• FRBRization: A Method for Turning Online Public Finding Lists into Online Public Catalogs

      Yee, Martha M. (ALA (LITA), 2005-06)
      In this article, problems users are having searching for known works in current online public access catalogs (OPACs) are summarized. A better understanding of AACR2R/MARC 21 authority, bibliographic, and holdings records would allow us to implement the approaches outlined in the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records to enhance, or â FRBRize,â our current OPACs using existing records. The presence of work and expression identifiers in bibliographic and authority records is analyzed. Recommendations are made concerning better indexing and display of works and expressions/manifestations. Questions are raised about the appropriateness for the creation of true catalogs of clientserver technology that deliver records over the Internet.
    • Moving Image Works and Manifestations

      Yee, Martha M. (1993)
      Theoretical analysis of the concepts of work and manifestation for moving image materials was carried out, and both concepts were defined. Research was done on the frequency of occurrence of moving image manifestations, on the types of difference that can occur from one moving image manifestation to another, and on the kinds of visible indicators, accessible to catalogers, that are associated with these differences. It was found that continuity, i.e. intellectual and artistic content, varies frequently, 39 per cent of the time; an additional seven per cent of works have added subsidiary matter, and an additional 12 per cent of works have differences in language and sound track. In other words, a total of 58 per cent of the works sampled had at least one instance of difference in intellectual and artistic content between two items. Only eight per cent of the works in the sample were mentioned as having manifestations in standard reference sources such as Maltin. Visible indicators and physical format are very unreliable indicators of actual difference in intellectual and artistic content; 48 per cent of the time, visible indicators vary with no underlying difference in continuity; 23 per cent of the time, continuity varies with no difference in visible indicators. Length differences of three minutes or more are the most reliable indicators of actual difference in intellectual and artistic content. Of the titles with difference in continuity, 72 per cent of these manifestations were detectible by means of length difference. This corresponds to previous findings for books which indicate paging is the most reliable indicator of true differences in manifestation. Findings mean that catalogers need not create nearly as many separate records for the same work as they do under current practice. Fewer records for the same work would also benefit users, who could more easily select the most suitable manifestation of the work they seek if new records were made only for known differences in either intellectual and artistic content or in identification. Since catalogers cannot identify manifestation variation in two items that are no more than two minutes different in length, film scholars and preservationists must watch all available items representing a particular film work before they can be sure they are aware of all manifestation variations that may occur.