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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAR AND MEDICAL PROGRESS AS SEEN IN THE SPECIFIC CASE OF TYPHUS IN EUROPE DURING WWII(The University of Arizona., 2018)There is a well established connection between war and medical advancement in history. The necessities and stress of conflict push scientific ingenuity and the funding provided by the military enhancing scientists’ ability to innovate. However, this process is hardly a simple cause-effect relationship but often the outcome of complex interactions between governments, the military, and scientists. In this paper I argue that there are certain requirements that need to be met to achieve medical and scientific advancement during war. By examining a single case: typhus prevention in Europe during World War II, I explore the effect of certain complications and ineptitudes that prevent the furthering of medical knowledge, juxtaposing it against successful scientific and medical innovation. I contrast the successful improvement of public health medicine by the western Allies, especially the United States, to the unsuccessful attempt at medical advancement made by Nazi Germany. The evidence I provide to support my argument is drawn from contemporary medical reports and scientific papers as well as previous research on typhus and military public health medicine.
Microwave-assisted green synthesis of anilines, phenols, and benzenediamines without transition metals, ligands, or organic solvents(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018)A novel, microwave-assisted method producing anilines and phenols from activated aryl halides is reported. This high-yielding method reduces current reaction requirements and removes organic solvents and catalysts making a more efficient and eco-friendly alternative for the synthesis of important pharmaceutical building blocks. [GRAPHICS] .
Distributionally Robust Optimization with Principal Component Analysis(SIAM PUBLICATIONS, 2018)Distributionally robust optimization (DRO) is widely used because it offers a way to overcome the conservativeness of robust optimization without requiring the specificity of stochastic programming. On the computational side, many practical DRO instances can be equivalently (or approximately) formulated as semidefinite programming (SDP) problems via conic duality of the moment problem. However, despite being theoretically solvable in polynomial time, SDP problems in practice are computationally challenging and quickly become intractable with increasing problem sizes. We propose a new approximation method to solve DRO problems with moment-based ambiguity sets. Our approximation method relies on principal component analysis (PCA) for optimal lower dimensional representation of variability in random samples. We show that the PCA approximation yields a relaxation of the original problem and derive theoretical bounds on the gap between the original problem and its PCA approximation. Furthermore, an extensive numerical study shows the strength of the proposed approximation method in terms of solution quality and runtime. As examples, for distributionally robust conditional value-at-risk and risk-averse production-transportation problems the proposed PCA approximation using only 50% of the principal components yields near-optimal solutions (within 1%) with a one to two order of magnitude reduction in computation time.
Organizing the Next Generation: Youth Engagement with Activism Inside and Outside of Organizations(SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-02-01)Social movement scholars have long considered organizations (social movement organizations [SMOs]) vital to the success of a movement. SMOs organize events, mobilize participants, and recruit new activists into the movement. In the case of youth activism, SMOs can also play a vital role in the political socialization of youth. However, a substantial line of research finds that most SMOs do a poor job of encouraging and facilitating youth engagement in offline, face-to-face contexts. With the growing use of digital media by both social movements and youth, online activism presents another avenue through which SMOs can recruit youth participation. The extent to which SMOs are doing any better at this online than offline is an open and surprisingly new question, however. Using a unique dataset, we explore the extent to which SMOs are encouraging youth participation in social movement activity online. Based on our findings, we argue that engaging with and recruiting youth into SMOs is vital for the future health of these organizations as well as the political socialization of youth, and that SMOs are not doing enough to recruit youth online, mirroring their failure offline.
Oxidative stress induces BH4 deficiency in male, but not female, SHR(PORTLAND PRESS LTD, 2018-08-31)We previously published that female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have significantly greater nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and NO synthase (NOS) enzymatic activity in the renal inner medulla (IM) compared with age-matched males, although the mechanism responsible remains unknown. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical cofactor required for NO generation, and decreases in BH4 as a result of increases in oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. As male SHR are known to have higher levels of oxidative stress compared with female SHR, we hypothesized that relative BH4 deficiency induced by oxidative stress in male SHR results in lower levels of NOS activity in renal IM compared with females. Twelve-week-old male and female SHR were randomized to receive tempol (30 mg/kg/day via drinking water) or vehicle for 2 weeks. Tempol treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) in either sex, but reduced peroxynitrite levels only in males. Females had more total biopterin, dihydrobiopterin (BH2), and BH4 levels in renal IMs than males, and tempol treatment eliminated these sex differences. Females had greater total NOS activity in the renal IM than males, and adding exogenous BH4 to the assay increased NOS activity in both sexes. This sex difference in total NOS and the effect of exogenous BH4 were abolished with tempol treatment. We conclude that higher oxidative stress in male SHR results in a relative deficiency of BH4 compared with females, resulting in diminished renal NOS activity in the male.