75 cm), and hip circumference (111.67 cm vs. 104.75 cm), and blood pressure (128/78 mmHg vs. 119/71 mmHg) significantly improved before and after the intervention, respectively. Aspartate aminotransaminase (24.06 U/L vs. 18.91 U/L), alanine aminotransaminase (33 U/L vs. 23.72 U/L), creatinine (0.75 mg/dl vs. 0.70 mg/dl), cholesterol (176.41 mg/dl vs. 166.22 m/dl), gamma-glutamyl transferase (26.59 IU/L vs. 19.81 IU/L), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (115.63 mg/dl vs. 103.19 mg/dl) also improved after the 3-month intervention. The average CAP significantly decreased after intervention (297.5 dB/m vs. 255.0 dB/m), however, no significant difference in LSM was observed (5.24 kPa vs. 4.82 kPa). The current study suggests that short-term lifestyle modification can effectively improve hepatic steatosis, and TE may serve as a monitoring tool for therapeutic intervention. © 2022 The Authors. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Kaohsiung Medical University.
Clumped-Isotope Constraint on Upper-Tropospheric Cooling During the Last Glacial MaximumIce cores and other paleotemperature proxies, together with general circulation models, have provided information on past surface temperatures and the atmosphere's composition in different climates. Little is known, however, about past temperatures at high altitudes, which play a crucial role in Earth's radiative energy budget. Paleoclimate records at high-altitude sites are sparse, and the few that are available show poor agreement with climate model predictions. These disagreements could be due to insufficient spatial coverage, spatiotemporal biases, or model physics; new records that can mitigate or avoid these uncertainties are needed. Here, we constrain the change in upper-tropospheric temperature at the global scale during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using the clumped-isotope composition of molecular oxygen trapped in polar ice cores. Aided by global three-dimensional chemical transport modeling, we exploit the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of the clumped-isotope composition of atmospheric oxygen to infer that the upper troposphere (effective mean altitude 10–11 km) was 6–9°C cooler during the LGM than during the late preindustrial Holocene. A complementary energy balance approach supports a minor or negligible steepening of atmospheric lapse rates during the LGM, which is consistent with a range of climate model simulations. Proxy-model disagreements with other high-altitude records may stem from inaccuracies in regional hydroclimate simulation, possibly related to land-atmosphere feedbacks. © 2022. The Authors.
Behavioral responses to spatial heterogeneity in endangered Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica)Globally, the threat of endangerment and extinction of small cetaceans was highlighted after the recent extinction of the Chinese River dolphin or Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer). Species with a small population size and a limited geographic range, such as Ganges River dolphins (GRD), are more vulnerable to extinction. The social and behavioral needs of cetaceans have been identified as potential factors increasing their vulnerability to human disturbance. However, little is known about how GRD adapt their behaviors and diel activity patterns to spatiotemporal variation. In this paper, we examined the underwater behavior of GRDs in Nepal by collecting echolocation clicks from three spatially stratified habitats in the Sapta Koshi River system over a six-month period. Our research found that GRDs behave differently in response to spatial heterogeneity, indicating diverse environmental requirements for GRD persistence. Behavioral activity and duration varied across habitats but not across time of day, suggesting that GRD behaviors are likely to be regulated by habitat structure regardless of the time of day. However, GRD consistently exhibited nocturnal activity peaks even when diurnal activity varied substantially. This indicates that river dolphins may favor nocturnal refuges as a reaction to human disturbance in highly regulated rivers. Managing human disturbances in conjunction with habitat heterogeneity can improve the persistence of riverine cetaceans. Here, we document behavioral and ecological information pertaining to GRD, which is essential to the formation of river dolphin recovery plans that link ecological perspectives to planning and management. © 2022 The Authors
(4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene)(tricyclohexylphosphane-κP)iridium(I) tetrafluoridoborate dichloromethane monosolvateThe title compound, [Ir(C8H12)(C6H11N3)(C18H33P)]BF4·CH2Cl2, a triazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene iridium(I) cationic complex with a tetrafluoridoborate counter-anion, crystallizes with one dichloromethane solvent molecule per formula unit. The IrI atom of the cationic complex has a distorted square-planar coordination environment, defined by a bidentate cycloocta-1,5-diene (COD) ligand, an N-heterocyclic carbene, and a tricyclohexylphosphane ligand. The complex crystallizes in a C-centered monoclinic unit cell and has an unusually high number of eight formula units. © 2022 IUCr. All Rights Reserved.
An Afflicted Black Mother and the Paradox of the Sonnet in Gwendolyn Brooks' "the children of the poor"This article examines Gwendolyn Brooks' early poem, "the children of the poor," a sonnet sequence collected in Brooks' Pulitzer Prize-winning volume, Annie Allen (1949), and discusses how Brooks taps into the sonnet tradition to externalize the hitherto obscured interiority of a deprived Black mother. Since the ages of Petrarch and Shakespeare, the sonnet has continually evolved over centuries and established itself as a quintessential lyric form. However, in the process, it has also been freighted with heavy cultural baggage and ideological associations. For the Harlem Renaissance poets, writing sonnets to claim their equal footing with great Anglo-European sonneteers ironically entailed a complex negotiation with their cultural and racial identity, and African American women poets were further burdened with masculine norms inherent in the sonnet tradition. In this regard, this paper will investigate how Brooks, both sympathetic and critical toward the Harlem Renaissance predecessors, employs the sonnet's rhetorical force, lyric expressiveness, and dramatic richness to articulate the silenced voice of an African American woman represented by the protagonist, Annie, and simultaneously subverts its formal and thematic expectations. In Brooks' reconfigured sonnets, a naïve ingénue infatuated with her own romantic imaginings transforms into a distressed yet determinedly assertive Black mother who addresses issues such as social prejudice and economic injustice with an impressive lyric authority and authenticity. This study will thus argue that Brooks' purportedly integrationist poetic practice erodes the time-honored tradition of the English sonnet from within and demonstrates the sonnet's potential as an alternative space for revolution and innovation. © 2022 English Language and Literature Association of Korea. All rights reserved.