• Circulating Culture for the Knowledge Continuum: Living History, Digital History and the History Web

      Dalbello, Marija; Pacevicius, Arvydas; Manzuch, Zinaida (Vilnius University Press, 2008)
      This article surveys the cultural record in the digital environments and the current efforts to capture this record and circulate it as knowledge, documents, and collections in memory institutions, and provide a basis for the creation of new knowledge. The goals of digital preservation are interpreted in the light of recent arguments about the role of the humanities in providing access to the complete human experience, of the changing idea of the archive representing that experience, and of the roles of memory institutions in supporting the humanities project. Two sets of current preservation activities are identified and surveyed - web archiving (of national web spaces, web spheres) and curated collections of primary sources from the history web. The emerging forms of interpretive and point-of-view history, invented archives, and digital libraries capturing local history, everyday experience and community memory illustrate how digital media can support interpretive and multi-perspective historiography.
    • Croatian Diaspora Almanacs: A Historical and Cultural Analysis

      Dalbello, Marija (1999-04)
      The connection of genre to social processes is considered through the lens of printed almanacs issued in North America in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries by the diaspora Croatians. The role of genre in sustaining cultural interactions in that community through communication of memories and meanings of identity is interpreted through multidimensional nature of almanac literacy. The almanacs were analyzed as verbal forms, objects that circulate texts, and texts that produce meaning. This analysis has shown how culture is mediated through the almanac genre's structural elements and the symbolic associations derived from its historical roles. Because genres are not only texts but sets of social, political, and economic interactions among the individuals and groups with which they are associated, the ways in which the almanac trade was organized reflects patterns of socialization of communities and individuals, and their ability to mobilize economic, social, and cultural resources in their production. The corpus of 425 almanacs is analyzed using the methods of textual criticism, book history, and cultural analysis, showing how texts can become an informal writing space in which communities outside the dominant culture could interact, and a written arena for oral production. Diaspora almanacs convey a sense of the marginal spaces in which they were produced, distributed, and used. This is noted in particular in the ambiguous position that the printed almanac held in relation to genres of oral communication. Reliance on visual interfaces in structuring information (pictograms, layout, typography, and the use of image) made these materials accessible to individuals at different levels of reading competence. The analysis has shown that such rhetorical simulation of orality is not functional, but serves to forge identity according to the rules of oral memory adapted for the visual interfaces of print medium. Listing and ordering to lay out information schematically, exemplifies how descriptive styles in presenting information are converted into evaluative narratives which convey ideological arguments. Apart from identifying the characteristics of ordering and transmission of social memory in print medium, this study also points to the connection of literacy and power in shaping the culture of the diaspora Croatians.
    • Digital Cultural Heritage: Concepts, Projects, and Emerging Constructions of Heritage

      Dalbello, Marija (2009)
      This paper examines a heritage practice by which memory institutions extend their role as repositories to becoming participants in a broader discourse about heritage with the consuming public. This practice is considered by focusing on two periodsâ the first wave of digital library development, and a most recent trend characterized by engagement of online audiences through social networking platforms.
    • Digital library research and digital library practice: How do they inform each other? An unpublished study

      Saracevic, Tefko; Dalbello, Marija (2003)
      The study surveys two large sets of activities concentrating on digital libraries to examine the following questions: Does digital library research inform digital library practice? And vice versa? To what extent are they connected, now that nearly a decade has passed since they began? Examined were research projects supported by the first and second Digital Library Initiative (DLI), digital library projects listed by the Association for Research Libraries (ARL) and Digital Library Federation (DFL), and selected literature, focusing on the last five years. Methods concentrate only on examination of visible or â surfaceâ sources or records, i.e. information that can be gathered from web sites, open literature, and published data. Limitations of the method are acknowledged; accordingly, caveats are made about conclusions. From this data we conclude that the two activities are not as yet demonstratively connected. A set of differing interpretations and conclusions are included.
    • Electronic Texts and the Citation System of Scholarly Journals in the Humanities: Case Studies of Citation Practices in the Fields of Classical Studies and English Literature

      Dalbello, Marija; Lopatovska, Irene; Mahony, Patricia; Ron, Nomi (2006)
      This study shows how structure and process of scholarly communication is being transformed with the advent of digital libraries from 1996 to 2006, the Internet and electronic editions, and how that is being shaped by the citational practices of selected humanities fields. This research is built on the view that citational practices of disciplinary domains are dependent on distinct protocols of argumentation and inter-textual engagement of these fields as communities of practice and therefore are defined by custom and disciplinary traditions. Focusing on two exemplary fields, Classical Studies and English, this study examines how citations to electronic resources are represented in five high-impact journals of these two humanities fields that are also known for related innovation in the area of digital humanities. The method is a combination of quantitative with qualitative analysis of referencing. Findings about incorporation of citation to electronic resources in these journals in the past decade are discussed in terms of the types of online resources, their functionalities, and argumentation. This approach builds on epistemological and bibliometric analyses to demonstrate a new method of analysis of citational practice.
    • Information Science Practice in a Historical Perspective: Preliminary Findings of an Oral History Project

      Pozzi, Ellen; Dalbello, Marija (Richard B. Hill, 2005)
      This research uses oral history approach to study an organizational field of information science. The interviews with members of the New Jersey chapter of the national information science organization (ASIST) provided insights into the transformation of this local chapter and information science work since 1975. Their views on the identity of the chapter and their own professional identity in that context, and on the development and maturation of information science field over the past thirty years are considered in the sociology of culture framework. Oral history as a phenomenological method of historical inquiry is here applied as an approach can open new directions for historical inquiry of information science in the national context, understanding the research / practice dynamics, and localization and institutionalization of information science field,
    • Institutional Shaping of Cultural Memory: Digital Library as Environment for Textual Transmission

      Dalbello, Marija; Wiegand, Wayne; Bertot, Jean-Carlo (University of Chicago Press, 2004-10)
      The emerging trends in digital(ized) collection development from 1997 are examined using a sample of projects accessible through web-based registries of the Association of Research Libraries and Digital Library Federation. The analysis focuses on thematic repertoire, narrative structuring, underlying historiographic principles, presentation, and the context of institutionalization combining empirical and interpretive approaches, to understand how digital libraries are involved in the production of knowledge and how memory institutions are currently shaping this record in the digital environment. Digital collections are presently showcasing material so far restricted to scholarly uses, making it available for broader educational purposes. Nevertheless, they resemble the sixteenth- and the seventeenth-century cabinets of curiosities in their limited ability to support scholarship or address information needs of defined communities of users. Programmatic statements for developers in conclusion of the study suggest ways for improving the usability of these emerging textual environments, while recognizing new uses for the collections.
    • Is There a Text in This Library? History of the Book and Digital Continuity

      Dalbello, Marija (Association for Library and Information Science Education, Arlington, VA, 2002-10)
      This essay argues for the importance of the study of production, distribution, and the cultural impact of texts for digital librarianship. An argument is made for integrating historical viewpoints in coursework that can prepare master's library and information science (MLIS) students for the curatorial aspects of digital librarianship. Several components of that approach are discussed in this essay. Their application in the classroom using a course on American bestsellers which involved collaborative teaching using the Internet as a case study, is presented as well. This paper reveals how book historians may find new roles as interpreters of the transformation of the library, from a logocentric library, which traditionally provides a fixed physical framework within which texts are accessible to users, to a soft library delivered on distributed servers - as a knowledge continuum. The emergence of new modes of textual transmission, the changing concept of the text, and the need to create new social spaces in which texts are collected and used can benefit from an awareness of the production, distribution, and use of text in traditional media environments.
    • Mathematics for "Just Plain Folks": The Viennese Tradition of Visualization of Quantitative Information and its Verbal Forms, 1899-1914 (graphics accompanying presentation)

      Dalbello, Marija (2006-10)
      This handout accompanies a podcast of invited presentation given at the University of Arizona, School of Information Resources and Library Service Brown Bag History & Philosophy of Information Research Series (Tucson, AZ, October 11, 2006). The talk focused on visual statistics from the turn of the nineteenth and the twentieth century. These popular forms of quantitative argumentation are examined from the point of view of the involvement of print industry in the shaping of and dissemination of public policy and the discourse of rational management and the modern state in the Habsburg empire on the eve of its dissolution. EXTENDED ABSTRACT: Statistical representations in the popular almanacs published at the end of the nineteenth century in the Habsburg Empire are an early prototype of visualizing statistical data for popular consumption and informing the public of an ethnically and linguistically differentiated society. These naturalistic and culturally rich visualizations enabled ordinary citizens to acquire knowledge â using simple visual reasoning skills, reliance on mental models and narrative conventions. The visualization of statistics is accompanied by verbalization, which presents a parallel mode of quantitative reasoning. These verbalizations exemplify the language of practical mathematics: the problem is generated in relation to the setting and located in everyday activities of the lived-in world of the implied viewers. The presentation will focus on these verbalizations of visual statistics, combining cognitive approach with historical and cultural interpretation to examine how rhetorical forms attached to practical mathematical reasoning can be related to cognition as socially situated activity. The connection of verbalizations to visual sense-making in these early statistical representations for popular consumption exemplify the construction of the concept of â informationâ in modernity and explore the effects on the visual regime represented by statistical information of older verbal forms of quantitative reasoning.
    • The New Jersey Chapter of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 1975-2005: A Historical Note

      Pozzi, Ellen; Dalbello, Marija (2006-03)
      The history of the New Jersey chapter of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T) uses a combination of oral history and archival research to outline the events, figures, and main achievements of the chapter from 1975 to 2005. The chapter was founded through the efforts of a number of individuals who were interested in having a local chapter and a regional presence for information science community of New Jersey. The history was originally published as a hand-numbered limited edition of 100 copies distributed at the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the chapter in February 2006.
    • A Phenomenological Study of an Emergent National Digital Library, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework

      Dalbello, Marija (The Chicago University Press, 2005-10)
      This article focuses on the activities surrounding the National Digital Library Program (NDLP) at the Library of Congress (1995-2000) to identify modalities of successful innovation and the characteristics of creative decision making. Theories of social change and organizational rationality, and the social construction of technology (SCOT) approaches provided the theoretical basis for this study. The underlying design for a phenomenological approach is discussed, together with the method for constructing a descriptive narrative that synthesizes the phenomenon under study (an emergent national digital library program). Theory, methodology, data collection, and the summary of findings with implications for practice are presented here. The accompanying article (Part II, dLIST item number 1635) presents the narratives of development, applying the interpretive phenomenological framework to document the innovators' perspectives about this formative event.
    • A Phenomenological Study of an Emergent National Digital Library, Part II: The Narratives of Development

      Dalbello, Marija (The Chicago University Press, 2005-10)
      This article discusses digital library development at the Library of Congress focusing on institutional processes associated with technological innovation in the library context and key transformative event, the completion of the National Digital Library Program (NDLP) (1995-2000). Interviews with seven key participants of the program conducted in 2002 at the Library of Congress (from policy-makers to digital library developers) are interpreted here in terms of loci of control (external/internal) shaping the process of innovation and its institutionalization â the coercive and normative pressures of society, and the professional field of librarianship. The perceptions of individuals are synthesized into a realist narrative in which their voices are still recognizable. Their tales of development show that organizational change driven by external forces and involving individuals who crossed boundaries of organizational fields can be very successful in forcing organizational isomorphism and integration of digitization in the library processes. The accompanying article, Part I, presents theories of social change and organizational rationality, and the social construction of technology (SCOT) as well as the methodological framework for this phenomenological study.
    • Print Culture in Croatia: The Canon and the Borderlands

      Dalbello, Marija (Hrvatsko bibliotekarstvo drustvo, 2005-03)
      This theoretical paper explores the theme of periphery and the borderlands and outlines the program for a new and transnational approach to the study of book culture in Croatia. Starting with a problem of fragmentation of Central European book histories, the essay argues how this could be turned into an opportunity to apply comprehensive and comparative approaches, using cultural area and comparing isomorphism of documentary practices rather than following the commonly used linguistic criteria (the national vernacular). European identity has been central to the Croatian construction of identity, and this can provide a broader framework for resolving the problem of how to construct a national history that acknowledges its status as boundary culture. If the European periphery is to claim its own cultural discourse, this will have to be through the controversial, ideological, and difficult task of cultural revision in which it will have to ex-territorialize itself and abandon a dream in which the national vernacular assumes a major function in language and society. This will not be possible without understanding the borderlands and an acceptance of its unique role in which dualities need to be accepted as an epistemology for boundary histories to assume significance within the dominant discourses of culture. In the dualities and multiplicities of the borderlands there arise counter-hegemonic interpretations, and the periphery can be validated by revealing the patterns of the center, connection to other traditions, and its own uniqueness at the same time. The thematic program for the study of Croatian print culture as boundary cultures is outlined as well.
    • A Program for the Humanities: Panel Position Statement for Mapping Work in the Humanities

      Dalbello, Marija (2008)
      This position paper presents and argument for "A Humanities Program," as a contribution to the mapping work for the arts and humanities in information science, prepared for the â Mapping Work in the Arts and Humanities: A Participatory Panel Discussionâ at ASIS&T 2008, organized by SIG-AH. Panelists: Kristin Eschenfelder (moderator and chair). Panelists: Marija Dalbello, Paul Marty, Stephen Paling (panel organizer), Scott Simon, John Walsh, Megan Winget and Lisl Zach.
    • Scholarly Editions, Historians' Archives and Digital Libraries: The Pragmatics and the Rhetoric of Digital Humanities Scholarship

      Dalbello, Marija (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006." The development and current uses of digital libraries and digital environments supporting humanities scholarship will be analyzed through the agency of disciplinary communities that are primary users of these resources. The pioneering efforts of individual scholars and digital humanities initiatives are an integral part of the history of the first generation of digital libraries. Significant collections of primary source materials shaped by scholars themselves point to the social nature and disciplinary shaping of technological development, in which domain specialists have become technology innovators. The proposed paper will survey exemplary scholarly editing and archival projects of the first generation from the point of view of their developers. The paper will also present an analysis of the literature of the digital humanities field in relation to that development. Future trends of shaping collections of primary sources for user communities in the traditional disciplines will be discussed as well.
    • Self-Archiving as an Emergent Scholarly Practice: An Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories

      Xia, Jingfeng; Dalbello, Marija (2007)
      This research focuses on faculty perceptions of repositories to build an understanding of the perceptions that contribute to the success and sustainability of self-archiving in institutional repositories and develop criteria for practice. In addition to identifying the emergent cultures of self-archiving held by the faculty, we develop objective measures of success and sustainability of institutional repositories based on an empirical study of a significant sample of repositories nationwide and internationally.
    • Tool or Sign? Negotiated Learning and Socialization Process in the Students' Perceptions of Technology in the Digital Library Classroom

      Dalbello, Marija; Covi, Lisa; Rea, Zajda (James Nicholas Publishers, 2003)
      This study explores the learning process in a group, focusing on novice users of technology, by observing how they build frameworks for deep and strategic learning, the role of the communities of practice and the role of existing learning style as a context for learning. A group of LIS students in a digital library classroom was selected for the study. A pre- and post-test questionnaire and a recorded interview (where students described their experiences of achieving technological proficiency in the course) provided the data for the study. We observed that students provided narratives in which they negotiated the role of technology as tool for digital librarianship. The learning process involved interpretation and repositioning of the learning subjects. The loci of control provided the perceived membership in librarianship as a community of practice and their personal experience. The discourses created by the students emerged in relation to regulative contexts that they perceived from their position, notably the expectations of the marketplace and the profession. The personal experience involved the language of the learning contexts (music, art) that students were familiar with.