• Web Searching, Search Engines and Information Retrieval

      Lewandowski, Dirk (ISO Press, 2005)
      This article discusses Web search engines; mainly the challenges in indexing the World Wide Web, the user behaviour, and the ranking factors used by these engines. Ranking factors are divided into query-dependent and query-independent factors, the latter of which have become more and more important within recent years. The possibilities of these factors are limited, mainly of those that are based on the widely used link popularity measures. The article concludes with an overview of factors that should be considered to determine the quality of Web search engines.
    • Web-based Digital Resources for Small Animal Medicine Professionals

      Rathinasabapathy, G; Rajendran, L; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (e-Science World, 2009)
      The Internet which is also known as ‘Information Superhighway’, ‘Global Information Infrastructure’, ‘Cyberspace’, ‘Hyperspace’ etc., connects millions of computers in a web and makes almost immediate communication possible, irrespective of the location of its users. The Internet provides huge resources that are useful for veterinary and animal science professionals and the amount of accessible veterinary medicine information is increasing rapidly. Ideally, this could provide a formidable opportunity for Veterinarians to exchange and process veterinary medicine information with colleagues around the world from their desktop. Though the Internet offers virtually unlimited amount of information related to small animal medicine and surgery and provides a number of tools to access, it is useful in at least three aspects related to veterinary medicine and surgery viz., communication, education and research. This paper attempts to profile such important digital knowledge resources useful for small animal veterinary medicine professionals.
    • WebJunction: An Online Center for Learning and Training

      Kellison, Elizabeth (2005-01)
      This is a presentation in Session 7.1 on Friday, January 14, at the ALISE 2005 Conference. It is about WebJunction, "an online community where library staff meet to share ideas, solve problems, take online courses - and have fun." http://webjunction.org/
    • Weblog publishing behaviour of librarianship and information science students: a case study

      Tramullas, Jesus; Garrido, Piedad; University of Zaragoza (2011-03)
      Introduction. The ‘blogosphere’ is a space with digital information in which social networks form that offer countless application possibilities. In this technology-mediated context, it is feasible to study the performance and approaches of production, diffusion, relationship and use of information from different perspectives.. Method. Quantitative data were obtained through the regular examination of the blogs maintained by students and qualitative data were obtained from reports by the students and self-assessment questionnaires. Analysis. Simple counts of quantitative data were obtained, without further statistical analysis. The qualitative data were reviewed for insights into the motivations of students. Results. Given a free choice, most students adopted the Blogger platform for their blogs. Most blogs consisted of content reported from elsewhere and were not continued by the students following the end of the exercise. Conclusions. Students adopted an instrumental approach to the exercise, doing enough to complete the course requirements but not being sufficiently engaged to continue their blogs. Preliminary work based on basic competences is necessary in both collaboration processes and Web 2.0 technology to obtain satisfactory results in the use of Weblogs as teaching and learning tools.
    • Weblogs Content Classification Tools: performance evaluation

      Tramullas, Jesús; Garrido, Piedad (2006)
      Nowadays, weblogs or blogs are important tools for personal or workgroup websites publication. These tools give the necessary performances to create, edit, evaluate, publish and file digital contents, in the framework of a standarized workflow, and for managing the digital information life cycle. Nevertheless, these tools must be complemented with existence of technical funcionalities necessary to get a correct implantation and use. The aim of the work is to assess the way in which weblogs implement the technical solutions necessary to utilize correctly classification tools. The evaluation took into account let to extract a collection of conclusions of great interest to analize the state of art of the content classification tools integration and the weblogs management systems. As a general conclusion, it can be assured that the current generation of weblogs management systems do not offer all the desired performances for the classical classification tools, offering also a very heterogeneous scene.
    • What a Subject Search Interface Can Do

      Schallier, Wouter; McIlwaine, I.C. (UDC Consortium The Hague, 2004-12)
      K.U.Leuven University Library (Belgium) developed an experimental interface for subject search by UDC in the OPAC. The interface combines the search facilities of a classification with those of a word system, since it enables the end user to search by subject terms and to see these terms in the hierarchy of broader, parallel and more specific terms. This project should be seen as an important indication of the libraryâ s growing concern to present its information sources in a content-structured and user-friendly way. At the same time, it has to be situated in a new policy for knowledge organization, which aims to find a balance between the local and overall needs of a library network. Finally, this project comes at a moment when K.U.Leuven University Library is in full conversion to Aleph 500 software.
    • What can ICTs do? Perpsectives from the developing world

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Kerner, Max; Muller, Thomas (Bohlau-Verlag, Koln, 2006)
      This chapter is from an invited presentation (15 pages long) given at the Aachen Colloquium on Click - A Split World, November 2004. It has appeared in the book [Gespaltene Welt? Technikzugange in der Wissensgesellschaft, edited by Max Kerner and Thomas Muller, and published by Bohlau Verlag, Koln, 2006] and is the author's final version. Introduction: I am asked to reflect on social and cultural consequences of technical development and try to answer a few questions: â ¢ In what different kind of ways access to knowledge is modified in an information technology-based society that is dominated by technical resources? â ¢ Does global exchange of information enable ubiquitous access to knowledge? â ¢ By which means do information technologies contribute to the solution or intensify global and local problems? â ¢ Which requirements arise from this problem for an IT-based society? I shall try to answer these questions from the point of view of a Third Worlder. Most other speakers at this colloquium are thinkers and experts known for their scholarship and academic achievements. I do not belong to the same league. I am not saying this out of humility; I am making a statement of fact. Then why am I here? Because I have felt the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the developing world and I have been working for many years to overcome the 1 deleterious consequences of ICTs in the context of the poor and the marginalized. I wish to share with you what I have learnt through working in the field. I am coming from India where we had a major election a few months ago. We are happy about the election for two reasons. One, contrary to what is happening in many parts of the developing world, democracy in India is vibrant and we have been holding free and fair elections consistently for more than 50 years. Two, despite outstanding achievements in the areas of high technology in general and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in particular, the ruling governments in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh belonging to two different parties have failed to return to power, largely because the rural poor voted against them. Thanks to rapid developments in indigenous capabilities combined with favorable policies by the governments in these two southern states of India, a number of IT industries and research laboratories â both Indian and multinational â sprung up, mainly in the capital cities Bangalore (referred to as the Silicon Valley of the East) and Hyderabad (half jocularly called Cyberabad). But these developments did not have a perceptible impact on the rural poor, who felt that they were neglected. What can information and communication technologies (ICTs) do to help the poor? Can they do anything at all? That is a question that dominates the development discourse. If poverty has been so persistent that we could not eliminate it with all our efforts till now, how can the use of ICTs make a difference? Poverty is much more than absence of money. Often generations in poverty lead people to a sense of utter hopelessness and deprive them of their sense of self-respect and dignity. They are deprived of access to essential assets and opportunities such as education, healthcare, employment, land and other natural resources, services, infrastructure and credit. They have little say in their polity and society. They are not empowered to participate in making the decisions that shape their lives. They become increasingly marginalized, excluded and vulnerable to exploitation. This exploitation manifests in several forms such as bonded labour, child labour, inadequate compensation for work if and when they get work, ill treatment and deprivation of basic rights. It will be naïve to believe that we can solve the problem of poverty by providing access to computers and telecommunication to the poor of the world.1 We have always lived in an unequal world, but now the gap between information â havesâ and â have-notsâ is widening fast. As Kofi Annan2 has noted, â there is a real danger that the worldâ s poor will be excluded from the emerging knowledge-based 2 global economy.â Virtually every new technology tends to exacerbate the inequalities that separate the rich from the poor. The last few years have seen many initiatives that deploy ICTs in rural communities in many developing countries. Many world leaders have spoken in glorious terms about the tremendous potential of these new technologies in transforming the lives of the poor. â Technology doesnâ t come after you deal with poverty, but is a tool you use to alleviate poverty,â says James D Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank. Says Mark Malloch Brown, Head of UNDP, â ICTs can help us reach the Millennium Development Goals including the goal of halving poverty by 2015.â It is mastery over technology that enabled the early adopters of industrial revolution technologies to colonize and exploit the rest of the world. If the developing countries fail to take advantage of the new ICTs, the consequences could be far more serious. If we want technology to work for the poor we must make special efforts. In this talk I will describe from my own personal experience two widely different programmes where we are attempting to bridge the gulf that divides the rich from the poor through innovative use of information and communication technologies. In the first part of my talk we will look at how we at the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) are trying to harness ICTs as part of a holistic strategy for alleviating poverty in rural India. I will show why the emphasis should be on people and the public commons approach rather than on technology. In the second part, we will look at how the advent of new technologies has opened up the possibility for making knowledge distribution in science and scholarship a level-playing field. Here again the public commons approach is the key to success.
    • What Can Searching Behavior Tell Us About the Difficulty of Information Tasks? A Study of Web Navigation

      Gwizdka, Jacek; Spence, Ian (American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T), 2006)
      Task has been recognized as an influential factor in information seeking behavior. An increasing number of studies are concentrating on the specific characteristics of the task as independent variables to explain associated information-seeking activities. This paper examines the relationships between operational measures of information search behavior, subjectively perceived post-task difficulty and objective task complexity in the context of factual information-seeking tasks on the web. A questiondriven, web-based information-finding study was conducted in a controlled experimental setting. The study participants performed nine search tasks of varying complexity. Subjective task difficulty was found to be correlated with many measures that characterize the searcherâ s activities. Four of those measures, the number of the unique web pages visited, the time spent on each page, the degree of deviation from the optimal path and the degree of the navigation pathâ s linearity, were found to be good predictors of subjective task difficulty. Objective task complexity was found to affect the relative importance of those predictors and to affect subjective assessment of task difficulty.
    • What Do Mathematicians Want? Probabilistic Proofs and the Epistemic Goals of Mathematicians

      Fallis, Don (National Centre for Logical Investigation (Belgium), 2002)
      Several philosophers have used the framework of means/ends reasoning to explain the methodological choices made by scientists and mathematicians (see, e.g., Goldman 1999, Levi 1962, Maddy 1997). In particular, they have tried to identify the epistemic objectives of scientists and mathematicians that will explain these choices. In this paper, the framework of means/ends reasoning is used to study an important methodological choice made by mathematicians. Namely, mathematicians will only use deductive proofs to establish the truth of mathematical claims. In this paper, I argue that none of the epistemic objectives of mathematicians that are currently on the table provide a satisfactory explanation of this rejection of probabilistic proofs.
    • What do they want? A study of changing employer expectations of information professionals

      Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia; Wilson, Concepción S.; Harvey, Ross (Australian Library and Information Association, 2006-03)
      This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study of position vacant announcements appropriate for library and information studies (LIS) graduates appearing in the Sydney Morning Herald over a four week period in each of the following years: 2004, 1994, 1984 and 1974. The period studied witnessed change-demanding developments in information technologies as well as changes in workplace conditions and client expectations. The study collected data on the demands of employers as expressed through job advertisements that included data on work status (full-time, part-time, contract, casual), qualifications and the experience required of the information professional at the selected timeslots. To investigate similarities and differences between periods a content analysis and co-word analysis of the job advertisements was undertaken. The ads indicated a movement from simple advertisements in 1974 inviting applications for reference or technical services librarians, to complex and specialised positions being advertised in 2004 where the most called for attributes were interpersonal skills and behavioural characteristics.
    • What Goes Around? Comes Around?

      Weingand, Darlene E. (Association of Library and Information Science Education, 1996)
      This article points out the importance of discussions about distance-learning quality, formats, and appropriate usage. It addresses some elementary issues, trying to bring up questions and to answer them. Particularly, this article talks how modern technologies play important roles in the design of distance education.
    • What is an Authorized Use? The Social Construction of Access and Use Rights Restrictions in Licensed Scholarly Digital Resources Protected by Technological Protection Measures

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the Social Realities of Information Systems" Preconference Symposium at ASIST 2006. This abstract describes an investigation of the changing access and use rights of licensed scholarly digital resources, particularly the rights associated with digital works protected by technological protection measures (TPM â also known as digital rights management systems or DRM)
    • What is Knowledge Organization (KO)?

      Hjørland, Birger; Smiraglia, Richard P. (ERGON-Verlag GmbH,, 2008-07)
      Knowledge Organization (KO) is about activities such as document description, indexing and classification performed in libraries, databases, archives etc. These activities are done by librarians, archivists, subject specialists as well as by computer algorithms. KO as a field of study is concerned with the nature and quality of such knowledge organizing processes (KOP) as well as the knowledge organizing systems (KOS) used to organize documents, document representations and concepts. There exist different historical and theoretical approaches to and theories about KO, which are related to different views of knowledge, cognition, language, and social organization. Each of these approaches tends to answer the question: â What is knowledge organization?â differently. LIS professionals have often concentrated on applying new technology and standards, and may not have seen their work as involving interpretation and analysis of meaning. That is why library classification has been criticized for a lack of substantive intellectual content. Traditional human-based activities are increasingly challenged by computer-based retrieval techniques. It is appropriate to investigate the relative contributions of different approaches; the current challenges make it imperative to reconsider this understanding. This paper offers an understanding of KO based on an explicit theory of knowledge.
    • What is Lying?

      Fallis, Don (2008)
      In order to lie, you have to say something that you believe to be false. But lying is not simply saying what you believe to be false. Philosophers have made several suggestions for what the additional condition might be. For example, it has been suggested that the liar has to intend to deceive (Augustine 395, Bok 1978, Mahon 2006), that she has to believe that she will deceive (Chisholm and Feehan 1977), or that she has to warrant the truth of what she says (Carson 2006). In this paper, I argue that none of the existing definitions of lying identify a necessary condition on lying. I claim that lying is saying what you believe to be false when you believe that the following norm of conversation is in effect: "Do not say what you believe to be false" (Grice 1989, 27). And I argue that this definition handles all of the counter-examples to the existing definitions.
    • What journals, if any, should still be printed.

      Goodman, David (2000)
      Although the widely appreciated advantages of electronic journals in the sciences would indicate that they should be the preferred form of publication, they still persist in print as well. This study examines the relative use of bound and unbound journals in an academic biol¬ogy library to elucidate whether the use patterns of journals can give criteria for what journals should still continue in both formats. The data suggest that only a very small number of the journals studied are appropriate for continued publication in both print and electronic formats; almost all would be more appropriate as electronic only. The current collection policy of the Princeton Biology Library is therefore to obtain all appropriate titles that do not have significant browsing use in electronic format only.
    • What Public Information Should Government Agencies Publish? A Comparison of Controversial Web-Based Government Information

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R.; Miller, Clark A. (2006)
      This paper develops a framework to assess the public information provided on program level government agency Websites. The framework incorporates three views of government information obligations stemming from different assumptions about citizen roles in a democracy: the private citizen view, the attentive citizen view, and the deliberative citizen view. The framework is employed to assess state Websites containing controversial policy information about chronic wasting disease, a disease effecting deer and elk in numerous U.S. states and Canada. Using the framework as a guide, the paper considers what information agencies should provide given the three different views of government information obligations. The paper then outlines the costs and benefits of fulfilling each view of government information obligations including issues of limited resources, perceived openness and credibility, press coverage, and policy making control.
    • What's in the NSDL Metadata Repository? The Technical, Cataloging, and Evaluations Challenges. EIESC (Educational Impact and Evaluation Standing Committee) SIG presentation at the 2004 NSDL All Projects Meeting, Chicago, Illinois

      Cassell, Boots; Jones, Casey; Recker, Mimi; Ridgway, Judy; Sumner, Tamara; Shreve, Gregory; Zeng, Marcia Lei; Subrahmanyam, Bhagirathi; Shin, Peter (2004-11)
      At the NSDL AM 2004, the SIG titled What's in the NSDL Metadata Repository? The Technical, Cataloging, and Evaluations Challenges at the NSDL All Projects Meeting brings together technical, cataloging, and evaluation experts to identify methods to determine the breadth and depth of the metadata repository. During this session we will develop a plan to characterize the contents of the NSDL Metadata Repository in terms of subject, audience, and type. Three position papers are presented as a prelude to the plan. They include: #1: Title: Report of the NSDL Evaluations Controlled Vocabulary Project Date: 10/1/2004 Committee Members Boots Cassel cassel@acm.org Casey Jones caseyj@ucar.edu Mimi Recker mimi.recker@usu.edu Judy Ridgway Jridgway@enc.org (Working Group Chair) Tammy Sumner sumner@Colorado.EDU # 2: Title: Metadata Elements in the NSDL Metadata Repository: Results of a Preliminary Quality Analysis: Subject, Type, Audience Authors: Gregory M. Shreve, Marcia Lei Zeng, Bhagirathi Subrahmanyam # 3: Title: Towards Making the NSDL Collection More Accessible Through a Testbed Author: Peter Shin, San Diego Supercomputer Center, UCSD
    • What's In, Who's Out: Issues in Capturing the History of a Technological Moment in History

      Peek, Robin P. (2007)
      This is a submission to the 3rd Annual Social Informatics SIG Research Symposium: The Social Web, Social Computing and the Social Analysis of Computing Without the Internet there would be no Open Access (OA) movement. The movement, like social networks, was born digital. But how do you capture the history of a movement that, like a document, was born digital? How successful are traditional methodologies in capturing OAâ s past? My goal in this short paper is to identify the issues that I have encountered in my own research in order to assist others who may be considering a similar inquiry.
    • When Do Researchers Collaborate: Toward a Model of Collaboration Propensity

      Birnholtz, Jeremy P. (2005)
      Geographically distributed and multidisciplinary collaborations have proven invaluable in answering a range of important scientific questions, such as understanding and controlling disease threats like SARS and AIDS or exploring the nature of matter in particle physics. Despite this, however, collaboration can often be problematic. There are institutional obstacles, collaboration tools may be poorly designed, and group coordination is difficult. To better design technologies to support research activities, we need an improved understanding of why scientists collaborate and how their collaborations work. To achieve this improved understanding, this study compares two theoretical approaches to collaboration propensityâ that is, the extent to which collaboration is perceived as useful by individual researchers. On one hand, cultural comparisons of disciplines suggest that collaboration propensity will be higher in disciplinary cultures that have a more collectivist orientation, as indicated by low levels of competition for individual recognition and few concerns about secrecy related to commercialization and intellectual property. In contrast, an approach based on social and organizational psychology suggests that collaboration propensity will vary as a function of resource concentration, fieldwide focus on a well-defined set of problems, and the need for and availability of help when difficult problems are encountered in day-to-day work. To explore this question, a mail survey of 900 academic researchers in three fields was conducted, along with 100 interviews with practicing researchers at 17 sites in the field. Results support a focus on work attributes in interpreting collaboration propensity. That is, cultural factors such as competition for individual recognition and concerns about intellectual property were not perceived as significant impediments to collaboration. Instead, characteristics like resource concentration and the need for coordination were more important in determining collaboration propensity. Implications of these findings include a call for more careful examination of the day-to-day work of scientists and engineers, and a suggestion that concerns about scientific competition impeding collaboration may be unwarranted.
    • When memory is turn into ashes: Memoricide during XX century

      Civallero, Edgardo; UDC Consortium (2007)
      A brief description of the main memoricides (destruction of libraries and memory) happened during the XX century.