• Technology Transfer in European Regions: Introduction to the Theme Issue s

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Cooke, Philip; Olarazan, Mikel (2002)
      Regions can be considered as "regional innovation systems," but the question of whether and to what extent technology transfer is taking place at this or other (e.g., national and global) levels remains empirical. The theme issue contains a number of case studies of "regional innovation systems" within the European Union. Other papers elaborate on the pros and cons of the systemic approach to the technology transfer processes involved, or make comparisons across regions. In this introduction, the editors discuss the relations between regional policies, technology and innovation policies, and the integration of these different aspects into (potentially regional) systems of innovation. Under what conditions can "technology transfer" be considered as a mechanism of integration at the regional level?
    • "While a Storm is Raging on the Open Sea": Regional Development in a Knowledge-based Economy

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations is elaborated into a systemic model that accounts for interactions among three dimensions. By distinguishing between the respective micro-operations, this model enables us to recombine the â Mode 2â thesis of a new production of scientific knowledge and the study of systems of innovation with the neo-classical perspective on the dynamics of the market. The mutual information in three dimensions provides us with an indicator for the self-organization of the resulting network systems. The probabilistic entropy in this mutual information can be negative in knowledge-based configurations. The knowledge base of an economy can be considered as a second-order interaction effect among interactions at interfaces between institutions and functions in different spheres. Proximity enhances the chances for couplings and, therefore, the formation of technological trajectories. The next-order regime of the knowledge base, however, can be expected to remain pending as selection pressure.