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Managing cognitive and affective trust in the conceptual R&D organizationIn today's knowledge-based and competitive economy, research and development (R&D) efforts are increasingly geographically distributed across multiple institutions. This chapter explores the management of cognitive and affective trust and distrust within a new type of geographically distributed and multi-institutional R&D organization, called the conceptual organization. Both cognitive and affective trust are important to the conceptual organization because it relies on collaboration among individual members to achieve its goals, and collaboration is not possible without cognitive or affective trust. Data from a 2-year case study of a conceptual organization illuminates how the organization's structure, use of power and information and communications technology (I&CT) shape and are shaped by cognitive and affective trust. Tightly coupled collaboration appears to only emerge in situations where high cognitive and affective trust simultaneously exist, and no collaboration will emerge in situations with high cognitive and affective distrust exist. In comparison, limited collaboration emerges when affective trust and cognitive distrust exist concurrently, and competitive collaboration appears to emerge when cognitive trust and affective distrust exist concurrently. Different mechanisms to manage the collaboration emerged in these situations. These results help inform our understanding of cognitive and affective trust and distrust, and their management in R&D.