• Abstraction and the Organization of Images: František Kupka and the Organization of Graphic Motifs

      Olson, Hope; Lussky, Joan (2008)
      František Kupka (1871-1957), a Czech painter who spent most of his career in France, one of the artists sometimes described as the father of abstract art, a sometime spirit medium and theosophist, also has a contribution to make to the organization of information. At a knowledge organization conference in Washington, DC some years ago I visited the National Gallery of Art and, rounding a corner, was confronted by Kupka's roughly six-by-six foot painting Organization of Graphic Motifs II. The painting along with its earlier and later variants epitomizes Kupka's interpretation of how images are organized in the creation of art. This paper will lay open Kupka's philosophy of art as it parallels or opposes some of the basic tenets of the organization of information with the Organization of Graphic Motifs cluster of works as an example. The proposed paper will elaborate on Kupka's philosophy of art, explore examples, consider the implications for representation of images/knowledge/information, and pose questions. In knowledge organization we typically presume that our goal is to represent reality as closely as possible. For Kupka there is a truth in representing a new, artist-constructed reality. Is the notion of a different reality and a representation that conflicts with "real" reality acceptable or anathema in the organization of images (or knowledge)? Are artists the only ones who can create representations in a new reality or can classifiers/indexers do so as well? How does this vision of representation contribute to inconsistency and subjectivity in the organization of images/knowledge/information?
    • Adapting Web Archive Catalogues for Dynamic Change

      Wu, Paul H-J; Ichsan, Tamsir P.; Nguyen, Ngoc Giang; Julien, Masanes; Andreas, Rauber (2007)
      Web archives are an important source of information. However, before a Web archive can be properly utilized, it needs to be catalogued. This is to ensure that the accessed materials yield the historical understanding intended by the researcher. At the same time, the dynamic nature of the Web will easily render these catalogues outdated, and there is a constant need to monitor when the Web catalogues become irrelevant upon change of the Web content. This means a substantial amount of human effort is required to maintain the catalogue records for the Web archives, adding additional burden to any institutions that maintain it. In this paper, we propose an automatic mechanism to monitor changes in Web content, so that human workload can be reduced. The system combines two component technologies to make this possible: (1) a contextualized annotation module and (2) an evidence change detection module. Contextualized annotation enables the cataloguing process to link content on the Web page (the evidence), to the value assigned for an element of a metadata schema. Thus, the metadata is â supportedâ by certain Web content that functions as evidence for a cataloguing decision. Regardless of changes in the webpages outside of the evidence, the metadata remains valid as long as all the evidence remains the same. In order to achieve evidence-specific change detection, we need to extend the traditional Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) based Diff engine using a Page Coordinate translation algorithm, which we argue, through a survey, is the first among many other Web content monitoring approaches.
    • Advances in Classification Research, Volume 17: Proceedings of the 17th ASIS&T SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop

      Furner, Jonathan; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2006)
      Papers from the 17th ASIST&T Special Interest Group for Classification Research Workshop. The workshop ran November 4, 2006 in Austin, Texas.
    • Analyzing the role of knowledge organization in scholarly communication: An inquiry into the intellectual foundation of knowledge organization

      Andersen, Jack (2004-03)
      In this dissertation I analyze the relationship between social organization and knowledge organization. This analysis is carried out on two levels. The first level consists of three chapters each examining particular perspectives of the relationship. First, in terms of an examination of how communication technologies have shaped forms of social organization. I argue how knowledge organization is constituted by social organization. Second, I further situate knowledge organization in light of Jurgen Habermas theory of the public sphere and argue that his theory can be viewed as a fundamental model of knowledge organization. Third, by drawing on various theories of genre and activity systems, I underpin the connection between social organization in scholarly communication by means of how indexing reflects and responds to the rhetorical activities of scholarly articles. I consider this as how knowledge organization can ascribe cognitive authority to documents. The texts are considered to constitute the mediating link between social organization and knowledge organization. I conclude that this relationship between social organization and knowledge organization must be understood and examined in order to fully account for the role knowledge organization in human activities based on document production and use such as scholarly communication.
    • Animal Biotechnology Knowledge Resources on the Internet: A Study

      Rathinasabapathy, G.; Mohana Sundari, T.; Rajendran, L.; Sivaselvam, S. N. (Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India, 2007)
      Information is a dynamic and inexhaustible source that affects all disciplines and Animal Biotechnology is no exception. The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing and production of materials by animals or aquatic species to provide goods and services, has yielded new and improved medicines for animals that help lower production costs and improve animal well being by fighting various diseases caused by bacteria and parasites. New and enhanced animal vaccines have also been developed through modern animal biotechnology techniques. For all these things, Animal biotechnologists require latest, authenticated and scholarly information. In this regard, the exponential growth of the Internet expands the wealth of knowledge resources available in all disciplines including animal biotechnology and the amount of biotechnology knowledge available on the web is staggering. The Internet connects them to organizations such as universities, colleges, research institutes and companies who are dealing with animal biotechnology and facilitates access to informal organizations such as special interest groups, email lists, news groups, blogs, etc. Databases such as Entrez Nucleotides, GenBank, RefSeq, CCDSD, TPAD, dbEST, dbGSS, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbSTS, UniVec, CDD, Entrez Proteins, MMDB, 3DDD are made available by NCBI across the cyberspace which facilitates 24/7 access to all those concerned with animal biotechnology. Gateway sites like AgBiotechNet, APHIS of USDA, ISB of Virginia Tech University opens the door of online documents and searchable databases pertaining to the development, testing and regulatory review of genetically modified plants, animals and other microorganisms. A number of factual databases, electronic journals, electronic books and other electronic documents are freely available across the Internet. It connects students, research scholars, academics, librarians, scientists and other category of professionals dealing with animal biotechnology. The opportunities provided by the Internet for interactive learning, up-to-date science news, scholarly contents, project funding guidance, audio-visual contents in the area of biotechnology are laudable.
    • Animal Biotechnology Knowledge Resources on the Internet: A Study

      Rathinasabapathy, G.; Mohana Sundari, T.; Rajendran, L.; Sivaselvam, S. N. (Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India, 2007)
      Information is a dynamic and inexhaustible source that affects all disciplines and Animal Biotechnology is no exception. The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing and production of materials by animals or aquatic species to provide goods and services, has yielded new and improved medicines for animals that help lower production costs and improve animal well being by fighting various diseases caused by bacteria and parasites. New and enhanced animal vaccines have also been developed through modern animal biotechnology techniques. For all these things, Animal biotechnologists require latest, authenticated and scholarly information. In this regard, the exponential growth of the Internet expands the wealth of knowledge resources available in all disciplines including animal biotechnology and the amount of biotechnology knowledge available on the web is staggering. The Internet connects them to organizations such as universities, colleges, research institutes and companies who are dealing with animal biotechnology and facilitates access to informal organizations such as special interest groups, email lists, news groups, blogs, etc. Databases such as Entrez Nucleotides, GenBank, RefSeq, CCDSD, TPAD, dbEST, dbGSS, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbSTS, UniVec, CDD, Entrez Proteins, MMDB, 3DDD are made available by NCBI across the cyberspace which facilitates 24/7 access to all those concerned with animal biotechnology. Gateway sites like AgBiotechNet, APHIS of USDA, ISB of Virginia Tech University opens the door of online documents and searchable databases pertaining to the development, testing and regulatory review of genetically modified plants, animals and other microorganisms. A number of factual databases, electronic journals, electronic books and other electronic documents are freely available across the Internet. It connects students, research scholars, academics, librarians, scientists and other category of professionals dealing with animal biotechnology. The opportunities provided by the Internet for interactive learning, up-to-date science news, scholarly contents, project funding guidance, audio-visual contents in the area of biotechnology are laudable.
    • Applying the User-Centered Paradigm to Cataloging Standards in Theory and Practice: Problems and Prospects

      Hoffman, Gretchen L.; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      Dervin and Nilanâ s (1986) article, â Information needs and uses,â has been an influential article in Library and Information Science (LIS), because it calls for a paradigm shift in LIS away from research that focuses on systems and standards to research that focuses on users. This article also has been influential on library and information practice. Librarians and other information workers are called on to be user-centered and place users at the center of library programs and services. Conforming to the user-centered paradigm, however, has been problematic for broad representational systems, like library cataloging, that must meet the diverse needs of global users. Despite calls to focus on users, the cataloging field has not taken a user-centered approach in research or in the development of cataloging standards. Instead, the responsibility to meet usersâ needs has been placed on cataloging practitioners, who are encouraged to customize bibliographic records to meet their local usersâ needs. Dissertation research by Hoffman (2008) suggests that catalogers are limited in their ability to customize bibliographic records, because catalogers do not know who their users are and cannot identify their usersâ needs. In addition, library administrators discourage customization in favor of efficient cataloging processes. There are limits to LISâ s user-centered paradigm in the area of cataloging, and perhaps it needs to examined and reconsidered. Is the user-centered paradigm still applicable to cataloging? How should cataloging meet usersâ needs? This paper will examine the problems of the user-centered paradigm in cataloging.
    • Approaches to Knowledge Organization (KO). Lecture given at the University of Rome. April 20, 2007

      Hjørland, Birger (2007-04)
      Presentations and discussions of different approaches to Knowledge Organization from Melvil Dewey to Internet enginees: 1. â Traditional approachesâ 2. Management oriented approaches 3. Logical and facet-analytic approaches 4. Computer based approaches 5. Bibliometric approaches 6. User oriented and cognitive approaches 7. Domain analytic approaches
    • Arguments for 'the bibliographical paradigm'. Some thoughts inspired by the new English edition of the UDC

      Hjørland, Birger (2007-10)
      The term 'the bibliographic paradigm' is used in the literature of library and information science, but is a very seldom term and is almost always negatively described. This paper reconsiders this concept. The bibliographic paradigm is understood as a perspective in library and information science focusing on documents and information resources, their description, organization, mediation and use. This perspective is examined as one among other metatheories of library and information science and its philosophical assumptions and implications are outlined. The method used is mainly 'analytical'. Empirical data concerning the current state of the UDC-classification system are also presented in order to illuminate the connection between theory and practice. The neglect and misunderstanding of 'the bibliographic paradigm' as well as the quality of the new UDC-classification indicate that both the metatheoretical discourses on library and information science and its concrete practice seem to be in a state of crisis.
    • Bacon, Warrant, and Classification

      Olson, Hope A.; Breitenstein, Mikel (dLIST, 2004)
      Warrant, in classification, is encompassed in the Oxford English DictionaryiÌ s definition: "justifying reason or ground for an action, belief, or feeling." Classifications may be deemed good or bad on the basis of any number of characteristics, but the justification for their choice and order of classes or concepts is one of the most fundamental. This paper will introduce the notion of warrant used by Francis Bacon in his classification of knowledge, discuss its uniqueness within the panoply of classificatory history, and suggest that Bacon still has a radical idea to suggest to todayiÌ s classificationists.
    • Beyond Aboutness: Classifying Causal Links in the Service of Interdisciplinarity

      Gnoli, Claudio; Szostak, Rick; Breitenstein, Mikel; Loschko, Cheryl Lin (2009)
      Most scholarship, and almost all interdisciplinary scholarship, involves the investigation of causal relationships among phenomena. Yet existing classification systems in widespread use have not focused on classifying works in terms of causal relationships. In order to allow all users interested in a particular causal link to readily find (only) all relevant works, it is necessary to develop a classification of phenomena such that each phenomenon occurs in only one place, and a classification of the sort of relationships that exist among phenomena. Such a classification would be of huge benefit to interdisciplinary scholars, and would also be useful for disciplinary scholars. In particular it will enhance the rate of discovery of "undiscovered knowledge".
    • Book review of: Eric R. Scerri. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007

      Hjørland, Birger (2008-11)
      Scerriâ s book demonstrates how one of the most important classification systems has evolved and what kinds of conceptualizations and classification criteria are at work in it. It is probably the best book about the best classification system ever constructed. The book review considers the theoretical basis of this classification system as well as implications for the field of Knowledge Organization.
    • Book review of: Marc Ereshefsky. The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Hjørland, Birger (2008-11)
      A book review of a book criticizing the famous classification system developed by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707â 1778), which has been used and adapted by biologists over a period of almost 250 years. The review considers theoretical issues in classification and the importance of the book for the field of Knowledge Organization.
    • Book review of: Rachel Cooper. Classifying Madness: A Philosophical Examination of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Berlin: Springer, 2005.

      Hjørland, Birger (2008-11)
      This book review considers some theoretical issues in classification theory and the relevance of this book for the community of Knowledge Organization.
    • The Boundaries of Classification

      Mai, Jens-Erik; Breitenstein, Mikel; Loschko, Cheryl Lin (2009)
      This paper discusses and analyzes the conceptual basis for classification work in the 21st century; it provides an account of classification that lays out the boundaries within which classification operate. The methodological and practical effects of the boundaries are discussed. The main point of the paper is to demonstrate that classifications are bound by particular contexts and conceptual frameworks.
    • Classical Pragmatism and its Varieties: On a Pluriform Metatheoretical Perspective for Knowledge Organization

      Dousa, Thomas M.; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      Pragmatism is a metatheoretical perspective within knowledge organization (KO) deriving from an American philosophical tradition active since the late 19th century. Its core feature is commitment to the evaluation of the adequacy of concepts and beliefs through the empirical test of practice: this entails epistemological antifoundationalism, fallibilism, contingency, social embeddedness, and pluralism. This article reviews three variants of Pragmatism historically influential in philosophyâ Pierceâ s scientifically oriented pragmaticism, Jamesâ s subjectivist practicalism; and Deweyâ s socially-directed instrumentalismâ and indicates points of contact with KO theories propounded by Bliss, Shera, and Hjørland. KO applications of classical Pragmatism have tended to converge toward a socially pluralist model characteristic of Dewey. Recently, Rortyâ s epistemologically radical brand of Neopragmatism has found adherents within KO: whether it provides a more advantageous metatheoretical framework than classical Pragmatism remains to be seen.
    • Classifying marginalized people, focusing on natural disaster survivors

      Kemp, Randall B.; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      The marginalization of people through classification schemes results in inadequate access to information about these people when the context is, for example, a bibliographic classification system. When the context is the classification of the people themselves, they themselves are underrepresented, for instance, by society and government support. Taking the case of the natural disaster survivor, this paper explores appropriate steps to devising an accurate classification scheme of the survivors.
    • A Code for Classifiers: Whatever Happened to Merrillâ s Code?

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Smiraglia, Richard P. (Ergon-Verlag, 2004)
      This is a preprint of the article published in Knowledge Organization 31 (3): 161-176. The work titled "Code for Classifiers" by William Stetson Merrill is examined. The development of Merrill's Code over a period of 27 years, 1912-1939 is traced by examining bibliographic, attribution, conceptual and contextual differences. The general principles advocated, the differences between variants, and three controversial features of the Code: 1) the distinction between classifying vs. classification, 2) borrowing of the bibliographic principle of authorial intention, and 3) use of Dewey Decimal class numbers for classified sequence of topics, are also discussed. The paper reveals the importance of the Code in its own time, the complexities of its presentation and assessment by its contemporaries, and itâ s status today.