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International Metadata Initiatives: Lessons in Bibliographic ControlCaplan, Priscilla (2000)The decade of the 1990s saw the development of a proliferation of metadata element sets for resource description. This paper looks at a subset of these metadata schemes in more detail: the TEI header, EAD, Dublin Core, and VRA Core. It looks at why they developed as they did, major points of difference from traditional (AACR2/MARC) library cataloging, and what advantages they offer to their user communities. It also discusses challenges to implementers of these schemes and possible future developments. It goes on to identify some commonalties among these cases, and to attempt to generalize from these some lessons for developers of metadata element sets. It concludes by suggesting we also look carefully at emerging schemes being developed by publishers in support of electronic commerce and rights management, and think seriously about the implications of commodity metadata upon our traditional bibliographic apparatus.