• Toward Understanding Sustainability and Usability of Email Communication in the Age of Spam

      Lueg, Christopher; Huang, Jeff; Twidale, Michael (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006" Physically dispersed people (re)find themselves online for the sake of sustaining and extending community, and email is one of their most important online communication means. In the U.S., for example, almost all Internet users use email which seems to be rapidly becoming more used than the telephone (Haythornthwaite and Wellman 2002, p. 6). According to Clarke (2004) it was estimated in 2003 that 75 per cent of Australians 16 years and over had Internet access and the dominant services used were email and the web (other services like IRC catching up). Sustainability and usability of the email system are under pressure though. It is well documented that a large proportion of email is now "spam" which is a colloquial substitute for the cumbersome but precise technical expression "unsolicited commercial email" or UCE. Economical studies of the spam phenomenon suggest that the spam load has become a major financial issue costing the community billions of dollars per annum (e.g., Ferris Research 2002) as a large percentage of email traffic is now made up by spam messages. In January 2006, the global ratio of spam in email traffic was 66.6 per cent (MessageLabs 2006); AOL has reported up to 80%. From the user's point of view, spam clogs email inboxes making it costly to retrieve email and to find genuine emails. Some people also stop using email because of the often offensive content of spam messages. Fallows (2004) reports that 29% of Internet users participating in two nationwide (U.S.A.) studies stated that they use email less because of spam, 63% of email users say spam has made them less trusting of email in general, and 77% of email users say spam has made being online unpleasant or annoying. In order to protect email users from receiving spam, anti-spam measures, such as email filters and server block lists, have been deployed widely. We are particularly interested in understanding how now widely deployed spam filters affect email communication. There is some, often anecdotal, evidence that anti-spam measures may be a double-edged sword but as yet there is little to be found in the mostly technology-oriented spam filtering literature often focusing on the performance of (most likely perfectly adjusted) spam filters. Spam filters installed on people's computers at home however may not always be as up-to-date. Professional message filtering services also report fabulously low false-positives rates (i.e., genuine email classified as spam). MessageLabs (2003), for example, state their technology achieves 96.4% effectiveness and 0.04% false positives.A finding reported by Fallows (2003) however is that 30% of Internet users participating in her studies stated that they are concerned that their filtering devices may block incoming email and 23% of email users said they are concerned that their emails to others may be blocked by filtering devices. Fallowsâ study did not analyze in detail though if the concerns voiced were based on actual false-positive experiences with email services or if concerns were unspecific. Our early analyses persuaded us that there may indeed be a problem. Our ongoing analysis is somewhat more equivocal. There is some evidence that email users may be caught in the crossfire but what exactly causes the 'collateral damage'? Is it filtering technology that does not work as precisely as expected once deployed in situ? Is is a question of inappropriate email interfaces? (e.g., Lueg and Twidale 2005) Is it that reliable email has become a function of economic development as suggested by global email players AOL and Yahoo introducing ways for business to have their email bypass AOL and Yahoo customers' email filters by paying certain fees (Colquhoun 2006)? Or is it perhaps something that might be called 'digital redlining' as certain filtering and blocking policies may have an effect is similar to redlining practices of U.S. banks discriminating against African Americans living in poor areas of cities (and so contributing to the rising problems of those areas)? After all, hosted spam-filtering service SpamStopsHere states on their web site "[...[] blocking email from countries notorious for sending spam is an effective filtering method. Which countries to block, if any, is a business decision. Click here for a discussion of why China, Taiwan and South Korea should be blocked." At this stage we are not sure if digital redlining was ever a major problem, if it once was, but is diminishing, or if it is transforming into new kinds of inequity as the nature of the measures and countermeasures of the concerned parties continues. The military metaphor of innocent and often disempowered third parties caught in a battleâ s crossfire remains potent, even if in this case it turns out to be a threat to be avoided or minimized rather than proving to be a current crisis to be addressed. Our aim is to encourage discussion of the implications for equity of measures that may otherwise be adopted exclusively for reasons of economic expediency or in reaction to a widely accepted threat. As with so many policy decisions, agreement on the importance of addressing that threat does not mean agreement on the measures taken. The unintended negative consequences of these measures on the rich lead to remarkably rapid corrections. The unintended negative consequences on the poor and those lacking influence must also be considered. We would like to use the symposium for sharing experiences regarding some of the difficulties we are facing as researchers.
    • Towards a classification of text types: a repertory grid approach

      Dillon, Andrew; McKnight, Cliff (Elsevier, 1990)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. and McKnight, C. (1990) Towards a classification of text types: a repertory grid approach. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 33, 623-636. Abstract: The advent of hypertext brings with it associated problems of how best to present non-linear texts. As yet, knowledge of readers' models of texts and their uses is limited. Repertory grid analysis offers an insightful method of examining these issues and gaining an understanding of the type of texts that exist in the readers' worlds. The present study investigates six researchers' perceptions of texts in terms of their use, content and structure. Results indicate that individuals construe texts in terms of three broad attributes: why read them, what type of information they contain, and how they are read. When applied to a variety of texts these attributes facilitate a classificatory system incorporating both individual and task differences and provide guidance on how their electronic versions could be designed.
    • Towards a Continuum of Scholarship: The Eventual Collapse of the Distinction Between Grey and non-Grey Literature

      Banks, Marcus A.; Farace, Dominic (2005)
      This paper argues that the distinction between grey and non-grey (or white) literature will become less relevant over time, as online discovery options proliferate. In the meantime, the political success of the open access publishing movement has valuable lessons for proponents of increasing access to grey literature.
    • Towards a Continuum of Scholarship: The Eventual Collapse of the Distinction Between Grey and non-Grey Literature

      Banks, Marcus A.; Farace, Dominic (2005-12)
      This is a presentation of 12 slides at GL7: Seventh International Conference on Grey Literature, Nancy, France. The presentation argues that distinction between grey and non-grey (or white) literature will become less relevant over time, as online discovery options proliferate. In the meantime, the political success of the open access publishing movement has valuable lessons for proponents of increasing access to grey literature.
    • Towards a Digital Library of Historical Newspapers

      Allen, Robert (2005-11)
      This is a presentation of 8 slides at the ASIST 2005 Annual Meeting in the session on Progress in the Design and Evaluation of Digital Libraries.
    • Towards integrating research on retrieval- and communication-oriented studies in library and information science

      Lin, Sung-Chien; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      In this paper, an idea for integrating research in information retrieval and scientific communication in LIS is proposed. This idea is based on the generation and use of subject maps for documents in a specific domain. A subject map, as defined in this paper, is a kind of representation of the important subjects in the target domain and their mutual conceptual relationships, on a two-dimensional graph. The map can be used in many applications in information retrieval and scientific communication. For example, it can be used as an interface in information retrieval systems, to display terms and their relationships in thesauri, and as a tool to explore research and developments of a scientific discipline. The method to generate subject maps is also described. The method comprises four processes: document preparation, information extraction, map generation, and information visualization. All these processes are based on concepts and technologies from both the domains of information retrieval and scientific communication.
    • Towards the â webificationâ of controlled subject vocabulary: A case study involving the Dewey Decimal Classification

      Panzer, Michael (2007-09)
      The presentation will briefly introduce a series of major principles for bringing subject terminology to the network level. A closer look at one KOS in particular, the Dewey Decimal Classification, should help to gain more insight into the perceived difficulties and potential benefits of building taxonomy services out and on top of classic large-scale vocabularies or taxonomies.
    • Towards the design of a full text, searchable database: implications from a study of journal usage

      Dillon, Andrew; Richardson, John; McKnight, Cliff (1988)
      Editor's note: This is a preprint of the paper "Towards the design of a full text, searchable database: implications from a study of journal usage" published in the British Journal of Academic Librarianship. The preprint title is slightly different. Abstract: The present paper reports on a study of journal usage amongst professional researchers. The aim of the study was to shed light on how journals are used with a view to making recommendations about the development of a full-text, searchable database that would support such usage. The results indicate that levels of usage vary over time, the range of journals covered is small and readers overlook a large proportion of the contents of articles. Furthermore, three reading strategies are observed which indicate that the structure of journal articles is not ideally suited to their uses. The implications of these findings for developing suitable computer-based applications are discussed.
    • The Transformation Of University-industry-government Relations

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Etzkowitz, Henry (2001)
      A transformation in the functions of university, industry, and government, the â triple helix,â is taking place as each institution can increasingly assume the role of the other. The Triple Helix thesis states that the knowledge infrastructure can be explained in terms of these changing relationships. Arrangements and networks among the three institutional spheres provide input and sustainance to science-based innovation processes. In this new configuration, academia can play a role as a source of firm-formation, technological, and regional development, in addition to its traditional role as a provider of trained persons and basic knowledge.
    • Transforming Access to Government Information

      Gray, James N.; Hillis, W. Daniel; Kahn, Robert E.; Kennedy, Ken; Miller, John P.; Nagel, David C.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Smarr, Larry; Thompson, Joe F.; Vadasz, Leslie; et al. (2000-09)
      In Transforming Health Care Through Information Technology the PITAC offers six key recommendations that could significantly expand access to health care, improve its quality, reduce its costs, and transform the conduct of biomedical research. The PITAC sees these recommendations as critical steps toward addressing the challenges that exist to improving Americans' health and health care: *Establish pilot projects and Enabling Technology Centers to extend the practical uses of information technology to health care systems and biomedical research; *NIH, in close collaboration with NSF, DARPA, and DOE, should design and deploy a scalable national computing and information infrastructure to support the biomedical research community; *Congress should enhance existing privacy rules by enacting legislation that assures sound practices for managing personally identifiable health information; Establish programs to increase the pool of biomedical research and health care professionals with training at the intersection of health and information technology; *DHHS should outline its vision for using IT to improve health care and subsequently devote the resources to conduct the IT research critical to accomplishing these goals in the long term; and *DHHS should appoint a senior information technology leader to provide strategic leadership across DHHS and focus on the importance of information technology in addressing pressing problems in health care
    • Transforming Health Care Through Information Technology

      Gray, James N.; Hillis, W. Daniel; Kahn, Robert E.; Kennedy, Ken; Miller, John P.; Nagel, David C.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Smarr, Larry; Thompson, Joe F.; Vadasz, Leslie; et al. (2001-02)
      In Transforming Health Care Through Information Technology the PITAC offers six key recommendations that could significantly expand access to health care, improve its quality, reduce its costs, and transform the conduct of biomedical research. The PITAC sees these recommendations as critical steps toward addressing the challenges that exist to improving Americans' health and health care: *Establish pilot projects and Enabling Technology Centers to extend the practical uses of information technology to health care systems and biomedical research; *NIH, in close collaboration with NSF, DARPA, and DOE, should design and deploy a scalable national computing and information infrastructure to support the biomedical research community; *Congress should enhance existing privacy rules by enacting legislation that assures sound practices for managing personally identifiable health information; Establish programs to increase the pool of biomedical research and health care professionals with training at the intersection of health and information technology; *DHHS should outline its vision for using IT to improve health care and subsequently devote the resources to conduct the IT research critical to accomplishing these goals in the long term; and *DHHS should appoint a senior information technology leader to provide strategic leadership across DHHS and focus on the importance of information technology in addressing pressing problems in health care
    • Treatment of Georeferencing in Knowledge Organization Systems: North American Contributions to Integrated Georeferencing

      Buchel, Olha; Hill, Linda L.; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      Recent research projects in North America that have advanced the integration of formal mathematical georeferencing and informal placename georeferencing in knowledge organization systems are described and related to visualization applications.
    • Trends and issues of LIS education in Asia

      Miwa, Makiko; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper highlights major trends and issues of LIS education in Asian countries, based on content analysis of a series of international workshops held in Tokyo as a part of the LIPER (Library and Information Professions and Education Renewal) Project. We invited speakers from China, Korea, Sin-gapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, in order to improve our understanding of recent trends in LIS education in neighboring countries, anticipating that such understanding would be beneficial not only for the pos-sible reform of Japanese LIS education, but also for future collaboration in LIS education among Asian countries. Each invited speaker reported on his/her country in terms of the current situation in LIS edu-cation, qualification systems for librarianship, recent changes in curricula and job markets for certified librarians, and credit exchanges with nearby countries. Through content analysis of the presentations and discussion sessions, we identified the following common trends of LIS education in Asia: (1) elimination of the word â libraryâ from the names of LIS programs in order to attract students, (2) shift in the educa-tional level from undergraduate to graduate, (3) changes in core subject areas from an emphasis on man-ual-based collection development to ICT-based information/knowledge management, (4) depreciation of LIS education for school librarians (except in Thailand), (5) decreasing opportunities for new employ-ment in library markets due to over production of LIS graduates and economic recession, (6) low interest among well-educated graduates in seeking employment opportunities in the public library market, which is characterized as offering relatively low social status and wage levels compared to national and aca-demic libraries, (7) lack of understanding among employers to accept LIS graduates as capable knowl-edge workers, and (8) increase in the number of faculty with doctoral degrees, who prefer to teach cutting-edge courses rather than traditional library oriented courses.
    • Trends in integrated library systems

      Ebenezer, Catherine; Andrew, Cox (Emerald, 2003-03)
      The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the present state of development of integrated library systems (ILS) at the time of writing and to identify, describe and evaluate significant trends in the industry in relation to their context within the overall development of library services.
    • Trends in Internet Information Behavior, 2000-2004

      Buente, Wayne; Robbin, Alice (2008)
      By 2000, the Internet became an information and communication medium that was integrated in our everyday lives. Following an interdisciplinary approach, the research reported in this article analyzes the wide variety of information that people seek on the Internet and investigates trends in Internet information activities between 2000 and 2004, using repeated cross-sectional data from the Pew Internet and American Life surveys to examine Internet activities that contribute to everyday life and their predictors. The objective is to deepen our understanding of Internet activities and everyday life and contribute to a growing body of research that utilizes large-scale empirical data on Internet use and everyday life. We ask: who is embedding the Internet into their everyday lives and what are the activities they pursue to facilitate everyday life? Findings demonstrate the differential returns for Internet use, particularly in key demographic categories. The study also contributes to emerging research on the digital divide, namely emphasis on the study of use rather than access to technology. Identifying trends in key Internet use dimensions enables policymakers to target populations who underutilize the potential of networked technologies.
    • Trends in Internet Information Behavior, 2000-2004

      Buente, Wayne; Robbin, Alice (2008-08)
      By 2000, the Internet became an information and communication medium that was integrated in our everyday lives. Following an interdisciplinary approach, the research reported in this article analyzes the wide variety of information that people seek on the Internet and investigates trends in Internet information activities between 2000 and 2004, using repeated cross-sectional data from the Pew Internet & American Life surveys to examine Internet activities that contribute to everyday life and their predictors. The objective is to deepen our understanding of Internet activities and everyday life and contribute to a growing body of research that utilizes large-scale empirical data on Internet use and everyday life. We ask: who is embedding the Internet into their everyday lives and what are the activities they pursue to facilitate everyday life? Findings demonstrate the differential returns for Internet use, particularly in key demographic categories. The study also contributes to emerging research on the digital divide, namely emphasis on the study of use rather than access to technology. Identifying trends in key Internet use dimensions enables policymakers to target populations who underutilize the potential of networked technologies.
    • Trends in LIS education in Australia

      Hallam, Gillian; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Recent reforms to the higher education sector are presenting challenges for academic staff and university administrators across Australia. Within this context, LIS education faces its own specific issues and challenges. This paper reviews the current trends in the LIS education, looking at student numbers, aca-demic staffing and curriculum issues. Education providers also need to consider the career-long learning needs of the profession. It is argued that LIS educators cannot work in isolation: the LIS profession as whole must work together collaboratively to ensure it has a bright and relevant future.
    • Trends of LIS education in China [in Chinese, with English translation]

      Wang, Yuguang; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper summarizes the Education of Library and Information Science in China Nowadays in such aspects as general status, main courses, main research directions, and the problems in it, and put forward some personal opinions on the development of Education of Library and Information Science in China.
    • Triple Helix indicators of knowledge-based innovation systems, Research Policy (forthcoming)

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Meyer, Martin (2006)
      When two selection environments operate upon each other, mutual shaping in a co-evolution along a particular trajectory is one possible outcome. When three selection environments are involved, more complex dynamics can be expected as a result of interactions involving bi-lateral and tri-lateral relations. Three selection environments are specified in the Triple Helix model: (1) wealth generation (industry), (2) novelty production (academia), and (3) public control (government). Furthermore, this model somewhat reduces the complexity by using university-industry-government relations for the specification of the historical conditions of the non-linear dynamics. Whereas the historical analysis informs us about how institutions and institutional arrangements carry certain functions, the evolutionary analysis focuses on the functions of selection environments in terms of outputs. One can no longer expect a one-to-one correspondence between institutions and functions; a statistics is needed for the evaluation of how, for how long, and to what extent institutional arrangements enhance synergies among different selection environments. The empirical contributions to this Triple Helix issue point in the direction of â rich ecologiesâ : the construction of careful balances between differentiation and integration among the three functions.
    • Triple Helix indicators of knowledge-based innovation systems: Introduction to the special issue

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Meyer, Martin (2006-07)
      When two selection environments operate upon each other, mutual shaping in a co-evolution along a particular trajectory is one possible outcome. When three selection environments are involved, more complex dynamics can be expected as a result of interactions involving bi-lateral and tri-lateral relations. Three selection environments are specified in the Triple Helix model: (1) wealth generation (industry), (2) novelty production (academia), and (3) public control (government). Furthermore, this model somewhat reduces the complexity by using university-industry-government relations for the specification of the historical conditions of the non-linear dynamics. Whereas the historical analysis informs us about how institutions and institutional arrangements carry certain functions, the evolutionary analysis focuses on the functions of selection environments in terms of outputs. One can no longer expect a one-to-one correspondence between institutions and functions; a statistics is needed for the evaluation of how, for how long, and to what extent institutional arrangements enhance synergies among different selection environments. The empirical contributions to this Triple Helix issue point in the direction of â rich ecologiesâ : the construction of careful balances between differentiation and integration among the three functions.