• The Communication Turn in the Theory of Social Systems

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2002)
      The theory of social systems has been contested as a part of sociology. Social order can be expected to emerge as an expectation that is communicated. A communication can be provided with meaning and meaning may evolve into codified meaning. The social system can thus be considered as developing in layers of communication among reflexive actors. At the interfaces between systems theory, communication theory, and evolution theory puzzles emerge which can also be formulated as analytical and empirical questions. The mathematical theory of communication can be used for the clarification of the relations among these different perspectives, since a message is expected to contain an information.