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  • Mathas, toward understanding the public religious, educational, and political ascetic institution in South Asian religions

    Simmons, Caleb; Religious Studies and Classics, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2023-09-11)
    The matha is an important yet understudied public religious, political, and educational institution with wide-ranging influence in the formation of the structures and theology of Hinduism and Jainism. Recently, scholars of South Asian religion have turned their attention to understand these institutions and their role in the creation of sectarian identity and theology, as educational and economic centers, and symbols of sovereign power. This essay is not attempting thorough historical account of ascetic institutions in India. Instead, its focus is to highlight the existing and recent scholarship on the matha to encourage more research on the topic. Therefore, this essay provides an overview of recent trends in the scholarship of mathas in India, focusing on exemplary works that have helped us to understand the history of these institutions more deeply, providing an overview of the matha through an overview of recent work.
  • Leveraging virtual reality to understand human spatial navigation

    Huang, Yinqi; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-10-06)
  • Accuracy of an objective binocular automated phoropter for providing spectacle prescriptions

    Ozgur, Erol; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Bedrick, Edward J; Conway, Mandi D; Peyman, Gholam A; Peyghambarian, Nasser N; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Arizona; College of Medicine Phoenix, University of Arizona, Phoenix (Informa UK Limited, 2023-10-16)
    Clinical relevance: Currently eye examinations are usually based on autorefraction followed by subjective refraction (SR) with a phoropter. An automated phoropter that can also perform autorefraction may facilitate the optometric workflow. Background: The efficiency and feasibility of an objective autorefraction and correction system are assessed by comparing objective refractive measurements with SR on the same subjects and evaluating the visual acuity (VA) values obtained after the objective refractive measurement and correction. Methods: Objective autorefraction and correction was performed on 41 subjects using an automated binocular phoropter system. The auto-phoropter performs autorefraction by wavefront measurement and corrects the spherical and cylindrical errors with tunable fluidic lenses while the patient looks at a visual display inside the instrument. The instrument outputs are optometric constants of spherical and cylindrical aberrations. After measurement and automated correction of the refractive errors, the VA values were assessed by having the subjects look at an integrated Snellen chart. The objective measurement results were statistically compared with their SR. Results: The correlations between SR and objective autorefraction and correction spherical equivalents (M) were 0.98 (0.97–0.99) and 0.96 (0.93–0.98), the vertical Jackson cross cylinder (J0) were 0.96 (0.92–0.98) and 0.95 (0.91–0.97), and the oblique Jackson cross cylinder (J45) were 0.73 (0.55–0.85) and 0.82 (0.69–0.90), for the right and left eyes, respectively, with the 95% confidence interval (CI) values in parentheses. 89.0% of the 82 eyes had at least 6/7.5 VA. Conclusions: A significant agreement between the SR and objective autorefraction and correction was observed. An all-objective refractive assessment with instantaneous verification may improve the precision of eye prescriptions and possibly reduce the procedure time.
  • Connected Community Classification (C3): Development, Validation, and Geospatial Application for Population Health Promotion and Equity

    Skiba, Meghan B; Lind, Kimberly E; Felion, Carlie M; Krupnik, Christopher; Segrin, Chris; Advanced Nursing Practice and Science Division, College of Nursing, University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Arizona; Department of Communication, College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Arizona (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2024-03-01)
    CONTEXT: Social determinants of health (SDOH) impact population health. Leveraging community-level strengths related to SDOH through a social infrastructure perspective can optimize health behaviors and health outcomes to promote health equity. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to develop, validate, and apply the Connected Community Classification (C3) as comprehensive community-level measure of protective SDOH and structural factors in the Four Corners states region of the United States. DESIGN: C3 was developed using an iterative principal component analysis of publicly available data mapped to 5 SDOH domains. Regional clustering of C3 by zip code tabulation area (ZCTA) was identified using spatial autocorrelation methods. MAIN OUTCOMES: In adjusted spatial autoregressive models, we analyzed the association of C3 with high-risk health behaviors and chronic disease prevalence using publicly available data for population-level estimates of fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, and cancer. RESULTS: C3 was found to be reliable and valid; a C3 value of 10 indicates communities with greater connection (high), while a value of 1 indicates communities with greater separation (low) to social infrastructure. Lower connection, as measured by C3, was significantly inversely associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake, lower physical activity, and higher rates of obesity, smoking, CHD, diabetes, and cancer. C3 was significantly positively associated with heavy alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that communities connected to social infrastructure have better population health outcomes. C3 captures protective community attributes and can be used in future applications to assist health researchers, practitioners, nonprofits, and policymakers to advance social connection and health equity in geographically diverse underserved regions.
  • Cultural and translation challenges in assessing health literacy among immigrants from the former Soviet Union

    Shaw, Susan J; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Lee, Jeannie K; Gavrilyuk, Dina; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona; Southwest Institute for Research on Women, University of Arizona (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2023-10-05)
    Health literacy is an important foundation for health promotion and an under-recognized risk factor for immigrant and refugee groups. Yet measuring health literacy among diverse ethnic and linguistic populations presents complex challenges. We describe cultural and translation challenges encountered in measuring health literacy among Russian-speaking immigrants to the USA and offer a mixed-methods approach to understanding them. The Rx-Health Literacy (RxHL) study used cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative data to examine health literacy and medication adherence among five cultural and four language groups (Latinx, Vietnamese, African-American, Russian-speaking immigrant and White American) who are patients at Caring Health Center, a federally qualified health center in Springfield, MA. We translated an existing health literacy scale into Russian and Vietnamese and examined item difficulty across cultural groups. We conducted qualitative cognitive interviews to learn more about Russian speakers' understandings of the scale. Health literacy scores varied by cultural group, and the range of correct responses was much greater among Russian speakers than in other groups. Percentage correct varied by 69.7% for Russian speakers, compared with 25.0-44.0% for other groups. These findings indicate greater variability in health literacy levels among this group compared with others. Cognitive interviews with Russian-speaking participants revealed multiple interpretations of several items, suggesting that the English version of the scale contained embedded meanings associated with an American health care context that were not captured in the translated instrument. Combining qualitative and quantitative research methods allows for greater insight into contextual and translation factors that may shape the results of translated instruments in unanticipated ways.

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