• Fish Science Research in China: How does it Compare with Fish Research in India?

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Balaji, Jayashree (Jointly published by Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest and Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001)
      Fish and aquaculture research in the Peopleâ s Republic of China over the six years 1994-1999 has been mapped using data from six databases â three abstracting services and three citation indexes. The results are compared with fish science research in India. During the six years China has published 2035 papers (roughly 4.5 â 5% of the world output) and India 2454. More than 95% of Chinaâ s papers are journal articles, compared to 82.8% of Indian papers. About 78% of Chinaâ s journal paper output has appeared in 143 domestic journals compared to 70% from India in 113 Indian journals. Less than one-eighth of the journal articles published by Chinese researchers are published in journals indexed in SCI, compared to 30% of journal articles by Indian researchers. Less than a dozen papers from each of these countries have appeared in journals of impact factor greater than 3.0. Fish research institutes and fishery colleges are the major contributors of the Chinese research output in this area. In India academic institutions are the leading contributors (61%), followed by central government institutions (>25%). Qingdao, Wuhan, Beijing and Shanghai are the cities and Shandong, Hubei and Fujian are the provinces contributing a large number of papers. As we do not have addresses of all authors in most of the papers, we are unable to estimate the extent of international collaboration. Although Chinaâ s research output and its citation impact are less than those of India, Chinaâ s fish production and export earnings are far higher than those of India. Probably China is better at bridging the gap between knowhow (research) and do-how (technology and creation of employment and wealth). China is pretty strong in extension.
    • Indicators of Structural Change in the Dynamics of Science: Entropy Statistics of the SCI Journal Citation Reports

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2002)
      Can change in citation patterns among journals be used as an indicator of structural change in the organization of the sciences? Aggregated journal-journal citations for 1999 are compared with similar data in the Journal Citation Reports 1998 of the Science Citation Index. In addition to indicating local change, probabilistic entropy measures enable us to analyze changes in distributions at different levels of aggregation. The results of various statistics are discussed and compared by elaborating the journal-journal mappings. The relevance of this indicator for science and technology policies is further specified.
    • Mathematics Research in India Today: What does the Literature Reveal?

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (2001)
      Mathematics research in India, as reflected by papers indexed in Mathsci 1988-1998, is quantified and mapped. Statistics, quantum theory and general topology are the three subfields contributing the most to India's output in mathematics research, followed by special functions, economics and operations research, and relativity and gravitational theory. Indian Statistical Institute and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research are the two leading publishers of research papers. Unlike in many other fields, Calcutta publishes the largest number of papers in mathematics, followed by Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai and Bangalore. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Delhi are the leading states. Researchers from 257 institutions spread over 134 cities/towns have published 17,308 papers in the 11 years. About 92% of these papers have appeared in 877 journals published from 62 countries. Journals published in the USA, UK and the Netherlands are popular with Indian mathematicians. Of the 36 journals that have published at least a hundred papers, 20 are Indian journals of which only two are indexed in Journal Citation Reports. In all, about 38.5% of papers have been published in Indian journals, as against about 70% in agriculture, 55% in life sciences, 33.5% in medicine and 20% in physics. In the later years, there has been a moderate shift to non-Indian journals. Close to 78% of papers have come from universities and colleges and 13% from the institutions under science related departments. Almost all papers in high impact journals are physics related and most of them have come from institutions under the Department of Atomic Energy. Over 15% of the 9760 papers published during 1993-1998 are internationally coauthored. In all of science, as seen from Science Citation Index, 14% of Indian papers were internationally coauthored in 1991 and 17.6% in 1998. The USA, Canada, and Germany are the important collaborating nations, followed by France, Italy, Japan and the UK.
    • Why Catalonia cannot be considered as a Regional Innovation System

      Riba, Marta; Leydesdorff, Loet (2001)
      We present a model to assess the systemness of an innovation system. Patent and citation data with an institutional address in Catalonia (1986-1996) were analyzed in terms of relational linkages and the development in these distributions over time was evaluated using methods from systems dynamics. Relational linkages are extremely scarce. A transition at the systemâ s level could be indicated around 1990 when using institutional addresses, but not when using cognitive categories. The institutional restructuring has led to changes in the pattern of linkages (coauthorship, etc.), but the reproduction of the systemâ s knowledge base has remained differentiated. We conclude that although a system in several other respects, Catalonia cannot (yet) be considered as a (knowledge-based) innovation system. The existence of a mechanism for the integration could not be indicated at the regional level.