• Tagging for Health Information Organisation and Retrieval

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2007)
      INTRODUCTION Medical professionals seek to capture papers which can be located via keyword or free text search in digital libraries or on the web but are also interested in finding material that has not yet been indexed in on-line databases. Search engines provide a multitude of results [1]. Social bookmarking, where users tag items for their own use, offers a way to locate new and relevant information. CiteULike (citeulike.org), a social bookmarking service, allows articles to be tagged with useful keywords for later retrieval. RELATED STUDIES A previous study [2] compared social bookmarking to existing information organisation structures and found similarities in terminology use and intriguing differences. A sample of articles tagged on CiteULike was examined for contextual differences in keyword usage between users of social bookmarking sites, authors and indexers. Many tags were related to thesaurus terms (descriptors), but were not formally in the thesaurus. [2] This study examines how term usage patterns in tags, keywords and descriptors suggest a similar (or differing) context between users, authors and intermediaries. METHODOLOGY This study examines the use of tags on CiteULike from three medical or biology journals (JAMA, Proteins, and Journal of Molecular Biology) indexed in Pubmed. 1299 unique articles were retrieved from Citeulike; Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were collected from Pubmed. Articles were analysed using standard informetric techniques to examine the use of user assigned tags and their Pubmed assigned MeSH index terms. Data was analysed for term usage and categorised to see what contextual clues users expose in their tag use. RESULTS Articles were tagged by up to 14 users (average 2-4). 1449 unique tags were used in the data set. Some articles were heavily tagged by users (max. 29, min. 1, median 2). Descriptors were more heavily assigned to articles (2746 unique descriptors). Articles had, on average, 10 descriptors assigned (max. 40, min. 2). Some tags occurred frequently: protein_structure (140), no-tag (134), and protein (114). By journal, tags were: docking (Proteins, 85), no-tag (JAMA, 20), and protein_structure (J Mol Biol, 52). No-tag (system assigned) indicated no tag assigned. Descriptors were more heavily reused than tags, for example: 'Models, Molecular' (550), Protein Conformation (363), and Humans (341). By journal, descriptors were: 'Models, Molecular' (Proteins, 252), 'Models, Molecular' (J Mol Biol, 235), and Humans (JAMA, 137). DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Comparison of tag and descriptor lists shows many of the same similarities and differences as the previous study [2]. Many user terms were related to the author and intermediary terms but not in the thesaurus (e.g. 'diet' and 'fat' used separately in the tag lists where they were linked as 'dietary fats' in the thesaurus). Terms such as 'human' and 'family-studies' show users tagging biology articles are interested in methodology and user groups associated with articles. This study has system design implications for accessing, indexing and searching document spaces. Users express frustration trying to narrow search results. Controlled vocabularies help narrow a search to a manageable size but can be expensive. User tagging could provide additional access points to traditional controlled vocabularies and the associative classifications necessary to tie documents and articles to time and task relationships among other novel items. REFERENCES [1] Tang H, Ng J.HK. 2006. Googling for a diagnosis -- use of Google as a diagnostic aid: internet based study. BMJ 333 (2 Dec), 1143-1145. [2] Kipp MEI. 2006. Complementary or discrete contexts in online indexing: A comparison of user, creator, and intermediary keywords. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science (in press) http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/1533/
    • Tagging for health information organisation and retrieval

      Kipp, Margaret E. I.; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      This paper examines the tagging practices evident on CiteULike, a research oriented social bookmarking site for journal articles. Articles selected for this study were health information and medicine related. Tagging practices were examined using standard informetric measures for analysis of bibliographic information and analysis of term use. Additionally, tags were compared to descriptors assigned to the same article.
    • Tagging Practices on Research Oriented Social Bookmarking Sites

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2007)
      This paper examines the tagging practices evident on CiteULike, a research oriented social bookmarking site for journal articles. Tagging practices were examined using standard informetric measures for analysis of bibliographic information and term use. Additionally, tags were compared to author keywords and descriptors assigned to the same article.
    • Tagging tagging. Analysing user keywords in scientific bibliography management systems.

      Heckner, Markus; Mühlbacher, Susanne; Wolff, Christian (2007-09)
      Recently, a growing amount of systems that allow content annotation by their users (= tagging) has been created. Simultaneously a debate on the pros and cons of allowing users to add personal keywords to digital content has arisen. A stable category model for social tags on a linguistic as well as functional level is presented, based on data gathered from the scientific bibliography management tool connotea. Also some initial findings of a comparative analysis of social tags and author keywords are reported.
    • Tagging, Folksonomy and Art Museums: Early Experiments and Ongoing Research

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      Tagging has proven attractive to art museums as a means of enhancing the indexing of online collections. This paper examines the state of the art in tagging within museums and introduces the steve.museum research project, and its study of tagging behaviour and the relationship of the resulting folksonomy to professionally created museum documentation. A variety of research questions are proposed and methods for answering them discussed. Experiments implemented in the steve.museum research collaboration are discussed, preliminary results suggested, and further work described.
    • Tagging, Folksonomy and Art Museums: Results of steve.museum's research

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      Tagging has proven attractive to art museums as a means of enhancing access to on-line collections. The steve.museum research project studied tagging and the relationship of the resulting folksonomy to professionally created museum documentation. A variety of research questions were proposed, and methods for answering them explored. Works of art were assembled to be tagged, a tagger was deployed, and tagging encouraged. A folksonomy of 36,981 terms was gathered, comprising 11,944 terms in 31,031 term/work pairs. The analysis of the tagging of these works - and the assembled folksonomy - is reported here, and further work described. Tagging is shown to provide a significantly different vocabulary than museum documentation: 86% of tags were not found in museum documentation. The vast majority of tags - 88.2% - were assessed as Useful for searching by museum staff. Some users (46%) always contributed useful tags, while others (5.1%) never assigned a useful tag. Useful-ness increased dramatically when terms were assigned more than once. Activity for Registered Users was approximately twice that of Anonymous Users. The behaviour of individual supertaggers had far more influence on the resulting folksonomy than any interface variable. Relating tags to museum controlled-vocabularies proved problematic at best. Tagging by the public is shown to address works of art from a perspective different than that of museum documentation. User tags provide additional points of view to those in existing museums records. Within the context of art museums, user contributed tags could help reflect the breadth of approaches to works of art, and improve searching by offering access to alternative points of view. Tags offer another layer that supplements and complements the documentation provided by professional museum cataloguers.
    • Taking Well to Thirsty: Library Toolbar-Changing of the Users Environment into New Environment

      Ram, Shri; Rao, N Laxman; Kataria, Sanjay; Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, India; Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India; Osmania University, Hyderabad (2008)
      A Well known phrase in Hindi which elucidate that the ‘Thirsty needs to go to well, well will not come to thirsty’. Toolbar has now changed the scenario in respect that it taking well to the thirsty. This paradigm shift is due to advancement in information and computer technology. The thirsts for the information are increasing day-by-day. Information wells are deepens rapidly, library resources are increasing in collection as well as characters and flowing along with the technology. Library and Information Centers adopting various methodology for collection building, from print media to digital collection, from individual subscription to consortia based collaboration in order to saving budget, library automation for resource management, Web 2.0 technology for information literacy and user education and other tools and technology such as audio visual methods, forum, emails, list-serves, and many more lists are added up during the time for ‘save the time of reader’, what S R Rangnathan’s philosophy reveal. Library services are fading out of sight for most user groups and how these users and their expectations have changed, without us realizing. It contains a strong plea for a focus shift for librarians, a focus into the environments where the users are, instead of expecting them to come to us, or our resources. Exploration of all relevant user environments for your organization, the use of new web-based technologies with Web 2.0 elements and certainly a more structural technical re-design of library information systems is required to deliver library services and resources at the place of need. A simple shortterm solution like a Quick-Search Library Toolbar is explained here as a tool for taking library to user. This paper will discuss the Technology, Methodology and Usability and1 multitasking nature of Library Toolbars for enhanced search methodology. This will also discuss how toolbar can be helpful in getting latest information about the happenings around the globe, latest availability of resources in the library, email check with single click and how the library toolbar has been adopted at authors institution for better user education and information communication. The paper concludes with the remarks for research on more tools like library toolbar for enhancing library activity for user unreached.
    • A Tale of two markets: Employer expectations of information professionals in Australia and the United States of America

      Marion, Linda; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia; Wilson, Concepción S. (2005)
      This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study of 395 library job advertisements in Australia and the USA from August to October 2004. To investigate similarities and differences between the two countries' data we conducted a content analysis and co-word analysis of professional job ads from academic, public and special libraries. Interpersonal Skills, Behavioural Characteristics, and responsiveness to a changeable Environment were identified as critical requirements in both countries.
    • Tango on the Web: The Evolution of the H-Journal

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram (Chalmers University of Technology, 1996)
      A distinction can be made between the electronic journal and a hypertext or hypermedia journal (throughout the rest of this paper the terms e-journal and h-journal will be used) that categorizes them as belonging to two different stages in the evolution of electronic documents [1 ]. While the e-journal contains unstructured text and mimics the print model of journal publication, the h-journal builds upon both. It contains structured text, hypertext, and incorporates notions of user centrality to document creation acknowledging thereby that certain kinds of electronic documents can also function as information systems.
    • Teaching Authority Control [English version] presented at the International Conference Teaching Authority Control. In Proceedings International Conference Authority Control: Definition and International Experiences, Florence

      Taylor, Arlene (2003)
      The teaching of authority control in schools of library and information science is alive and well, even though it is not perceived this way by some former students. Many professors are fervently attempting to imbue the next generation of librarians with an understanding of the necessity for authority control. Unfortunately, they have to fight the nonunderstanding of colleagues, the lack of course time to be as thorough as desired, and the perception that information technology is uppermost in importance among courses to be taught. However, because the chaotic environment of the Web has brought attention to the need for authority control (e.g., the "semantic web"), we have a new opportunity to teach these concepts to a new generation of information professionals.
    • Teaching classification to fit a modern and sustainable LIS curriculum: the case of Croatia

      Slavic, Aida (2001)
      Library classification in the Croatian library school at the Department of Information Sciences, University of Zagreb has an important place in the department's curriculum. This is due to the fact that classification is the most important indexing language in Croatian libraries, documentation centres and services and its role has not been undermined by library automation is the case elsewhere. The course Classification and Classification Systems has undergone many changes since the school was established in 1976. One of the most important objectives of the course, besides introducing classification as a tool, is to teach about content analysis and classification as a process. Another important goal of the course is to teach students how to adapt and use classification for different purposes and in different environments. The current syllabus embraces the use of classification in information organisation and presentation in different kinds of collection from book and non-book materials to information resources on the Internet and even more importantly, the course covers the application of classification in information retrieval and discovery. It is the intention of the course to contribute to the education of librarians and will enable their skills to be applied in the wider area of the information profession.
    • Team Effectiveness in Virtual Environments: An Ecological Approach

      Shachaf, Pnina; Hara, Noriko; Ferris, P.; Godar, S. (Idea Group Publishing, 2005)
      This chapter attempts to address the need for more research on virtual team effectiveness and outlines an ecological theoretical framework that is applicable to virtual learning environments (VLE). Prior empirical studies on virtual team effectiveness used frameworks of traditional team effectiveness and mainly followed Hackman's normative model (input-process-output). We propose an ecological approach for virtual team effectiveness that accounts for team boundaries management, technology use, and external environment in VLE, properties which were previously either non-existent or contextual. The ecological framework suggests that three components, external environment, internal environment, and boundary management, reciprocally interact with effectiveness. The significance of the proposed framework is a holistic perspective that takes into account the complexity of the external and internal environment of the team. Furthermore, we address the needs for new pedagogical approaches in VLE.
    • Team Effectiveness in Virtual Environments: An Ecological Approach

      Shachaf, Pnina; Hara, Noriko; Ferris, P.; Godar, S. (Idea Group Publishing, 2005)
      This chapter attempts to address the need for more research on virtual team effectiveness and outlines an ecological theoretical framework that is applicable to virtual learning environments (VLE). Prior empirical studies on virtual team effectiveness used frameworks of traditional team effectiveness and mainly followed Hackman's normative model (input-process-output). We propose an ecological approach for virtual team effectiveness that accounts for team boundaries management, technology use, and external environment in VLE, properties which were previously either non-existent or contextual. The ecological framework suggests that three components, external environment, internal environment, and boundary management, reciprocally interact with effectiveness. The significance of the proposed framework is a holistic perspective that takes into account the complexity of the external and internal environment of the team. Furthermore, we address the needs for new pedagogical approaches in VLE.
    • Teaming with Distance Continuing Education

      Farmer, Lesley S. J. (2005)
      This is a presentation in Session 4.1 â Continuing Education Programs in the US and Canada, at the 2005 ALISE Conference. It has 20 slides that highlight the issues in the practices of distance continuing education (DCE). The presentation focuses on the relationship between DCE and technological advances. Farmer highlights the impact of a range of modern technologies such as CourseWare, desktop publishing, databases, spreadsheets, presentation programs, telecommunications, World Wide Web, and digitized images. An evaluation of the practices, according to the author, should be focussed on student achievement and community interaction. Communication is believed to be the key to success in DCE.
    • Techniques for Enabling the Older Population in Technology: a case study

      Bean, Carol (2004-06)
      There is a significant segment of the population which was virtually bypassed by the electronic revolution. These people are primarily retired or close to retirement, and are finding it increasingly necessary to have computer skills to interact with the world around them. However, due to the aging process, learning those computer skills is more difficult for them. This case study details how the staff of the North County Regional Library Computer Center addressed those issues and developed a series of classes for first time computer users. Based on research into issues in gerontology, such as cognitive and motor declines, as well as automaticity and semantic memory, the staff modified materials and techniques to make computer training achievable for many older citizens who were "falling through the cracks." The staff at the North County Regional Library developed a short, beginning-level computer course consisting of four lessons, which has been offered by the Library since early 2003. Results have been very positive. Participants have ranged in age from middle-age to elderly (80+ years). Since participants must go through the instructors to register, classes have been limited to those who were total novices, with virtually no exposure to computers. Sample materials and outlines will be provided, as well as statistical summaries from evaluation instruments.
    • Techno savvy or techno oriented: Who are the net generation?

      Combes, B.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      During the last twenty years rapid developments in technology have led to changes in the way we work, play and learn. Technology has become an integral part of societyâ s everyday information environment. Children growing up during what has been called the technological or digital revolution have never known a world without instantaneous communication and easy access to vast quantities of information using multiple formats, text types, graphics and multimedia. For the â Net Generationâ (born after 1985) of users and consumers who are surrounded by information, technology is transparent and a part of their social, economic and educational landscape. The terms tech-savvy, web-savvy, Internet-savvy and com-puter-savvy are being used to describe young people in major educational policy documents and population studies worldwide. While educators recognise that their students have a different culture of use when using and seeking information delivered electronically, they struggle to come to terms with the changes the integration of technology brings to the teaching-learning environment. The implications for educators, teacher librarians and librarians being raised in current research on the information seeking of the Net Generation, is whether students have an intuitive/instinctive grasp of how to access and use elec-tronic information or is this just an illusion borne of familiarity with the technology? This paper presents a brief summary of the research and popular literature about the information seeking behavior of the Net Generation and outlines future research to be conducted as part of this thesis. It also proposes a leader-ship role for libraries and their personnel in designing programs to ensure that young people have ade-quate information skills that will enable them to use evolving technologies effectively and efficiently when searching for information.
    • Technological Identity: Addressing the Need for Greater Theorization of ICT in Social Informatics Research

      Tyworth, Michael (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006"
    • Technologies of Information: HCI and the digital library

      Dillon, Andrew; Carroll, John M. (New York: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, 2002)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (2002) HCI and the technologies of information. In: J. Carroll (ed.) HCI and the Millennium: New York: ACM Press/Addison Wesley, 457-474. Abstract Digital libraries represent the latest and perhaps the most important stage in the transformation of our relationship to information and its supporting technologies. While the World Wide Web has raised to broad consciousness the ideas of rapid, remote access to vast collections of distributed, hyperlinked documents, users are as often confused and disoriented by such resources as they are empowered. As we enter the new millennium the possibilities for new forms of information seem boundless. Meeting the design challenges requires HCI to offer valid, reliable and timely guidance. At the same time, the creation of digital libraries provides a research forum for HCI that is rich, relevant and receptive to our inputs. The present chapter will briefly examine the initiation of the digital library concept, the early HCI involvement in this domain and present a vision of the future of HCI research and design for new information technologies.
    • Technology and Culture: The Dissemination and the Potential 'Lock-in' of New Technologies

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2001)
      How do technological innovations change the patterns of their cultural diffusion in socio-economic networks? Cellular automata enable us to show Arthur's (1988) model of a potential 'lock-in' of a new technology in terms of dominant colours on the screen. The 'lock-in' effects can be combined with local learning, network effects, and more complex dynamics. Recursive and interaction terms can thus be declared separately in the construction of a simple, but non-linear model of technological development and innovation. This enables us to specify conditions for a 'break-out' or a 'deadlock' between competing technologies. Using Axelrod's (1997) simulation model of 'cultural dissemination' as another network effect, it will be shown that the cultural assimilation of a new technology can co-evolve with the 'lock-in' of a dominant technology. This effect can be annihilated by the further development of the communication with an emerging dimension. Implications for technology and innovation policies will be specified.
    • Technology Transfer in European Regions: Introduction to the Theme Issue s

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Cooke, Philip; Olarazan, Mikel (2002)
      Regions can be considered as "regional innovation systems," but the question of whether and to what extent technology transfer is taking place at this or other (e.g., national and global) levels remains empirical. The theme issue contains a number of case studies of "regional innovation systems" within the European Union. Other papers elaborate on the pros and cons of the systemic approach to the technology transfer processes involved, or make comparisons across regions. In this introduction, the editors discuss the relations between regional policies, technology and innovation policies, and the integration of these different aspects into (potentially regional) systems of innovation. Under what conditions can "technology transfer" be considered as a mechanism of integration at the regional level?