• Bibliomining for Automated Collection Development in a Digital Library Setting: Using Data Mining to Discover Web-Based Scholarly Research Works

      Nicholson, Scott (2003-12)
      This research creates an intelligent agent for automated collection development in a digital library setting. It uses a predictive model based on facets of each Web page to select scholarly works. The criteria came from the academic library selection literature, and a Delphi study was used to refine the list to 41 criteria. A Perl program was designed to analyze a Web page for each criterion and applied to a large collection of scholarly and non-scholarly Web pages. Bibliomining, or data mining for libraries, was then used to create different classification models. Four techniques were used: logistic regression, non-parametric discriminant analysis, classification trees, and neural networks. Accuracy and return were used to judge the effectiveness of each model on test datasets. In addition, a set of problematic pages that were difficult to classify because of their similarity to scholarly research was gathered and classified using the models. The resulting models could be used in the selection process to automatically create a digital library of Web-based scholarly research works. In addition, the technique can be extended to create a digital library of any type of structured electronic information.
    • E-Mail Interviewing in Qualitative Research: A Methodological Discussion

      Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2006-08)
      This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting indepth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitative research. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and telephone interviewing. A list of recommendations for carrying out effective e-mail interviews is presented.
    • How Much of It is Real? Analysis of Paid Placement in Web Search Engine Results

      Nicholson, Scott; Sierra, Tito; Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Park, Ji-Hong; Barkow, Philip; Pozo, Erika J.; Wan, Yunzhen "Jane" (2005)
      Most Web search tools integrate sponsored results with results from their internal editorial database in providing results to users. The goal of this research is to get a better idea of how much of the screen real estate displays â realâ editorial results as compared to sponsored results. The overall average results are that 40% of all results presented on the first screen are â realâ results, and when the entire first Web page is considered, 67% of the results are non-sponsored results. For general search tools like Google, 56% of the first screen and 82% of the first Web page contain non-sponsored results. Other results include that query structure makes a significant difference in the percentage of non-sponsored results returned by a search. Similarly, the topic of the query can also have a significant effect on the percentage of sponsored results displayed by most Web search tools.
    • Information Architecture in JASIST: Just where did we come from?

      Dillon, Andrew (Wiley, 2002-08)
      The emergence of Information Architecture within the information systems world has been simultaneously drawn out yet rapid. Those with an eye on history are quick to point to Wurmanâ s 1976 use of the term â architecture of information,â but it has only been in the last 2 years that IA has become the source of sufficient interest for people to label themselves professionally as Information Architects. The impetus for this recent emergence of IA can be traced to a historical summit, supported by ASIS&T in May 2000 at Boston. It was here that several hundred of us gathered to thrash out the questions of just what IA was and what this new field might become. At the time of the summit, invited to present a short talk on my return journey from the annual ACM SIGCHI conference, I entered the summit expecting little and convinced that IA was nothing new. I left 2 days later refreshed, not just by the enthusiasm of the attendees for this term but by IAâ s potential to unify the disparate perspectives and orientations of professionals from a range of disciplines. It was at this summit that the idea for the special issue took root. I proposed the idea to Don Kraft, hoping he would find someone else to run with it. As luck would have it, I ended up taking charge of it myself, with initial support from David Blair. From the suggestion to the finished product has been the best part of 2 years, and in that time more than 50 volunteers reviewed over 20 submissions. ... In this overview I am exercising my prerogative as editor to outline the Big Six issues that have dominated discussions among IAâ s since that landmark summit in Boston.
    • Instruments of cognition: Use of Citations and Web Links in Online Teaching Materials

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Kraft, Donald (2004-03)
      Use of citations and web links embedded in online teaching materials was studied for an undergraduate course. The undergraduate students enrolled in Geographic Information Science for Geography and Regional Development used web links more often than citations, but clearly did not see them as key to enhancing learning. Current conventions for citing and linking tend to make citations and links invisible. There is some evidence that citations and web links categorized and highlighted in terms of their importance and function to be served may help student learning in interdisciplinary domains. This is a preprint of the article published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56 (4) February: 382-392.
    • Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the web

      Rieh, Soo Young; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 2002)
      This is a preprint of an article published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53, 145-161. This study examines the problem of the judgment of information quality and cognitive authority by observing people's searching behavior in the Web. Its purpose is to understand the various factors that influence peopleâ s judgment of quality and authority in the Web, and the effects of those judgments on selection behaviors. It was found that the subjects made two distinct kinds of judgment: predictive judgment and evaluative judgment. The factors influencing each judgment of quality and authority were identified in terms of characteristics of information objects, characteristics of sources, knowledge, situation, ranking in search output, and general assumption.
    • Libcitations: A Measure for Comparative Assessment of Book Publications in the Humanities and Social Sciences

      White, Howard D.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Yu, Hairong; Davis, Mari; Wilson, Concepción S.; Cole, Fletcher T. H. (H. W. Wilson, 2009-06)
      Bibliometric measures for evaluating research units in the book-oriented humanities and social sciences are underdeveloped relative to those available for journal-oriented science and technology. We therefore present a new measure designed for book-oriented fields: the â libcitation count.â This is a count of the libraries holding a given book, as reported in a national or international union catalog. As librarians decide what to acquire for the audiences they serve, they jointly constitute an instrument for gauging the cultural impact of books. Their decisions are informed by knowledge not only of audiences but also of the book world, e.g., the reputations of authors and the prestige of publishers. From libcitation counts, measures can be derived for comparing research units. Here, we imagine a matchup between the departments of history, philosophy, and political science at the University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney in Australia. We chose the 12 books from each department that had thehighest libcitation counts in the Libraries Australia union catalog during 2000â 2006. We present each bookâ s raw libcitation count, its rank within its LC class, and its LC-class normalized libcitation score. The latter is patterned on the item-oriented field normalized citation score used in evaluative bibliometrics. Summary statistics based on these measures allow the departments to be compared for cultural impact. Our work has implications for programs such as Excellence in Research for Australia and the Research Assessment Exercise in the United Kingdom. It also has implications for data mining in OCLCâ s WorldCat.
    • Modeling the Information-Seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis's Study Revisited

      Meho, Lokman I.; Tibbo, Helen R. (Wiley, 2003-04)
      This paper revises David Ellis's information-seeking behavior model of social scientists, which includes six generic features: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, and extracting. The paper uses social science faculty researching stateless nations as the study population. The description and analysis of the information-seeking behavior of this group of scholars is based on data collected through structured and semistructured electronic mail interviews. Sixty faculty members from 14 different countries were interviewed by e-mail. For reality check purposes, face-to-face interviews with five faculty members were also conducted. Although the study confirmed Ellis's model, it found that a fuller description of the information-seeking process of social scientists studying stateless nations should include four additional features besides those identified by Ellis. These new features are: accessing, networking, verifying, and information managing. In view of that, the study develops a new model, which, unlike Ellis's, groups all the features into four interrelated stages: searching, accessing, processing, and ending. This new model is fully described and its implications on research and practice are discussed. How and why scholars studied here are different than other academic social scientists is also discussed.
    • On the web at home: Information seeking and web searching in the home environment

      Rieh, Soo Young; Kraft, Donald H. (2004)
      This is a preprint of an article published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55, pp. 743-753. Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize the home as an information use environment and to identify a range of information seeking and Web search behaviors at home. The data were analyzed on four levels: home environment, information seeking goals, information retrieval interaction, and search query. Findings indicated that the home, indeed, provided a distinct information use environment beyond physical setting alone in which the subjects used the Web for diverse purposes and interests.
    • Ranking the Research Productivity of LIS Faculty and Schools: An Evaluation of Data Sources and Research Methods

      Meho, Lokman I.; Spurgin, Kristina M. (Wiley, 2005-10)
      This study evaluates the data sources and research methods used in earlier studies to rank the research productivity of Library and Information Science (LIS) faculty and schools. In doing so, the study identifies both tools and methods that generate more accurate publication count rankings as well as databases that should be taken into consideration when conducting comprehensive searches in the literature for research and curricular needs. With a list of 2,625 items published between 1982 and 2002 by 68 faculty members of 18 American Library Associationâ (ALA-) accredited LIS schools, hundreds of databases were searched. Results show that there are only 10 databases that provide significant coverage of the LIS indexed literature. Results also show that restricting the data sources to one, two, or even three databases leads to inaccurate rankings and erroneous conclusions. Because no database provides comprehensive coverage of the LIS literature, researchers must rely on a wide range of disciplinary and multidisciplinary databases for ranking and other research purposes. The study answers such questions as the following: Is the Association of Library and Information Science Educationâ s (ALISEâ s) directory of members a reliable tool to identify a complete list of faculty members at LIS schools? How many and which databases are needed in a multifile search to arrive at accurate publication count rankings? What coverage will be achieved using a certain number of databases? Which research areas are well covered by which databases? What alternative methods and tools are available to supplement gaps among databases? Did coverage performance of databases change over time? What counting method should be used when determining what and how many items each LIS faculty and school has published? The authors recommend advanced analysis of research productivity to provide a more detailed assessment of research productivity of authors and programs.
    • Review Essay: Theorizing Information and Communications Technologies as Memory Practices, a Review of Memory Practices in the Sciences by Geoffrey Bowker, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 2005

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2006-08)
      A review of Memory Practices in the Sciences by Geoffrey Bowker, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 2005
    • Review Essay: Theorizing Information and Communications Technologies as Memory Practices, a Review of Memory Practices in the Sciences by Geoffrey Bowker, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 2005

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2006-08)
      This is a preprint to appear in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. A review of Memory Practices in the Sciences by Geoffrey Bowker, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 2005. See also Matienzo, Mark A. (2006) Review of Memory Practices in the Sciences, by Geoffrey C. Bowker. Journal of the Association for History and Computing 9(2) available in dLIST.
    • The Self-Organization of the European Information Society: The case of "biotechnology"

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Heimeriks, Gaston (2001)
      Fields of techno-science like biotechnology develop in a network mode: disciplinary insights from different backgrounds are recombined and university-industry relations are continuously reshaped. The ongoing process of integration at the European level generates an additional network of transnational collaborations. Using the title words of scientific publications in five core journals of biotechnology, multi-variate analysis enables us to distinguish between the intellectual organization of the publications in terms of title words (variables) and the institutional structure in terms of addresses of documents (cases). The interaction among the networks in the case of biotechnology documents with European addresses is compared with the document sets with American and Japanese addresses. A complex network system of innovations is sensitive to policy interventions in ways that differ from national systems of innovation.
    • Service Equality in Virtual Reference

      Shachaf, Pnina; Oltmann, Shannon M.; Horowitz, Sarah M. (2008)
      Research is divided about the potential of e-service to bridge communication gaps, particularly to diverse user groups. According to the existing body of literature, eservice may either increase or decrease the quality of service received. This study analyzes the level of service received by different genders and ethnic groups when academic and public librarians answer 676 online reference queries. Quality of e-service was evaluated along three dimensions: timely response, reliability, and courtesy. This study found no significant differences among different user groups along any of these dimensions, supporting the argument that the virtual environment facilitates equitable service and may overcome some challenges of diverse user groups.
    • Service Equality in Virtual Reference

      Shachaf, Pnina; Oltmann, Shannon M.; Horowitz, Sarah M. (2008)
      Research is divided about the potential of e-service to bridge communication gaps, particularly to diverse user groups. According to the existing body of literature, eservice may either increase or decrease the quality of service received. This study analyzes the level of service received by different genders and ethnic groups when academic and public librarians answer 676 online reference queries. Quality of e-service was evaluated along three dimensions: timely response, reliability, and courtesy. This study found no significant differences among different user groups along any of these dimensions, supporting the argument that the virtual environment facilitates equitable service and may overcome some challenges of diverse user groups.
    • The shifting balance of intellectual trade in information studies

      Cronin, Blaise; Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2008-02)
      The authors describe a large-scale, longitudinal citation analysis of intellectual trading between information studies and cognate disciplines. The results of their investigation reveal the extent to which information studies draws on and, in turn, contributes to the ideational substrates of other academic domains. Their data show that the field has become a more successful exporter of ideas as well as less introverted than was previously the case. In the last decade, information studies has begun to contribute significantly to the literatures of such disciplines as computer science and engineering on the one hand and business and management on the other, while also drawing more heavily on those same literatures.
    • Toward an Epistemology of Wikipedia

      Fallis, Don (Wiley Periodicals, 2008)
      Wikipedia (the â free online encyclopedia that anyone can editâ ) is having a huge impact on how a great many people gather information about the world. So, it is important for epistemologists and information scientists to ask whether or not people are likely to acquire knowledge as a result of having access to this information source. In other words, is Wikipedia having good epistemic consequences? After surveying the various concerns that have been raised about the reliability of Wikipedia, this paper argues that the epistemic consequences of people using Wikipedia as a source of information are likely to be quite good. According to several empirical studies, the reliability of Wikipedia compares favorably to the reliability of traditional encyclopedias. Furthermore, the reliability of Wikipedia compares even more favorably to the reliability of those information sources that people would be likely to use if Wikipedia did not exist (viz., websites that are as freely and easily accessible as Wikipedia). In addition, Wikipedia has a number of other epistemic virtues (e.g., power, speed, and fecundity) that arguably outweigh any deficiency in terms of reliability. Even so, epistemologists and information scientists should certainly be trying to identify changes (or alternatives) to Wikipedia that will bring about even better epistemic consequences. This paper suggests that, in order to improve Wikipedia, we need to clarify what our epistemic values are and we need a better understanding of why Wikipedia works as well as it does.
    • User Perspectives on Relevance Criteria: A Comparison among Relevant, Partially Relevant, and Not-Relevant Judgments

      Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2002-03)
      This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant and not relevant documents. Each study participant identified passages within 20 document representations that were used in making relevance judgments, judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant, partially relevant or not relevant to their information need, and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance. These criteria can be grouped into 6 categories: author, abstract, content, full text, journal or publisher and personal. Results indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially relevant and not relevant judgments. Additionally, most criteria can have both a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants in this study was content, followed by criteria concerning the full text document. These findings may have implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that users give relevance feedback using multiple criteria and indicate positive and negative criteria contributions. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as this may provide the greatest cost benefit.
    • Using the H-index to Rank Influential Information Scientists

      Cronin, Blaise; Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2006-07)
      We apply a new bibliometric measure, the h-index (Hirsch, 2005), to the literature of information science. Faculty rankings based on raw citation counts are compared with those based on h-counts. There is a strong positive correlation between the two sets of rankings. We show how the h-index can be used to express the broad impact of a scholarâ s research output over time in more nuanced fashion than straight citation counts.