• Indicators of Innovation in a Knowledge-based Economy

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2001)
      The concept of â modes of knowledge productionâ was used by Gibbons et al. (1994)[1] to distinguish between transdisciplinary (â Mode 2â ) R&D and more traditional (â Mode 1â ) research. This paper explores whether the Internet provides a means to operationalize â Mode 2â knowledge production as containing a differently codified communication pattern which can be compared to co-word and citation patterns in scientometric databases (â Mode 1â ). Innovations on the drugs market, for example, can be indicated at the commercial end by using the trade names of the drugs (e.g., Evista), while the very same innovation can be retrieved in the patent and science citation databases using the generic names of the active substances involved (in this case, raloxifene). By using the generic names the new drugs can be traced back into their respective knowledge bases.