• Application of Electronic UDC in the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology

      Zaytseva, Ekaterina (UDC Consortium, 2010-12)
      In Russia the most widely used library classifications are the national scheme BBK (Library Bibliographic Classification) and the UDC. The Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology is the leading scientific and technical library in Russia. It has a long tradition of classifying literature according to the UDC which started back in 1963. For many years the Library provided support for classification by UDC and also assisted in the areas of research and information while also acting as a supervisor in the matter of indexing for the network of scientific and technical libraries of Russia and the USSR. The paper describes the use of UDC in the environment of the electronic catalogue and the automated library system.
    • Classificatory ontologies

      Prasad, A.R.D.; Madalli, Devika P. (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      Digital Libraries and Digital Repositories are data-intensive with large numbers of fulltext resources accessible online. Activities in the area of Semantic Web development recognize the significant part played by metadata and knowledge organization systems such as classification systems and thesauri in capturing and communicating ‘meaning’. We now have Web ontology standards, such as Simple Knowledge Organization Systems (SKOS), a common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Semantic Web. Standards such as SKOS are also meant to be used as a vehicle for deployment of knowledge organization systems that were not born digital (or XML/RDF) such as thesauri and bibliographic classifications. This paper attempts to present an application of the faceted classification scheme as enunciated by Ranganathan in developing ontologies. It further explores the issues in modelling the faceted scheme of Ranganathan using SKOS.
    • Duplication of concepts in UDC

      Buxton, Andrew; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2011-07)
      The paper describes a problem particular to universal knowledge classifications with a disciplinary structure. These types of classification present concepts subsumed to the disciplines in which they are studied and thus have to resolve the problem of concepts being repeated in different fields of knowledge. The author looks into how the impact the repetition of concepts in the UDC disciplinary structure may have on information retrieval. He considers advantages and disadvantages of different approaches in presenting re-used concepts in the scheme.
    • Facets in UDC: a review of current situation

      Gnoli, Claudio; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2011-12)
      The author explains some general principles in structuring classifications, in particular the facet as a basic building element of the scheme. The paper provides an overview of structural and presentational elements of facets and how these can be expressed through notational system. The author also analyses the way some broad fundamental facets of concepts are presented in UDC tables, when these are represented by special auxiliaries, and proposes a way of normalising facet presentation so that it becomes consistent and easy to recognize in UDC.
    • Forty-five numbers for snow: a brief introduction to the UDC for Polar libraries

      Gilbert, Mark; Lane, Heather; Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (UDC Consortium The Hague, 2008-12)
      This paper discusses the development of the Polar UDC. It examines some elements of the UDC specific to the Polar context, in particular the geographical auxiliary schedule. Some future plans for the implementation of UDC in a library and also in a museum context are outlined.
    • From classification to thesaurus … and back? Subject indexing tools at the library of the Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden [extended abstract]

      Doorn, Marlene van; Polman, Katrien; Afrika-Studiecentrum (The Netherlands) (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The African Studies Centre (ASC) Leiden is an independent foundation associated with Leiden University. Its aims are to undertake research on Africa in the social sciences, to maintain a specialist library and documentation department, and to facilitate the dissemination of information on Africa. The library houses a broad-based collection in the field of the social sciences and the humanities, the only collection in the Netherlands focusing entirely on Africa. Current holdings include some 75,000 books, 2,000 periodicals, of which almost 600 are current subscriptions, about 1,000 documentaries and feature films, and a growing digital collection. Approximately half the holdings are English, about a third French, and the remainder is divided between German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Portuguese and Spanish. Between 2000 and 2006, the library carried out a project to improve subject access to the ASC collection by building an African Studies Thesaurus and converting all subject codes used until then into thesaurus descriptors.
    • Implementation of a UDC-based multilingual thesaurus in a library catalogue: the case of BiblioPhil

      Frâncu, Victoria; Sabo, Cosmin-Nicolae (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The paper describes an approach to improving classification-based subject access in a library catalogue. In order to enhance the use of UDC numbers in information retrieval, the authors have represented classification with thesaurus descriptors and implemented this solution in an automated way. In addition, descriptors in more than one language were used to interface classification. The authors present a solution implemented in a BiblioPhil library system. The standard formats used are UNIMARC for bibliographic and subject authority records (i.e. the UDC-based multilingual thesaurus) with MARCXML support for data transfer. The multilingual thesaurus was built according to the existing standards, the constituent parts of the classification notations being used as the basis for search terms in the multilingual information retrieval. The verbal equivalents, descriptors and non-descriptors, are used to expand the number of concepts and are given in Romanian, English and French. The authors illustrate how this approach saves the time of the indexer and provides more user-friendly and easier access to the bibliographic information. The multilingual aspect of the thesaurus enhances information access for a greater number of online users.
    • Improving African Languages Classification: initial investigation and proposal

      Civallero, Edgardo; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2010-12)
      The importance of languages in the UDC is consistent with the significance of linguistic facets for knowledge organization in general. Languages are the main facet category implicated in processes as crucial as the development of the Linguistics class, the organization of national and regional literatures, the categorization of human ancestries, ethnic groupings and nationalities, and the description of the language in which a document is written. Language numbers are extensively used across the entire UDC scheme, and form the basis for a faceted approach in class structuring and number building. For this reason, Common Auxiliaries of Languages (Table 1c) deserve special attention. Upon the completion of the revision of American indigenous languages (2007-2008), it was evident that other language families would benefit from the same careful examination. The next class we are looking to improve is =4, Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Congo-Kordofanian, Khoisan languages. Thus, in 2009 the author has started a research into indigenous languages of Africa. In this paper, the initial research findings for the improvement of the class =4 are presented.
    • Integration of a thesaurus and Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) to improve subject access: the Hungarian experience

      Hajdu-Barát, Ágnes (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The paper explores two possible solutions for integrating a thesaurus and a classification scheme, specifically UDC, in order to develop a common platform for subject information retrieval through both systems. The author reports and compares experiences from two Hungarian projects aimed at creating a complex system for combining UDC and thesauri under a homogeneous theoretical framework: MÁTrIkSz (Hungarian Comprehensive Information Retrieval Language Dictionary) and the project of thesaurus construction and implementation in the Hungarian National Library (Széchényi). The role of UDC in these two projects is analyzed with respect to the features supported, classification-based retrieval functionalities, and the perceived advantages in subject access and knowledge organization. The author explains the methodology of her research based on an examination of structured and well-documented examples and literature research into the theory of UDC and its use. The paper underlines the importance of cognition as the basis for concept-building and points out some possibilities and expedients for the integration of thesauri and the UDC.
    • International UDC Seminar 2011 “Classification and Ontology”: a report

      Slavic, Aida; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2011-12)
      Report on the 2011 International UDC Seminar, "Classification and Ontology: Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge", which took place on 19-20 September 2011 in the National Library of the Netherlands (The Hague).
    • Intute: from a distributed network to a unified database – lessons learned

      Kerr, Linda (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      Intute (http://www.intute.ac.uk/) catalogues and describes the best Internet resources for education and research. It is funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), and is primarily aimed at evaluating web resources suitable for undergraduate study. The service also offers Internet research skills tutorials, rss feeds of new resources added to the catalogue, a personalisation service (MyIntute), and a blog highlighting trends in Internet research skills and particularly good or topical subject-based resources. The current Intute catalogue of Internet resources is an aggregation of records from eight subject services previously funded by the JISC as the Resource Discovery Network (RDN). This paper describes the process and challenges of integrating these eight databases into one unified catalogue with one standard metadata schema, whilst continuing to satisfy the needs of different subject communities. The paper also outlines a current project to evaluate and compare the cost-effectiveness of manual and automatic metadata creation.
    • Multilingual UDC Summary Online Project: 2009 update

      Slavic, Aida; Overfield, Chris; Riesthuis, Gerhard; Pika, Jiri; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      UDC Summary (udcS) is a selection of around 2,000 UDC numbers intended for free use, training and research of the UDC, and is published as an online database at http://www.udcc.org/ udcsummary/php/index.php. This is the first time in the UDC’s history that the scheme has been made available to any extent for free use in so many languages as a single service. By the end of 2009, this abridged scheme was available in 13 languages and at the time of writing this report there are already over 20 languages online. The UDC Summary is available in languages in which the UDC has never been translated before such as Armenian, Greek, and Hindi.
    • The practical value of classification summaries in information management and integration

      Rozman, Darija (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The author discusses the value and importance of using short extracts from classification tables to support subject access management. While detailed classification is time consuming, complex and costly, the classification of documents into broader classes is a simpler and easier way of achieving meaningful and useful subject organization. The paper outlines the role of this type of classification use in bibliographic listings, in the organization and representation of physical documents, in the presentation of web resources, in statistical reports in collection development and use, and, last but not least, in information integration in a networked environment. This approach of subject classification is illustrated by the Slovenian union catalogue COBISS/OPAC in which a standardized set of UDC codes is used. The author emphasizes the importance of this outline for the homogeneity and continuity of the use of UDC in Slovenia and explains how this may be weakened by the changes in the top level of UDC.
    • The role of UDC classification in the Czech Subject Authority File

      Balíková, Marie (2009)
      The paper outlines the standardization function of the Czech Subject Authority File and explores the role of UDC as a switching language, i.e. as an intermediary between various indexing systems at institutional, national and international level. Subject indexing and classification systems used at the institutional and national level may differ from one another in their levels of specificity, syntactic features (e.g. word order of terms, subject headings versus descriptors), and in the usage of terminology. These differences raise compatibility problems and make any mapping efforts more difficult. The paper explains how such difficulties may be partially overcome by means of the UDC system. The author illustrates the potential application of UDC as a linking element between different subject organization tools used by memory institutions. In this context the author discusses subject indexing systems used in libraries, museums, galleries and archives.
    • Round Table “UDC Editorial Perspectives”: a report

      Slavic, Aida; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The Round Table UDC Editorial Perspectives was a one-day meeting for members of the UDC Editorial Team and the UDC Advisory Board organized in The Hague on 28 October 2009 in conjunction with the UDC Seminar 2009 “Classification at a Crossroads: Multiple Directions to Usability”. The meeting was instigated as part of the UDC Consortium efforts to build closer cooperation with UDC specialists and editors of national editions worldwide and to encourage more active involvement and communication between members of the wider UDC editorial team. This was the first face-to-face meeting of the UDC collaborators to which all members of the Advisory Board, the Editorial Team and interested observers were invited to participate.
    • UDC and folksonomies

      Šauperl, Alenka (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      Social tagging systems, known as ‘folksonomies’, represent an important part of web resource discovery as they enable free and unrestricted browsing through information space. Folksonomies consisting of subject designators (tags) assigned by users, however, have one important drawback: they do not express semantic relationships either hierarchical or associative between tags. As a consequence, the use of tags to browse information resources requires moving from one resource to another, based on coincidence and not on the pre-established meaningful or logical connections that may exist between related resources. We suggest that the semantic structure of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) may be used in complementing and supporting tag-based browsing. In this work, two specific questions were investigated: (1) Are terms used as tags in folksonomies included in the UDC? and (2) Which facets of UDC match the characteristics of documents or information objects that are tagged in folksonomies? A collection of the most popular tags from Amazon, LibraryThing, Delicious and 43Things was investigated. The universal nature of UDC was examined through the universality of topics and facets covering diverse human interests which are at the same time interconnected and form a rich and intricate semantic structure. The results suggest that UDC-supported folksonomies could be implemented in resource discovery, in particular in library portals and catalogues.
    • UDC and its use: a case study of libraries and information centres in Delhi

      Singh, K. P.; Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi (UDC Consortium The Hague, 2008-12)
      This paper explores the use of UDC in libraries and information centers of Delhi. The information presented here is part of the larger data set collected by the author while compiling the Delhi libraries web directory. The survey, conducted through library visits and questionnaires, shows that in Delhi there are sixty four libraries using various editions of UDC. These include libraries of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), as well as libraries of the Judiciary system situated in Delhi such as Supreme Courts of India, High Courts of Delhi and Districts courts of Delhi. Some libraries of national importance such as Indian Institute of Technology, National Agricultural Library, National Medical Library, National Science Library, are also using the UDC.
    • UDC as a non-disciplinary classification system for a high-school library

      Cousson, Philippe (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The paper addresses issues in establishing a user-friendly systematic collection arrangement following a merger of two high school and college library collections classified according to UDC. In the way it was used, this scheme presented some weaknesses with respect to collection usage. Due to the disciplinary nature of UDC, subjects and phenomena are dispersed in the scheme according to the disciplines in which they are the subject of study. At the same time students in a school library often seek interdisciplinary subjects and need access to clusters of documents which according to UDC may be classed in several different knowledge areas. The author illustrates how this problem was resolved by re-arranging the collection according to phenomena. This was achieved by interpreting UDC numbers as if they represented specific phenomena. Thus, by superimposing some local indexing rules onto a disciplinary knowledge organization system it was possible to collocate interdisciplinary subjects under a single class number. Furthermore, by reversing subject numbers and form auxiliaries (atlases, dictionaries, textbooks etc.) which is an option envisaged in the design of UDC, documents were collocated in the way they are most frequently used by students. The author suggests that, in practice, one often needs to overcome the constraints of disciplinary classification and he discusses the approach used in his school library collection.
    • UDC at the BBC

      Alexander, Fran; Stickley, Kathryn; Buser, Vicky; Miller, Libby (UDC Consortium, 2010-12)
      The BBC Archive is one of the world’s largest multimedia archives, held in 27 locations across the UK. The Archive contains over 2 million items of TV and video, 300,000 hours of audio, 6 million still photographs, over 4 million items of sheet music, and over half-a-million documents and records. It is a working media library, fulfilling some 4,000 loans per week, as well as preserving content as part of the UK’s national cultural heritage. A team of cataloguers and media managers classify a selection of current content, as well as enhancing cataloguing and classification of legacy content. There are two major classification schemes used in the Archive, both numerical, and one based on UDC. Lonclass, based on UDC, was developed first, then Telclass, which is used by the Natural History Unit in Bristol. In addition, there are many and various controlled vocabularies that have been developed to tag content in the different nations (Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland) and the English regions.
    • UDC Biology Revision Project: First Stage: Class 59 Vertebrates

      Civallero, Edgardo; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2010-12)
      The paper presents and describes the work on the revision of the zoology of vertebrates, which is published in E&C 32 and introduced in UDC MRF 2010. This is the first stage of a larger project of revision, correction and update affecting all tables related to systematics (zoology, botany, microbiology and virology) to be undertaken from 2011-2013. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the current systems of classification of living and extinct beings, and explains how different perspectives with respect to the arrangement of biological entities have been reflected (or not) in the UDC schedules. The second part gives an overview of problems detected in UDC prior to this revision and explains solutions that were implemented in UDC MRF 2010 indicating tools and methods used in this work.