• Structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the public library catalogue

      Spiteri, Louise (2007-06)
      Folksonomies have the potential to add much value to public library catalogues by enabling clients to: store, maintain, and organize items of interest in the catalogue using their own tags. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the tags that constitute folksonomies are structured. Tags were acquired over a thirty-day period from the daily tag logs of three folksonomy sites, Del.icio.us, Furl, and Technorati. The tags were evaluated against section 6 (choice and form of terms) of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) guidelines for the construction of controlled vocabularies. This evaluation revealed that the folksonomy tags correspond closely to the NISO guidelines that pertain to the types of concepts expressed by the tags, the predominance of single tags, the predominance of nouns, and the use of recognized spelling. Potential problem areas in the structure of the tags pertain to the inconsistent use of the singular and plural form of count nouns, and the incidence of ambiguous tags in the form of homographs and unqualified abbreviations or acronyms. Should library catalogues decide to incorporate folksonomies, they could provide clear guidelines to address these noted weaknesses, as well as links to external dictionaries and references sources such as Wikipedia to help clients disambiguate homographs and to determine if the full or abbreviated forms of tags would be preferable.
    • The Structure and infrastructure of chinese science and technology

      Kostoff, Ronald N.; Briggs, Michael B.; Rushenberg, Robert L.; Bowles, Christine A.; Pecht, Michael (2006-06)
      This report identifies and analyzes the science and technology core competencies of China. The first part of the study was performed in the 2003-2004 time frame, and analyzes databases containing 2000-2003 data for China. The second part of the report was sponsored in part by ONR Global, and contains an analysis of 2005 data from China. For the first part of the study, aggregate China publication and citation bibliometrics were obtained, and manual and statistical taxonomies were generated. The manual taxonomy was based on reading a random sample of ten percent of all China records retrieved, and included many manually-assigned attributes for each record. The statistical taxonomies were based on both word/ phrase clustering and document clustering. For the second part of the study, one hierarchical research taxonomy, based on document clustering, was generated. The second hierarchical level of this research taxonomy for 2005 records contains four categories: 1) chemistry (5841 records); 2) physics/ materials (13966 records); 3) mathematics (7162 records); life sciences (7377 records). The physics/ materials category has almost three times as many records as the chemistry category, and twice the records of the mathematics category. Detailed analysis of the taxonomy allowed four representative technical topics to be identified (nanotechnology; genetics; alloys; crops), and bibliometrics analysis was performed for each topic. Use of bibliometrics (e.g., key researchers, Centers of Excellence, core journals) allowed the infrastructure of these technical areas to be identified. Two unique approaches were developed to compare characteristics of Chinaâ s science and technology output with that of other countries. First, a novel method was used to compare the impact/ quality of all of Chinaâ s research with that of two other countries, India and Australia. Second, a unique approach was used to compare Chinaâ s research investment emphases/ strategy relative to that of the USA. Chinaâ s output of research articles has expanded dramatically in the last decade. In terms of sheer numbers of research articles, especially in critical technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, energetic materials), it is among the leaders. In terms of citation impact, it was higher than India in all major categories (e.g., Physical, Environmental, Materials, and Life Sciences), but was lower than Australia in all these major categories. In terms of investment strategy relative to that of the USA, China is investing more heavily in the hard science areas that underpin modern defense and commercial activities, whereas the USA is investing more heavily in the medical, psychological, and social problem (e.g., drug use) science areas that underpin improvement of individual health and comfort.
    • Student Readers as Authors: Analyzing Markings Made on E-documents in Private or Shared Reading Environments

      Qayyum, Asim (2005-01)
      This is a juried paper (12 pages) presented at Session 5.2 titled "The Digital Environment: Online Libraries, Users and Systems" on Thursday, January 13, at the ALISE 2005 Conference, Boston, Massachusetts (Session Moderator: Charley Seavey). The main purpose of this study was to examine participating readers' text markings when they interacted with electronic documents during an active reading process. The readings took place in a private setting, where the readers read e-document for self-use, and in a document sharing setting where each document was shared among a group of students. Based on the results from descriptive and statistical tests, a user-marking taxonomy was derived, which led to the development of a framework for marking ontology. The proposed ontology can then be utilized by web searching agents to enhance the information retrieval capabilities of users working with digital library resources in a semantic web environment.
    • A study of indexing in digitized news archives of Chinese newspapers in Taiwan

      Yuan, Ming-Shu; Lin, Chih-Feng; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Many digital news archive systems in Taiwan are based on format description, not subject indexing. This requires users to know their background or the terminologies used, in order to retrieve information from these archives. This paper discusses how the original elements were indexed from various perspectives in Chinese digitized news archives. It also makes recommendations to improve the industry, including strengthening the process, connection, and description of news contents, organization, and management. This will enable cross-system retrieval and in-depth resource integration among systems.
    • A study of the impact of on-line game emotion value creation on playersâ switching behavior [in Chinese]

      Chiu, Guang-Hwa; Chang, Yuh-Shihng; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      With the popularization of broadband network in Taiwan, playing online-games has become one of most popular behavior. In 2003, the Taiwan on-line game market scale is up to NT $ 88.3 hundred million. In 2004 it is NT$ 92.7 hundred million. From the above data, the Taiwan on-line game market has been growing rapidly from 2000 to 2004. Focusing on the MMORPG, players exhibit switching behavior from old games to new ones. The thesis is aimed at exploring the factors of the players in the value creation process in playing on-line games, which influence his switching decision making. The research method focuses on external factors' "core services" combined with psychological factors such as "customer satisfaction", "emotion value" and "flow experience", to construct an empirical model to analyze the players' switching barriers and their switching behaviors. Our research adopts the on-line game players' emotion value factors in explaining their switching behaviors, which is different from previous related works. We take samples of Web members of Game-Based and Bahamut, which are the largest on-line game community in Taiwan, as the research objects. A total of 1749 completed questionnaires were obtained, with a response rate of 80.42 %. The explanation strength of the research model reaches 71.1%. The research scope covers the system exterior factors, players' perception factors, emotion value factors, the switching barriers and the switching behaviors. The results indicate that the development of any information system must take into consideration user' s requirements in the emotion value. It also suggests that the human requirement for final value demand should be incorporated into information design education.
    • Study on digital archives standard for library automation system

      Yu, Shien-Chiang; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      With the development of internet and the trend of information system technology, the object of digital library research has extended to the application of digital archives. Basically, digital libraries store huge amounts of data, including text, image, map audio, video and illustration via electronic formats. Further more, digital libraries could be conveniently accessed through the Internet. As the research intention of network information systems, the critical technology in digital library research could be how to let users effectively harvest correct information from the digital library. Digital library users could discover, present, and organize knowledge among these data of digital libraries. The traditional library automation system, related applying technologies and protocols, such as MARC, Z39.50 and ISO 2709, could not totally match the requirement of digital archives. The purpose of this research is to find out how to effectively manage and apply the related technology of digital archive to handle the existing operation processes in library and the management requirement of digital archives. This paper discusses an evolution model of the related technology of library automation systems.
    • Studying Social Tagging and Folksonomy: A Review and Framework

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      This paper reviews research into social tagging and folksonomy (as reflected in about 180 sources published through December 2007). Methods of researching the contribution of social tagging and folksonomy are described, and outstanding research questions are presented. This is a new area of research, where theoretical perspectives and relevant research methods are only now being defined. This paper provides a framework for the study of folksonomy, tagging and social tagging systems. Three broad approaches are identified, focusing first, on the folksonomy itself (and the role of tags in indexing and retrieval); secondly, on tagging (and the behaviour of users); and thirdly, on the nature of social tagging systems (as socio-technical framewor
    • Subject Access and Users: Insights & Inspirations from Marcia J. Bates

      Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid (2005-01)
      This is a presentation (of 10 slides) in Session 3.1 â Contemporary Intellectual History: Reflections on the Work of Marcia J. Bates, on Wednesday, January 12, at the 2005 ALISE Conference. The research of Marcia J. Bates is reviewed. Major areas that Bates has worked are highlighted such as her contributions to (1) information seeking behavior, (2) subject access, (3) searching, (4) user-centered system design, (5) bibliographic relationships, and (6) user interface. Areas for further research that are inspired by Bates are listed.
    • Subject retrieval in OPAC's: a study of three interfaces

      Schallier, Wouter; Gascón, Jesús; Burguillos, Ferran; Pons, Amadeu (Departament de Biblioteconomia i Documentació de la Universitat de Barcelona, 2005)
      In this paper we study three OPAC interfaces of K.U.Leuven University Library. All three interfaces have been on-line between 2002 and 2005. The characteristics of these OPACs (search fields, labeling of the fields, search facilities, searching vs. browsing, basic vs. advanced search) are systematically examined. Special attention is given to subject search and display, and more specifically to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This comparison is particularly interesting because the indexing and classification tools (UDC, Library of Congress Subject Headings, MeSH) remain the same in all three OPACs. However, the way these tools are presented for subject retrieval in the respective OPACs undergoes an interesting evolution. It is demonstrated that subject search and display in library catalogs can be largely improved by investing in optimal use of existing tools. We also stress the importance of user-oriented OPAC design.
    • Summative Evaluation. Teacher's Domain: Physical Science. A Web Site Containing a Digital Library/Repository of Contextualized Teaching and Learning Resources

      Johnson, Art (2004-09)
      This abstract is an excerpt from the Executive Summary of the Report: "The general goals for this summative evaluation study are twofold. One goal is to inform our understanding about the impact that use of project support materials (e.g., lesson plans) has on teaching. Consequently, research efforts were made to assess teachersâ use of the site and changes in their instructional strategies, if any, as the result of having the project support materials available for lesson planning and instruction. A second goal is to determine the impact of the Teachersâ Domain: Physical Science features and resource material on student learning of science as described in the National Science Education Standards in the areas of physical science content and process. Toward these ends, both descriptive and explanatory findings are reported. The researcher looked for patterns in the quantitative and qualitative data to explain the effective and ineffective aspects of the Web site. Credibility of findings were established through triangulation of methods. Communication between the evaluator and project staff took place at the outset of research in order to review developments and agree upon specific evaluation issues." The comprehensive evaluation is 111 (88 numbered) pages long and besides a summary of results also contains respondents actual comments.
    • Support Concept-based Multimedia Information Retrieval: A Knowledge Management Approach

      Zhu, Bin; Ramsey, Marshall C.; Chen, Hsinchun; Hauck, Roslin V.; Ng, Tobun Dorbin; Schatz, Bruce R. (1999)
      Identified as an important management concept five years ago (Gamer 1999), knowledge management (KM) aims to enable organizations to capture, organize, and access their intellectual assets. This paper proposes a prototype system that applies a knowledge management approach to support concept-based multimedia information retrieval by integrating various information analysis and image processing techniques. The proposed system uses geographical information as its testbed and aims to provide flexibility to users in terms of specifying their information needs and to facilitate parallel extraction ofinformation in different formats (i.e., text, image). Our testbed selection is based not only on the fact that geographical information has become an important resource supporting organization decision making, but also on the diversity of its information media and the fuzziness of geo-spatial queries. We hope that the proposed system will improve the accessibility of geographical information in different media and provide an example of integrating various information and multimedia techniques to support concept-based cross-media information retrieval.
    • Supporting first year e-learners in courses for the information professions

      Combes, Barbara; Anderson, Karen; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      A considerable amount of research has been done into studentsâ first year experiences at university: their transition from school to university studies and their social needs and experiences. The work described in the literature has concentrated on students who attend school on campus. If on-campus students are experiencing problems with feeling isolated, a lack of identity and feeling part of a community, then how do distance students deal with these same issues? A research project conducted at Edith Cowan University in 2004-2005 sought to discover the issues affecting first year students and the problems they experienced when beginning studies in online professional education programs for librarians, library technicians, teacher librarians, archivists and records managers. Many of these students in the School of Computer and Information Science (SCIS) study by distance education and are wholly dependent on elearning. There are others who attend on campus but undertake a significant proportion of their studies through elearning. Communication and IT skills and preparedness must be added to the list of major first year experience issues for this group. Two separate studies were initiated to find out how the online environment differs from the on-campus experience, how students feel about studying online and what needs to be included to facilitate a more supportive experience at university. The results of these two studies - First experiences of online university study and Using discussion forums to create an online learning community - are reported here.
    • Supporting Sense-making with Tools for Structuring a Concept Space: A Proposal for Design and Evaluation

      Zhang, Pengyi; Lussky, Joan (2007)
      This paper describes a research proposal to investigate sense-making processes in complex situations with the assistance of information systems. It presents the design of a sense-making tool to be integrated with a news retrieval system. The proposed user study aims to understand how users use this tool to establish and organize their conceptual models of a network of concepts and relationships.
    • Survey forms and cover letters for Controlled Online Collections study for IMLS, Eschenfelder 2009

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2009)
      survey data collection forms, cover letters and reminder postcards
    • A Survey of Digital Library Aggregation Services

      Brogan, Martha L. (Digital Library Federation, 2003)
      This report, commissioned by DLF, provides an overview of a diverse set of more than thirty digital library aggregation services, organizes them into functional clusters, and then evaluates them more fully from the perspective of an informed user. Most of the services under review rely wholly or partially on the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI-PMH). Each service is annotated with its organizational affiliation, subject coverage, function, audience, status, and size. Critical issues surrounding each of these elements are presented in order to provide the reader with an appreciation of the nuances inherent in seemingly straightforward factual information, such as "audience" or "size." Each service is then grouped into one of five functional clusters: open access e-print archives and servers; cross-archive search services and aggregators; from digital collections to digital library environments; from peer-reviewed "referratories" to portal services; specialized search engines. This publication was deposited with permission of the publisher (Digital Library Federation Council on Library and Information Resources Washington, DC.).
    • A survey of internationalization activities in Asia Pacific library and information science schools

      Higgins, Susan E.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This study replicated Leif Kajberg’s Survey of Internationalization Activities in European Library and Information Science Schools with regards to Library and Information Science Education in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Kajberg wrote that internationalization activities in European LIS Schools reflect different national traditions, institutional histories and missions. The purpose of this survey was to discover the different paths toward internationalisation that institutions of Higher Education have taken in LIS Schools in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand using the same types of variables which Kajberg used. Findings would assist in developing a theoretical understanding and a knowledge base regarding the forces of international co-operation relevant for higher education institutions at 70 universities concentrating on the LIS discipline. The following issues are examined: (1) Do international issues and priorities have a place on the educational and research agenda of the schools? (2) To what extent are international LIS issues reflected in the schools’ curricula? (3) What is the number of international-degree students enrolled? (4) Do schools have persons with an international background on their academic staff? (5) Are cross-country links developed with partner institutions abroad? These questions were considered representative of internationalization activities. As with Kajberg’s survey, the questionnaire designed for the study included a mix of close-ended questions (yesno model) and questions of the semi-open and open-ended type. The close-ended questions were formulated to elicit general information on LIS schools’ actual involvement in the various types of internationalisation processes and activities and gauge the level of cooperation. Permission to conduct the study was granted by the Institutional Review Board, Human Subjects Committee of the University of Southern Mississippi. Responses were held confidential.
    • A Survey of usability evaluation practices and requirements in the European IT industry

      Dillon, Andrew; Sweeney, Marian; Maguire, Martin; Alty, James L.; Guest, S.; Diaper, Dan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A., Sweeney, M. and Maguire, M. (1993) A survey of usability evaluation practices and requirements in the European IT industry. In. J. Alty, S. Guest and D. Diaper (eds.) HCI'93. People and Computers VII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Abstract: The present paper reports on a survey of current practices in usability engineering and requirements for support within European I.T. organisations. Responses were obtained from 84 individuals working in nine European countries. The data were analysed in terms of four themes: respondents' background, their interpretation and appreciation of the concept of usability, current practice with regard to usability evaluation, problems and requirements for support in conducting usability evaluation. Results suggest widespread awareness but only superficial application of Human Factors methods in Industry.
    • Survey on Faculty of Library and Information Science Education in Japan

      Tsuji, Keita; Yoshida, Yuko; Miwa, Makiko; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Muranushi, Tomohide; Shibata, Masami (2006)
      As a part of LIPER research, a questionnaire survey was performed on Library & Information Science instructors in Japanese universities. In quantitative terms, this research revealed the characteristics and teaching goals of LIS instructors, the similarities of librarian certification courses, and the overlap with instructors of those courses. Also, an analysis of freeform question responses about LIS education revealed the instructorâ s varied thoughts on LIS education and also revealed awareness of problems related to profession and curriculum issues and education goals.
    • Survey on faculty of library and information science education in Japan

      Tsuji, Keita; Yoshida, Yuko; Miwa, Makiko; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Muranushi, Tomohide; Shibata, Masami; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      As a part of LIPER research, a questionnaire survey was administered to Library & Information Science instructors in Japanese universities. In quantitative terms, this research revealed the characteristics and teaching goals of LIS instructors, the similarities of librarian certification courses, and the overlap with instructors of those courses. Also, an analysis of freeform question responses about LIS education revealed the instructorsâ varied thoughts on LIS education and also revealed awareness of problems related to profession and curriculum issues and education goals.
    • Synergies Sparked: A Research Agenda for Practicing Professionals

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram (2005-11)
      This is a presentation (of 50 slides) at the University of California, Irvine sponsored by the Libraries' Department of Education and Outreach and by the LAUC-I (Librarians Association of the University of California, Irvine) Professional Development Committee. The title is picking up on the 2005 ASIS&T Annual Conference theme of Sparking Synergies: Bringing Research and Practice Together. Coleman discusses her research agenda which spans both sides of the information coin - she tries to examine representations of information and information usage in a unified program of inquiry. The research goal is to expand and integrate knowledge about uses and users in the organization of digital information and libraries. Using selected projects over the last 5 years as examples, Coleman identifies some ways to design, conduct, and manage doable research projects while also meeting the day-to-day demands of being a practicing professional. The focus is on the development of a cohesive research agenda (sustainable information behaviors), one that exemplifies and synchronizes with the values and challenges of practice, besides improving the quality of LIS research. Organizers: Cathy Palmer, Collette C. Ford, and Carol A. Hughes.