• Tensions Between Language and Discourse in North American Knowledge Organization

      Campbell, D. Grant; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      This paper uses Paul Ricoeur's distinction between language and discourse to help define a North American research agenda in knowledge organization. Ricoeur's concept of discourse as a set of utterances, defined within multiple disciplines and domains, and reducible, not to the word but to the sentence, provides three useful tools for defining our research. First, it enables us to recognize the important contribution of numerous studies that focus on acts of organization, rather than on standards or tools of organization. Second, it gives us a harmonious paradigm that helps us reconcile the competing demands of interoperability, based on widely-used tools and techniques of library science, and domain integrity, based on user warrant and an understanding of local context. Finally, it resonates with the current economic, political and social climate in which our information systems work, particularly the competing calls for protectionism and globalization.
    • Testing a Cancer Meta Spider

      Chen, Hsinchun; Fan, Haiyan; Chau, Michael; Zeng, Daniel (Elsevier, 2003)
      As in many other applications, the rapid proliferation and unrestricted Web-based publishing of health-related content have made finding pertinent and useful healthcare information increasingly difficult. Although the development of healthcare information retrieval systems such as medical search engines and peer-reviewed medical Web directories has helped alleviate this information and cognitive overload problem, the effectiveness of these systems has been limited by low search precision, poor presentation of search results, and the required user search effort. To address these challenges, we have developed a domain-specific meta-search tool called Cancer Spider. By leveraging post-retrieval document clustering techniques, this system aids users in querying multiple medical data sources to gain an overview of the retrieved documents and locating answers of high quality to a wide spectrum of health questions. The system presents the retrieved documents to users in two different views: (1) Web pages organized by a list of key phrases, and (2) Web pages clustered into regions discussing different topics on a two-dimensional map (self-organizing map). In this paper, we present the major components of the Cancer Spider system and a user evaluation study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. Initial results comparing Cancer Spider with NLM Gateway, a premium medical search site, have shown that they achieved comparable performances measured by precision, recall, and F-measure. Cancer Spider required less user searching time, fewer documents that need to be browsed, and less user effort.
    • Testing Article Quality in LIS Journals: The Search Continues presented at the 68th IFLA Council and General Conference, August 18-24, 2002, Glasgow, UK

      Calvert, Philip J.; Gorman, G.E. (IFLA, 2002)
      This is a presentation of the IFLA Section on Library and Information Science Journals, which is organized to bring together library and information science specialists to promote high standards for professional journals by encouraging the free flow of information and the exchange of ideas among editors, publishers, librarians and readers of library journals. This is a report of a pilot study on quality in LIS journals.
    • "The IM Cometh: The Future of Chat Reference"

      Francoeur, Stephen; Baruch College (ACRL, 2008)
    • The Tenure Process in LIS: A Survey of LIS/IS Program Directors

      Higgins, Susan E.; Welsh, Teresa; University of Arizona School of Information Resources and Library Science; University of Southern Mississippi School of Library and Information Science (Association of Library and Information Science Education, 2009)
      This survey addressed the experience of receiving tenure through the personal narratives of Directors of Library and Information Science Schools in the USA. Fifty-five respondents were asked to rank the emphasis of the variables operating in tenure based on their experience. Participants agreed that the granting of autonomy via tenure was an opportunity to exercise academic freedom. With tenure came the responsibility to contribute as a citizen of both the institutional and disciplinary communities of the profession. The most prominent factor in determining tenure and promotion decisions for LIS faculty is demonstration of research productivity through peer reviewed publications: articles, books and conference proceedings. Teaching and service are also important components of academic life. It was found that collaboration underpinned collegiality and created an environment conducive to research. In turn, the stability and collegiality of a tenured position made the institution work as a teaching and learning environment.
    • Themes and citation order in free classification

      Gnoli, Claudio; University of Pavia. Science and Technology Library (2010-03)
      Free classification consists of combining notation for several concepts without specifying the relationships between them. Some properties of free classification are described and discussed. The citation order of concepts can either follow a conventional rule, or express the differential relevance of base theme, subordinate themes, and possibly rheme dealt with in the indexed knowledge source. Citing base theme first allows for a more helpful collocation of the record close to others having a similar base theme. Examples are illustrated from the Mathematics Subject Classification, the Knowledge Organization Literature Classification, and the Integrative Levels Classification. Finally, the problem of identifying themes of fictional works is briefly discussed.
    • Theoretical foundation of Knowledge Organization: â Positivismâ versus â pragmatismâ . Invited speech Sunday Oct 28, 2007 VIII ENANCIB in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

      Hjørland, Birger (2007-10)
      Consider the theoretical problems and developments in the field of Knowledge Organization. The dominant tendency within LIS has always been â positivistâ , understood as a tendency (or an ideal) to rely on observations and logic only, disregarding context, values, interests, historical development and socio-cultural issues. It is argued that the opposite view, pragmatism, provides a much more fruitful basis. The pragmatic theory of knowledge seeks the criteria for selecting and describing informative objects in the goals that they are intended to support. The widespread ideology of objectivity and neutrality and universal solutions may be counterproductive in developing our field.
    • Theory of knowledge organization and the feasibility of universal solutions. Presented at the Eighth International ISKO Conference, London, July 13-16, 2004.

      Hjørland, Birger (2004-07)
      Knowledge organization and concepts, knowledge organization as information policy, groupings as discoveries and constructions, semantics and its "warrant", structural linguistics, compositional semantics and semantic primitives, and universal solutions along with limitations are discussed in a series of 42 slides. "The most important conclusion, ... is that different "paradigms" or conceptualizations in the discourses should be made visible and semantic tools should support the navigation not just between "topics" but also between "views" and interests. If such information is made explicit it might improve the possibilities for internationalization because nobody's vital interests are then threatened." A reference list (of seven references) is included.
    • Thesauri on the Web: Current developments and trends

      Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Gorman, Gary (MCB University press, 2000-09)
      This article provides an overview of recent developments relating to the application of thesauri in information organisation and retrieval on the World Wide Web. It describes some recent thesaurus projects undertaken to facilitate resource description and discovery and access to wide-ranging information resources on the Internet. Types of thesauri available on the Web, thesauri integrated in databases and information retrieval systems, and multiple-thesaurus systems for cross-database searching are also discussed. Collective efforts and events in addressing the standardisation and novel applications of thesauri are briefly reviewed.
    • The Third MSSRF South - South Exchange Travelling Workshop: 15-22 October 2004 Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry, India

      Chapman, Robert; Arunachalam, Subbiah; Sharma, Geetha (2005-03)
      The M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) invited about 20 development workers - both from NGOs and from other agencies - to spend eight days, travelling from village to village, visiting knowledge centers and other development projects of MSSRF, meeting the volunteers and the local communities and learning from one another and sharing experiences. This report introduces the third workshop held in October 2004. It concentrates on MSSRF’s work and philosophy and emphasizes rightly that at MSSRF ICTs are not seen as a technical solution on their own but as enablers in a process of local prioritization and problem solving. It relates the success of the program to embedding ICTs in a holistic approach encompassing a diverse range of development initiatives.
    • TIME - A Multi-levelled framework for evaluating and designing digital libraries

      Dillon, Andrew (Springer, 1999)
      This is a preprint of a paper published (with a slighlty different title: TIME - A multi-level framework for the design and evaluation of digital libraries) in the International Journal of Digital Libraries 2(2/3), 170-177. Abstract: Digital libraries promise benefits for all stakeholders in the information usage community which almost certainly will be matched by commensurate shortcomings that are as yet unforeseen. Even though these are very early days for digital libraries, three decades of research on human-computer interaction in general, and the recent history of hypermedia research in particular, indicate that whatever else occurs, the usability of digital library applications will prove crucial to widespread acceptance. In the present paper an evaluation framework (termed TIME) is outlined. TIME offers designers and implementers of digital libraries a framework to address key human factors in a usercentered manner. Bridging all levels of human factors, from the ergomonic to the user goal, TIME is a socio-cognitive framework that highlights the interplay of multiple issues affecting user response to digital documents.
    • Timelines of Creativity: A Study of Intellectual Innovators in Information Science

      Cronin, Blaise; Meho, Lokman I. (2007)
      We explore the relationship between creativity and both chronological and professional age in information science using a novel bibliometric approach that allows us to capture the shape of a scholar's career. Our approach draws on Galenson's (2006) analyses of artistic creativity, notably his distinction between conceptual and experimental innovation, and also Lehman's (1953) seminal study of the relationship between stage of career and outstanding performance. The data presented here suggest that creativity is expressed in different ways, at different times and with different intensities in academic information science.
    • TIMS: A framework for the design of usable electronic text

      Dillon, Andrew; van Oostendorp, Herre; de Mul, Sjaak (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1996)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (1996) TIMS: A framework for the design of usable electronic text. In: H. van Oostendorp and S. de Mul (eds.) Cognitive Aspects of Electronic Text Processing. Norwood NJ: Ablex, 99-120. Introduction: Despite the claims and the promises, the hype and the visions, the reality of electronic text is far less impressive than the rhetoric that surrounds it. Internet, World Wide Webs, MOSAIC, e-journals, word processors, and of course, hypertext are all pushed forward as examples of this triumph of technology, this liberation of the human reader and writer, this future of unlimited information for everyone. Yet, for all this, as has been outlined in detail elsewhere (see e.g., Dillon 1994), the typical reader of an electronic information source will likely suffer loss of orientation, lower reading speeds, and possibly greater fatigue than the typical reader of a paper document for few demonstrable benefits.
    • Tool or Sign? Negotiated Learning and Socialization Process in the Students' Perceptions of Technology in the Digital Library Classroom

      Dalbello, Marija; Covi, Lisa; Rea, Zajda (James Nicholas Publishers, 2003)
      This study explores the learning process in a group, focusing on novice users of technology, by observing how they build frameworks for deep and strategic learning, the role of the communities of practice and the role of existing learning style as a context for learning. A group of LIS students in a digital library classroom was selected for the study. A pre- and post-test questionnaire and a recorded interview (where students described their experiences of achieving technological proficiency in the course) provided the data for the study. We observed that students provided narratives in which they negotiated the role of technology as tool for digital librarianship. The learning process involved interpretation and repositioning of the learning subjects. The loci of control provided the perceived membership in librarianship as a community of practice and their personal experience. The discourses created by the students emerged in relation to regulative contexts that they perceived from their position, notably the expectations of the marketplace and the profession. The personal experience involved the language of the learning contexts (music, art) that students were familiar with.
    • Toolbox: IRLS 401/501, Knowledge Structures

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram (2001)
      This lists references and resources (mostly on the Internet) that are used in support of graduate instruction in the area of Organization of Information.
    • @toread and Cool: Tagging for Time, Task and Emotion

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2006)
      Social Classification or tagging is increasingly a subject of interest in library and information science (and related fields) as social bookmarking tools such as del.icio.us have become increasingly popular. Simple visualisations such as sorting tags by frequency or displaying tag clouds in which tag size denotes popularity suggest that tagging systems form interesting new taxonomies or folksonomies of related terms. This study examines these tagging systems seeking elements of convergence and divergence with traditional cataloguing and classification theory and practice. This study examines the use of unusual tags which do not fit the mould of traditional cataloguing and classification, namely, that they are not subject related. These tags include two major categories: affective (emotional) tags, time and task related tags. Examples of affective tags include interesting, fun and cool. Examples of time and task related tags include @toread, todo, and tobuy. Data has been collected from del.icio.us, citeulike and connotea via python scripts designed to gather information on specific tags or URLs. The data used for this study is part of a larger study by Kipp and Campbell (2006) examining patterns in tagging. Analysis of this data showed approximately 16% of tags were time and task related. Time and task or affective tags were located in multidimensional scaling graphs of cotag (coword) data. (Kipp and Campbell 2006) Many users of del.icio.us, citeulike and connotea appear to want to store more than just the subject of the documents they are bookmarking. Tags such as @toread, tobuy, todo, fun and cool suggest that users see their relationship to these documents in different ways. While the latter tags express an emotional connection to the document, the former show evidence of a desire to attach personal information management information to documents. This desire to combine personal information management and document classification echoes findings in document use research at Xerox in which users categorised items in order to better understand their relationship to other items and to tasks the users wished to perform. (Sellen and Harper 2002) A large part of library science research is involved in the examination of how users seek and use information. Another important aspect of this is how they relate to information. (Bates 1998, 1048) Findings from this study suggest that users relate information to time related tasks, activities and their own emotional reactions. This poster was presented at 17th Annual SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop part of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST), November 4, 2006, Austin, Texas
    • @toread and Cool: Tagging for Time, Task and Emotion

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2007)
      This paper examines the use of non subject related tags in three social bookmarking tools (Del.icio.us, Connotea and Citeulike). Previous studies of Del.icio.us and Citeulike determined that many common tags are not directly subject related but are in fact affective tags dwelling on a user's emotional response to a document or are time and task related tags related to a users current projects or activities. A set of non subject tags from the previous studies was used to collect posts with non subject tags from the three listed social bookmarking tools. These tags have been analysed to examine their role in the tagging process.
    • Toward an Epistemology of Intellectual Property

      Fallis, Don (McFarland, 2007)
      An important issue for information ethics is how much control people should have over the dissemination of information that they have created. Since intellectual property policies have an impact on our welfare primarily because they have a huge impact on our ability to acquire knowledge, there is an important role for epistemology in resolving this issue. This paper discusses the various ways in which intellectual property policies can impact knowledge acquisition both positively and negatively. In particular, it looks at how intellectual property policies can affect the amount of information that people create, the quality of that information, the accessibility of that information, the diversity of that information, and the locatability of that information.
    • Toward an Epistemology of Wikipedia

      Fallis, Don (Wiley Periodicals, 2008)
      Wikipedia (the â free online encyclopedia that anyone can editâ ) is having a huge impact on how a great many people gather information about the world. So, it is important for epistemologists and information scientists to ask whether or not people are likely to acquire knowledge as a result of having access to this information source. In other words, is Wikipedia having good epistemic consequences? After surveying the various concerns that have been raised about the reliability of Wikipedia, this paper argues that the epistemic consequences of people using Wikipedia as a source of information are likely to be quite good. According to several empirical studies, the reliability of Wikipedia compares favorably to the reliability of traditional encyclopedias. Furthermore, the reliability of Wikipedia compares even more favorably to the reliability of those information sources that people would be likely to use if Wikipedia did not exist (viz., websites that are as freely and easily accessible as Wikipedia). In addition, Wikipedia has a number of other epistemic virtues (e.g., power, speed, and fecundity) that arguably outweigh any deficiency in terms of reliability. Even so, epistemologists and information scientists should certainly be trying to identify changes (or alternatives) to Wikipedia that will bring about even better epistemic consequences. This paper suggests that, in order to improve Wikipedia, we need to clarify what our epistemic values are and we need a better understanding of why Wikipedia works as well as it does.
    • Toward Intelligent Meeting Agents

      Chen, Hsinchun; Houston, Andrea L.; Yen, Jerome; Nunamaker, Jay F. (IEEE, 1996-08)
      An experiment with an AI-based software agent shows that it can help users organize and consolidate ideas from electronic brainstorming. The agent recalled concepts as effectively as experienced human meeting facilitators and in a fifth of the time.