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The Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS) Document Repository is now available in the UA Campus Repository. UA Libraries personnel collaborated with AZGS to add historical and current publications to the repository, for immediate public availability and long-term preservation. Content includes geologic maps, reports, bulletins, and other publications.
More than 200 honors theses from Spring 2018 graduates are now available in the repository. Theses represent research activities from multiple disciplines across campus.
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Speech Perception in Noise and Listening Effort of Older Adults With Nonlinear Frequency Compression Hearing Aids(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018-03)Objectives: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance. The first aim of the study was to determine the effect of nonlinear frequency compression on aided speech recognition in noise and listening effort using a dual-task test paradigm. The hypothesis, based on the Ease of Language Understanding model, was that nonlinear frequency compression would improve speech recognition in noise and decrease listening effort. The second aim of the study was to determine if listener variables of hearing loss slope, working memory capacity, and age would predict performance with nonlinear frequency compression. Design: A total of 17 adults (age, 57-85 years) with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss were tested in the sound field using hearing aids fit to target (NAL-NL2). Participants were recruited with a range of hearing loss severities and slopes. A within-subjects, single-blinded design was used to compare performance with and without nonlinear frequency compression. Speech recognition in noise and listening effort were measured by adapting the Revised Speech in Noise Test into a dual-task paradigm. Participants were required trial-by-trial to repeat the last word of each sentence presented in speech babble and then recall the sentence-ending words after every block of six sentences. Half of the sentences were rich in context for the recognition of the final word of each sentence, and half were neutral in context. Extrinsic factors of sentence context and nonlinear frequency compression were manipulated, and intrinsic factors of hearing loss slope, working memory capacity, and age were measured to determine which participant factors were associated with benefit from nonlinear frequency compression. Results: On average, speech recognition in noise performance significantly improved with the use of nonlinear frequency compression. Individuals with steeply sloping hearing loss received more recognition benefit. Recall performance also significantly improved at the group level, with nonlinear frequency compression revealing reduced listening effort. The older participants within the study cohort received less recall benefit than the younger participants. The benefits of nonlinear frequency compression for speech recognition and listening effort did not correlate with each other, suggesting separable sources of benefit for these outcome measures. Conclusions: Improvements of speech recognition in noise and reduced listening effort indicate that adult hearing aid users can receive benefit from nonlinear frequency compression in a noisy environment, with the amount of benefit varying across individuals and across outcome measures. Evidence supports individualized selection of nonlinear frequency compression, with results suggesting benefits in speech recognition for individuals with steeply sloping hearing losses and in listening effort for younger individuals. Future research is indicated with a larger data set on the dual-task paradigm as a potential cognitive outcome measure.
BEST PRACTICES IN NEONATAL MICROBIOME DEVELOPMENT(The University of Arizona., 2018)This thesis proposes best practice recommendations for healthcare professionals to encourage optimal microbiome development in full-term neonates through a variety of elective influences. Newborn care practices immediately following delivery are dependent on the setting, maternal decisions, prior education, and risks specific to each family. The effects of proper microbiome are important not only for a full-term infant’s health, but also for the child’s longterm growth. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Articles were narrowed to those published from 2007 to 2017. A total of 16 articles were reviewed in this thesis. The proposed best practice model for postnatal practice include vaginal birth when not medically contraindicated, exclusive breastfeeding, delayed bathing for up to 24 hours, use of skin-to-skin contact immediately following delivery, and limiting antibiotic exposure to the infant. Through education to both the nursing staff and the expecting families, hospitals will be able to implement these practices when it is safe to do so. Educating the healthcare professionals through a protocol recommendation is pivotal to implementing this change, as they have a responsibility to inform the expectant parents on the evidence supporting these interventions.
The Experience of Male Nursing Students in Professional Entry-Level Programs(The University of Arizona., 2018)The topic of this thesis is the male nursing experience. It was chosen due to the knowledge that the United States has a rapidly changing population that will eventually require the most diverse nursing population possible. This means that priority should be given to retaining male nursing students, as the majority of males in nursing identify with minority groups rather than as white or Caucasian. To do this, nursing programs must address the level of belongingness that their male students feel. The research study in this thesis was meant measure the level of belongingness of male student nurses in a College of Nursing compared to their female counterparts. This was completed through a survey with a questionnaire. It answered: Do male and female nursing students feel a sense of belonging within their nursing program?, Do male and female nursing students have a difference in experience in reference to their feelings of belonging?, and Do nursing students feel that male nursing students in professional entry-level programs at the College of Nursing are treated differently? Data was analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics and concluded that although male nursing students scored lower levels of belonging, it was not statistically significant.
EVIDENCE INFORMED STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE USE AND EXPERIENCE OF HEALTHCARE BY HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS(The University of Arizona., 2018)The purpose of this thesis was to provide evidence informed strategies through online modules and in-class testimonial for healthcare providers treating the homeless individuals. There has been an increase of 0.7% of homeless population in the last year in America (“Homelessness in America: Overview of Data and Causes”, 2018). Additionally, the individuals facing homelessness have greater risks for morbidities and mortalities due to the lack of safe environment. Many individuals find it difficult to obtain medical attention from lack of intimate care in the hospital and lack of resources, such as transportation and insurance. The health care providers, too, feel that they do not know enough about homelessness to educate the individuals on further treatment. Implementing online training programs for nurses working in the emergency department to utilize resources and referrals and to educate on background of homelessness would provide nurses with necessary evidence-based information needed to guide them in providing care to homeless individuals.