• Are the contributions of China and Korea upsetting the world system of science? Scientometrics 63(3), 2005, 617-630

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Zhou, Ping (2005)
      Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. Kingâ s (2004) â The scientific impact of nationsâ has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.
    • The Citation Impacts and Citation Environments of Chinese Journals in Mathematics. Scientometrics (forthcoming).

      Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      Based on the citation data of journals covered by the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database (CSTPCD), we obtained aggregated journal-journal citation environments by applying routines developed specifically for this purpose. Local citation impact of journals is defined as the share of the total citations in a local citation environment, which is expressed as a ratio and can be visualized by the size of the nodes. The vertical size of the nodes varies proportionally to a journal's total citation share, while the horizontal size of the nodes is used to provide citation information after correction for the within-journal (self-) citations. In the "citing" environment, the equivalent of the local citation performance can also be considered as a citation activity index. Using the "citing" patterns as variables one is able to map how the relevant journal environments are perceived by the collective of authors of a journal, while the "cited" environment reflects the impact of journals in a local environment. In this study, we analyze citation impacts of three Chinese journals in mathematics and compare local citation impacts with impact factors. Local citation impacts reflect a journal's status and function better than (global) impact factors. We also found that authors in Chinese journals prefer international instead of domestic ones as sources for their citations.
    • Comparison between the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database and the Science Citation Index in terms of journal hierarchies and inter-journal citation relations

      Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      Forthcoming in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Abstract: The journal structure in the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database (CSTPCD) is analysed from three perspectives: the database level, the specialty level and the institutional level (i.e., university journals versus journals issued by the Chinese Academy of Sciences). The results are compared with those for (Chinese) journals included in the Science Citation Index. The frequency of journal-journal citation relations in the CSTPCD is an order of magnitude lower than in the SCI. Chinese journals, especially high-quality journals, prefer to cite international journals rather than domestic ones. However, Chinese journals do not get an equivalent reception from their international counterparts. The international visibility of Chinese journals is low, but varies among fields of science. Journals of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have a better reception in the international scientific community than university journals.
    • The Emergence of China as a Leading Nation in Science. Research Policy, 35(1), 2006, 83-104.

      Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      China has become the fifth leading nation in terms of its share of the worldâ s scientific publications. The citation rate of papers with a Chinese address for the corresponding author also exhibits exponential growth. More specifically, China has become a major player in critical technologies like nanotechnology. Although it is difficult to delineate nanoscience and nanotechnology, we show that China has recently achieved a position second only to that of the USA. Funding for R&D has been growing exponentially, but since 1997 even more in terms of business expenditure than in terms of government expenditure. It seems that the Chinese government has effectively used the public-sector research potential to boost the knowledge-based economy of the country. Thus, China may be achieving the (â Lisbonâ ) objectives of the transition to a knowledge-based economy more broadly and rapidly than its western counterparts. Because of the sustained increase in Chinese government funding and the virtually unlimited reservoir of highly-skilled human resources, one may expect a continuation of this growth pattern in the near future.
    • Recognizing a Change in World Science System

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Zhou, Ping; So, Min-ho; Park, Han (2006)
      English Abstract: Kingâ s (2004) â The scientific impact of nationsâ published in the Nature has provided the data for the comparison among nation-states in terms of their research performance with reference to their previous stages. This paper makes an attempt to do a new evaluation of the data from another perspective, which leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions. This paper found that there were newly emerging nations. While their national science systems grow endogenously, their publications and citation rates keep pace with the growth pattern. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly. Its axis is moving from North America first to Europe, but then increasingly to Asia. At the global level the rise of China and South Korea are perhaps the main effect because of the volumes.
    • Recognizing a change in World Science System. The Journal of Yeungnam Regional Development 35(2) (2006), 69-86.

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Zhou, Ping (2006)
      Kingâ s (2004) â The scientific impact of nationsâ published in the Nature has provided the data for the comparison among nation-states in terms of their research performance with reference to their previous stages. This paper makes an attempt to do a new evaluation of the data from another perspective, which leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions. This paper found that there were newly emerging nations. While their national science systems grow endogenously, their publications and citation rates keep pace with the growth pattern. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly. Its axis is moving from North America first to Europe, but then increasingly to Asia. At the global level the rise of China and South Korea are perhaps the main effect because of the volumes.