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Technology Transfer in European Regions: Introduction to the Theme Issue sLeydesdorff, Loet; Cooke, Philip; Olarazan, Mikel (2002)Regions can be considered as "regional innovation systems," but the question of whether and to what extent technology transfer is taking place at this or other (e.g., national and global) levels remains empirical. The theme issue contains a number of case studies of "regional innovation systems" within the European Union. Other papers elaborate on the pros and cons of the systemic approach to the technology transfer processes involved, or make comparisons across regions. In this introduction, the editors discuss the relations between regional policies, technology and innovation policies, and the integration of these different aspects into (potentially regional) systems of innovation. Under what conditions can "technology transfer" be considered as a mechanism of integration at the regional level?