• Better consistency of the UDC system moving Medicine from section 61 to section 4

      Benito, Miguel; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      Over 45 years ago it was decided to move the class 4 for Language to the section 8 together with Literature. Since then class 4 has not been used. A recent master thesis at the school of librarianship in Boras , â UDC, A Proposal to Basic Class 4â by Fredrik Hultqvist, (Magisteruppsats; 2006:39) proved the possibility of moving Medicine from the section 61 to the empty class 4. This is not a new idea, but has never been implemented. Reasons are given to support this proposal, based on the need to find a better collocation of the subject while at the same time providing a solution for shorter notations.
    • Core requirements for automation of analytico-synthetic classifications

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; McIlwaine, I.C. (Ergon Verlag, 2004)
      Abstract: The paper analyses the importance of data presentation and modelling and its role in improving the management, use and exchange of analytico-synthetic classifications in automated systems. Inefficiencies, in this respect, hinder the automation of classification systems that offer the possibility of building compound index/search terms. The lack of machine readable data expressing the semantics and structure of a classification vocabulary has negative effects on information management and retrieval, thus restricting the potential of both automated systems and classifications themselves. The authors analysed the data representation structure of three general analytico-synthetic classification systems (BC2-Bliss Bibliographic Classification; BSO-Broad System of Ordering; UDC-Universal Decimal Classification) and put forward some core requirements for classification data representation.
    • Data Models for Knowledge Organization Tools: Evolution and Perspectives

      Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Slavic, Aida; López-Huertas, Marí­a J. (Ergon Verlag, 2002)
      This paper focuses on the need for knowledge organization (KO) tools, such as library classifications, thesauri and subject heading systems, to be fully disclosed and available in the open network environment. The authors look at the place and value of traditional library knowledge organization tools in relation to the technical environment and expectations of the Semantic Web. Future requirements in this context are explored, stressing the need for KO systems to support semantic interoperability. In order to be fully shareable KO tools need to be reframed and reshaped in terms of conceptual and data models. The authors suggest that some useful approaches to this already exist in methodological and technical developments within the fields of ontology modelling and lexicographic and terminological data interchange.
    • Data Models for Knowledge Organization Tools: Evolution and Perspectives

      Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Slavic, Aida (Ergon Verlag, 2002)
      This paper focuses on the need for knowledge organization (KO) tools, such as library classifications, thesauri and subject heading systems, to be fully disclosed and available in the open network environment. The authors look at the place and value of traditional library knowledge organization tools in relation to the technical environment and expectations of the Semantic Web. Future requirements in this context are explored, stressing the need for KO systems to support semantic interoperability. In order to be fully shareable KO tools need to be reframed and reshaped in terms of conceptual and data models. The authors suggest that some useful approaches to this already exist in methodological and technical developments within the fields of ontology modelling and lexicographic and terminological data interchange.
    • Does convenience trump accuracy? The avatars of the UDC in Romania

      Francu, Victoria; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      This paper concentrates on some major issues regarding the potential of UDC and the current controversy about its use UDC in Romania: i) the importance of hierarchical structures in controlled vocabularies with a direct impact on improved information retrieval given by the browsing function which enables visualizing the hierarchies in subject areas rather than just locating a particular topic; ii) the lack of popularity of the UDC as an indexing and information retrieval language among its users be they librarians or end users of library OPACs; and iii) the situation of UDC teachers and teaching in Romanian universities.
    • Enhancement of UDC data for use and sharing in a networked environment

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Riesthuis, Gerhard (2007)
      The authors give an overview of the present context of the development and use of Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and describe the current work towards enrichment and improvement of the UDC data. UDC is a classification system used worldwide for organization and information access in various kinds of collections and information services. From 1993 UDC has been available for distribution to publishers and users as a database file which has initially improved the classification's potential for online use. From 1993 to 2007 the UDC vocabulary has been extensively revised and 14 updated UDC files have been distributed, on an annual basis. In order to take full advantage of this electronic availability, new developments should be carried out to support a better alignment between the forms and formats in which the UDC scheme is distributed and the classification's practical use in networked information services. The authors discuss different aspects that may concur with this aim, at the data structure, data content and data transmission levels. Examples include the possible provision of: an enhanced UDC data format; UDC multilingual data and UDC mappings to other subject indexing systems; UDC data exports in various other data formats that can be easily implemented, updated, shared or exchanged. In this context, a summary of current initiatives of the UDC Consortium is provided, notably in terms of renovation of the UDC technological management.
    • Enhancement of UDC data for use and sharing in a networked environment: [presentation at the Librarian Workshop in conjunction with "The 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society on Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications", March 7-9, 2007, Freiburg i. Br., Germany]

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Riesthuis, Gerhard (2007)
      The authors give an overview of the present context of the development and use of Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and describe the current work towards enrichment and improvement of the UDC data. UDC is a classification system used worldwide for organization and information access in various kinds of collections and information services. From 1993 UDC has been available for distribution to publishers and users as a database file which has initially improved the classification's potential for online use. From 1993 to 2007 the UDC vocabulary has been extensively revised and 14 updated UDC files have been distributed, on an annual basis. In order to take full advantage of this electronic availability, new developments should be carried out to support a better alignment between the forms and formats in which the UDC scheme is distributed and the classification's practical use in networked information services. The authors discuss different aspects that may concur with this aim, at the data structure, data content and data transmission levels. Examples include the possible provision of: an enhanced UDC data format; UDC multilingual data and UDC mappings to other subject indexing systems; UDC data exports in various other data formats that can be easily implemented, updated, shared or exchanged. In this context, a summary of current initiatives of the UDC Consortium is provided, notably in terms of renovation of the UDC technological management.
    • From Library Authority Control to Network Authoritative Metadata Sources

      Cordeiro, Maria Inês (2001)
      Authority control is a quite recent term in the long history of cataloguing, although the underlying principle is among the very early principles of bibliographic control. Bibliographic control is a field in transformation by the rapid expansion of the WWW, which has brought new problems to information discovery and retrieval, creating new challenges and requirements in information management. In a comprehensive approach, authority control is presented as one of the most promising library activities in this respect. The evolution of work methods and standards for the sharing of authority files is reviewed, showing the imbalance in developments and practical achievements between name and subject authority, in an international perspective. The need to improve the network availability and usability of authority information assets in more effective and holistic ways is underlined; and a new philosophy and scope is proposed for library authority work, based on the primacy of the linking function of authority data, and by expanding the finding, relating and informing functions of authority records. Some of these aspects are being addressed in several projects dealing with knowledge organization systems, notably to cope with multilingual needs and to enable semantic interoperability among different systems. Library practice itself should evolve in the same direction, thereby providing practical experience to inform new or improved principles and standards for authority work, while contributing to enhance local information services and to promote their involvement in the WWW environment.
    • Maintenance of the Universal Decimal Classification: overview of the past and preparations for the future

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Riesthuis, Gerhard (2008-06)
      The paper highlights some aspects of the UDC management policy for 2007 and onwards. Following an overview of the long history of modernization of the classification, which started in the 1960s and has influenced the scheme's revision and development since 1990, major changes and policies from the recent history of the UDC revision are summarized. The perspective of the new editorial team, established in 2007, is presented. The new policy focuses on the improved organization and efficiency of editorial work and the improvement of UDC products.
    • Multilevel education, training, traditions and research on UDC in Hungary

      Hajdu Barat, Agnes; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      This paper explores the theory and practice of education in schools and further education as two levels of the Information Society in Hungary. LIS education is considered the third level over previous ones. The curriculum and content of different subjects in schools and their relationship to libraries is summarized, as well as the training programmes for librarians, especially concerning knowledge organization. The long history of UDC usage in Hungary is surveyed, highlighting principal milestones and people. The paper provides a brief overview of recent developments, the situation after the new Hungarian edition, and current UDC usage and research directions.
    • Representing and Aligning Thesauri for an Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Resources

      Isaac, Antoine; Matthezing, Henk; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      In this paper, we show how Semantic Web techniques can help to solve semantic interoperability issues in the cultural heritage domain. In particular, these techniques can enable integrated access to heterogeneous collections by representing their controlled description vocabularies (e.g. thesauri) in a standardized format â Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). We also present existing automatic alignment procedures that can assist cultural heritage practitioners to connect such vocabularies at the semantic level, building similarity links between the concepts they contain.
    • Sharing and re-use of classification systems: the need for a common data model

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (2005)
      Classifications can help to overcome difficulties in information retrieval of heterogeneous and multilingual collections for which linguistic and free text searching is not sufficient or applicable. However, there are problems in the machine readability of classification systems which do not facilitate their wider use and full exploitation. The authors focus on issues of automation of analytico-synthetic classification systems such as Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC2) and Broad System of Ordering (BSO). 'Analytico-syntheticâ means here classification systems that offer the possibility of building compound index/search terms and that lend themselves to post-coordinate searching.
    • UDC in Czechia

      Balikova, Marie; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      UDC is widely used in all types of libraries in the Czech Republic (Czechia). The classification plays an important role in the National Library as well as the entire library information network. It is central to the subject authority file of the National Library of the Czech Republic (NL CR) and its bibliographic services. The author explains the importance and potential of UDC use online especially in a multilingual context and illustrates this with examples from the national union catalogue, the Czech Uniform Information Gateway (UIG), the Multilingual Subject Access to Library Catalogues (MSAC) system and the Multilingual Content Aggregation System (M-CAST) projects. The advantages of using UDC in improving precision and recall are explained using the M-CASt system.
    • UDC in Slovenia

      Rifl, Boris; Rozman, Darija; Musek, Tine; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      In Slovenia, the majority of libraries use the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC). The authors give an overview of the extent of the use of classification in both open access and bibliographic control in their country. Since 1991 there have been no editions of the UDC published in the Slovenian language and this paper announces the change that occurred when two very important tools were made available to UDC users in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The new Slovenian translation of the UDC was produced by the National and University Library (NUL) in Ljubljana in 2007. This Web edition uses the original structure of the ISO 2709 file format which allows searching of UDC numbers (string searching and full text searching), searching UDC captions, notes, examples, etc. The tool has a user friendly web interface for browsing and navigating UDC schedules via hyperlinks, facilitating checking and selection of an appropriate class mark. At the same time a group of authors in the Slovenian National Library published a Slovenian UDC manual addressing the specific needs of Slovenian libraries and established practice in subject indexing. The manual is abundant with practical examples for both inexperienced and advanced users of UDC
    • UDC Seminar 2007 "Information Access to the Global Community": summary and conclusions

      McIlwaine, Ia C; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      When we were planning this conference our intention was to host an event that would give the classification a higher profile, update our users to what was going on, suggest innovations that might be considered and provide an opportunity for the interchange of ideas and discussion so that participants could share their experiences and voice their needs. We also would like to attract more people to participate in the work of the classification, either by joining the Consortium under one of the different forms of membership, such as full member, associate or individual or by volunteering assistance on the constant work of updating the classification. The first part of this intention has, I think, been well fulfilled and I hope that the second will follow as a result of it. ...
    • UDC Seminar 2009: an overview

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The International UDC Seminar 2009 “Classification at a Crossroads - multiple directions to usability” took place in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague on 29-30 October 2009. It was a truly international event as it attracted 135 delegates from 32 countries comprising librarians, LIS lecturers, researchers, information consultants, Web technologists and indexing specialists.
    • Universal Decimal Classification at the ETH-Bibliothek Zürich - a Swiss perspective

      Pika, Jiri; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      The paper describes the use of Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) in the library of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH-Zürich). The author explains characteristics of a subject authority index, the NEBIS Subject Index (NSI), through which the UDC is implemented for indexing and searching. The ETH library has been using the UDC for the past twenty-five years and most users hardly ever noticed the classification. A query in today's NEBIS-OPAC (formerly called ETHICS) is based on a verbal search with descriptors in German, English and French, and corresponding related search-terms. A single UDC number, linked to these descriptors, connects them to the related document-titles, regardless of the language. Thus the user actually works with the UDC, without realizing it. This paper describes the experience with this OPAC and the work behind it.
    • Use of the UDC in Spain: implementation, application, teaching and research

      San Segundo Manuel, Rosa; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      It was from 1895 onwards, the year in which the First International Bibliography Conference was held that the Decimal Classification system began to be implemented on a European scale and started to be disseminated in Spain. The introduction of the UDC scheme was initially subject to numerous difficulties faced by the various initiatives undertaken by individual librarians, but it subsequently received the support of the Spanish Administration. In 1939, the adoption of the UDC was established for all Spanish libraries, by official decree. Although what was stipulated in the decree was the 1934 German version, in practice libraries implemented the latest version of the UDC tables. Finally, from 1989 onwards, the compulsoriness of using UDC to classify collections and catalogues was abandoned, although its implementation in libraries, catalogues and bibliographies remained in most cases. The UDC is taught within the framework of regulated Library and Information Science schools, from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. In Spain, research on the UDC is already quite important: translations, adaptations and versions of the tables have been undertaken and there are also analytical works on different aspects of the UDC system.
    • Visual Universal Decimal Classification?

      Van der Linden, Erik-Jan; Van Wijk, Jerke J.; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      The authors presents a tool developed by the Dutch company Magna View that enables the visual representation of the content of the UDC Master Reference File (UDC MRF). The tool contains a pre-processed UDC MRF and allows visualization of, for instance, hierarchy levels, number of classes within a hierarchy and provides an overview of UDC number distribution across all fields of knowledge. The tool is aimed at users and developers who work with and utilize the UDC MRF and can benefit from different kinds of classification data representation.