• High energy physics R&D productivity of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre as reflected in the e-Print Archives holdings of SLAC

      Prakasan, E.R.; Tara Ashok, *; Lalit Mohan, *; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Rane, Madhuri; Nabar, Gita; Upadhye, R.P.; Mandal, Minati; Tiwari, Shalini; Gudekar, H.D.; et al. (2004-07)
      Contribution of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to the e-Print Archive services of Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) on Internet is the main focus of the study. E-Print Archives where BARC is at least one of the affiliation of authors are downloaded from the site â http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/hep/â (297 records as on November 2002) and analysed based on some bibliometric parameters. The study lead to some of the results like most productive high energy physicists, author collaboration pattern, institutional collaboration pattern both international and national, preference of publication types by HEP scientists, core journals in which scientists preferred to publish their articles, inclusion of the records in two well known databases INIS and INSPEC where high energy physics related publications are likely to occur, citations received in Science Citation Index (SCI) of ISI and the HEP database itself and key areas of research through keyword analysis. In addition to that highlight the e-print archive services are additional bibliographic sources for HEP scientists.
    • High-Performance Computing Needs of Digital Library Community: A Knowledge Management Perspective

      Chen, Hsinchun (1998-07)
      The Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Working Group, the highest level of the country's National Information Infrastructure (NII) technical committee, held an invited workshop in May 1995 to define a research agenda for digital libraries. The shared vision is an entire net of distributed repositories in which objects of any type and any size can be organized and searched within and across different indexed collections. The ultimate goal, as described in the IITA report, is the Grand Challenge of Digital Libraries: "deep semantic interoperability -- the ability of a user to access, consistently and coherently, similar (though autonomously defined and managed) classes of digital objects and services, distributed across heterogeneous repositories, with federating or mediating software compensating for site-by-site variations...Achieving this will require breakthroughs in description as well as retrieval, object interchange and object retrieval protocols. Issues here include the definition and use of metadata and its capture or computation from objects (both textual and multimedia), the use of computed descriptions of objects, federation and integration of heterogeneous repositories with disparate semantics, clustering and automatic hierarchical organization of information, and algorithms for automatic rating, ranking, and evaluation of information quality, genre, and other properties." "The use of computed descriptions of (multimedia) objects" and "clustering and automatic hierarchical organization of information" present pressing scientific and engineering problems that have a significant potential impact on the US society in this era of the Internet and distributed, multimedia computing.
    • High-speed Multiplier Design Using Multi-Operand Multipliers

      Nezhad, Mohammad Reza Reshadi; Navi, Kaivan; Department of Electrical and Computer engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Tehran 1983963113, Iran; Faculty of Department of Computer engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673440, Iran (IJCSN, 2012-04-01)
      Multiplication is one of the major bottlenecks in most digital computing and signal processing systems, which depends on the word size to be executed. This paper presents three deferent designs for three-operand 4-bit multiplier for positive integer multiplication, and compares them in regard to timing, dynamic power, and area with classical method of multiplication performed on today architects. The three-operand 4-bit multipliers structure introduced, serves as a building block for three-operand multipliers in general
    • Historical Census

      Dickstein, Ruth (1999)
      Instructional material on finding historical United States census information on the Web.
    • How Can Classificatory Structures Be Used to Improve Science Education?

      Buchel, Olha; Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Budd, John (2003-01)
      There is increasing evidence that libraries, traditional and digital, must support learning, especially the acquisition and enhancement of scientific reasoning skills. This paper discusses how classificatory structures, such as a faceted thesaurus, can be enhancedfor novice science learning. Physical geography is used as the domain discipline, and the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype project provides the test bed for instructional materials and user analyses. The use of concept maps and topic maps for developing digital learning spaces is briefly discussed.
    • How collaborative is collaborative writing? An Analysis of the production of two technical reports

      Dillon, Andrew; Sharples, Mike (London: Springer-Verlag, 1993)
      Published in: M.Sharples (Ed) Computer Supported Collaborative Writing. (London: Springer-Verlag) 1993. pp 69-86. INTRODUCTION: Psychologists have been taking an increasing interest in the writing process over the last decade and models of human cognition and task behaviour during writing are emerging (see e.g., Hayes and Flower 1980, Sharples et al 1989). Though we are far short of a complete model of this process several basic components have been identified and most theorists allude to these at some stage in their description. For example, it is reckoned (as much from common sense as experimental analysis) that most writing proceeds through a basic sequence of actions from a rough plan through a draft to a revision stage which may occur cyclically until the writer believes the document is ready. Plans can be considered as either detailed or vague, influenced by expectations of the readerâ s knowledge, the typical form of the document being produced and so forth. The drafts may vary from the extremely sketchy to the almost complete depending on the writerâ s experience, knowledge of the subject, preferred writing style etc. and revisions include such acts as minor spell checking, proofreading or complete re-writes.
    • How is knowledge about the consumer of information being applied in the design and delivery of information products and services?

      Hepworth, Mark; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This article looks at how the consumer of data, information and knowledge becomes increasingly important in relation to the design and development of electronic information products and services. In web based environment, where products are bought and sold, such services are increasingly being â tailoredâ to suit the individual and community they serve. However, current situation has meant that there is an increasing need to provide access to data, information and knowledge electronically. Reasons for this include the growing number of potential users who value and need information but cannot or may not want to be serviced face-to-face even when remote access to electronic resources has become prevalent. There is a need to create electronic environments that can relate to the complex cultural, sociological and psychological needs of the consumer. This paper provides an overview of current theories and knowledge about the information consumer. It is informed by the commoditization of information and communication tech-nologies (ICTs), products and services, the use and non-use of information in Library and In-formation Science (LIS) discipline, the need to create appropriate learning environments and lastly, the perception that all people should have equal access to such products and services and that society should be inclusive. Examples are also provided of how and where knowledge is applied, highlighting the importance of IB knowledge. The paper concludes that a deeper understanding is needs to be developed as current application of knowledge about the information consumer is rudimentary. There is a need to apply and test current knowledge.
    • How Much of It is Real? Analysis of Paid Placement in Web Search Engine Results

      Nicholson, Scott; Sierra, Tito; Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Park, Ji-Hong; Barkow, Philip; Pozo, Erika J.; Wan, Yunzhen "Jane" (2005)
      Most Web search tools integrate sponsored results with results from their internal editorial database in providing results to users. The goal of this research is to get a better idea of how much of the screen real estate displays â realâ editorial results as compared to sponsored results. The overall average results are that 40% of all results presented on the first screen are â realâ results, and when the entire first Web page is considered, 67% of the results are non-sponsored results. For general search tools like Google, 56% of the first screen and 82% of the first Web page contain non-sponsored results. Other results include that query structure makes a significant difference in the percentage of non-sponsored results returned by a search. Similarly, the topic of the query can also have a significant effect on the percentage of sponsored results displayed by most Web search tools.
    • How the Internet is Failing the Developing World

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (1999)
      One of the promises of the information revolution was that it would increase the opportunities for all people to share knowledge. But what if you don't happen to live in a developed country? Subbiah Arunachalam argues that the current lack of access to the internet for scientists in the developing world is creating a new form of poverty - information poverty - which is making it harder for them to stay abreast, let alone catch up with their colleagues in the developed world.
    • How to define a scientific term such as â A Workâ . Presentation given at American Society for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, November 12-17, 2004, Providence, Rhode Island, Sunday, November 14, 3:30-5pm Session: Interdisciplinary Concepts of the â Workâ Entity.

      Hjørland, Birger (2004-11)
      In this presentation I try to say something about how to define scientific terms in general as well as something about the specific term â a workâ . The way we define terms depends on our philosophical assumptions. I have illustrated differences between positivist and non-positivist ways of defining terms and advocated a pragmatic way of understanding terms, concepts and knowledge. I have also indicated that different subcultures within LIS tend to use different terms and concepts (such as "a work"), but have tried to demonstrate that we may gain a more coherent and satisfactory state of our field if we try to overcome the barriers between those subcultures.
    • How to survive during the transition: for publishers and librarians

      Goodman, David (2004)
      If we cannot get the system to work, the scientists will run it themselves
    • HOW TO THINK LIKE A KNOWLEDGE WORKER

      Sheridan, William Patterson (2008)
    • The Human factors of hypertext

      Dillon, Andrew (1990)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (1990) The human factors of hypertext. International Forum on Information and Documentation, 15(4), 32-38. Abstract: The present paper reviews the human factors issues pertinent to the design and use of hypertext documents. It is argued that many of the claims for the new medium are based largely on subjective impressions of its advocates rather than empirical demonstrations of its advantages. Hypertext applications are presented here as a structured subset of an information world that the user can access though an interface. Research relevant to all aspects of reading from screens is reviewed and conclusions for the development of more usable electronic documents are presented. Postscript: Many of the arguments expressed in this paper are dealt with in much more detail in the book Hypertext in Context, by C. McKnight, A. Dillon and J. Richardson. (1991) published by Cambridge University Press.
    • The human factors of journal usage and the design of electronic text

      Dillon, Andrew; Richardson, John; McKnight, Cliff (1989)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A., Richardson, J. and McKnight, C. (1989) The human factors of journal usage and the design of electronic text. Interacting with Computers, 1(2), 183- 189. Abstract: The present paper reports on a study of journal usage amongst human factors researchers. The aim of the study was to shed light on how journals are used with a view to making recommendations about the development of a full-text, searchable database that would support such usage. The results indicate that levels of usage vary over time, the range of journals covered is small and readers overlook a large proportion of the contents of articles. Furthermore, three reading strategies are observed which indicate that the presentation of journal articles is not ideally suited to their uses. The implications of these findings for developing suitable computer-based applications are discussed.
    • Hunting Trophies and IKEA Wallpaper: Reflecting on the Representation of the Scientific Object

      Gold / Smith, Susan; Lussky, Joan (2008)
      As a visual artist, I collect, organize, and re present and continually reflect on that process. The life and work of Swedish botanist Carl von Linné continues to be significant in understanding the cultural practices of classification and representation. Images gathered in the University of Uppsala, at Linné’s preserved home in Hammerby outside of Uppsala, Sweden and from Linné’s samples stored by the Royal Society in London continue to infuse my art work. It was Linné who developed the binomial system of classification which is the basis of modern scientific classification. It was Linné who strived for a systematic representation of the natural object. Information was not real or useful to science unless it took a quantified form. Naming. Measuring. Representing. I am drawn to the similarities and differences of artistic and scientific practice. My focus lies in the ironies of that comparison. Currently I work with the natural object as it is represented in scientific collections and public display. I am interested in the meaning of the representation. My presentation to the ASSI&T Workshop would take the form of a visual presentation of the natural object, beginning in the 18th century with Linné, followed by subsequent developments in the representation of nature. Examples of my art work would be used to consider that history.
    • A hybrid approach to fuzzy name search incorporating language-based and textbased principles

      Wu, Paul Horng Jyh; Na, Jin Cheon; Khoo, Christopher S.G. (SAGE Publications, 2007)
      Name Search is an important search function in various types of information retrieval systems, such as online library catalogs and electronic yellow pages. It is also difficult due to the high degree of fuzziness required in matching name variants. Previous approaches to name search systems use ad hoc combinations of search heuristics. This paper first discusses two approaches to name modelingâ the natural language processing (NLP) and the information retrieval (IR) modelsâ and proposes a hybrid approach. The approach demonstrates a critical combination of complementary NLP and IR features that produces more effective fuzzy name matching. Two principles, position-as-attribute and position-transitionlikelihood, are introduced as the principles for integrating the advantageous aspects of both approaches. They have been implemented in an NLP- and IR- hybrid model system called Friendly Name Search (FNS) for real world applications in multilingual directory searches on the Singapore Yellow pages website.
    • Hybrid approaches for measuring use, users, and usage behaviors: A paper submitted to the NSF NSDL Webmetrics Workshop, Costa Mesa, CA, Aug. 2-3, 2004.

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Budhu, Muniram (2004-07)
      This paper was submitted as part of the requirements and statement of interest for participation in the NSF funded NSDL Webmetrics Workshop in Aug. 2004. It documents GROW's experience with regards to development of webmetrics software and intention to include webmetrics strategies as a part of evaluation. GROWâ s evaluation strategy was articulated in conjunction with the library design and development framework (Budhu & Coleman, 2002). A digital library is a complex thing to evaluate and the â interactivesâ evaluation framework we proposed uses hybrid methods to study distinct layers and objects in the digital library (resource itself, the interface, the search engine, etc.) and understand users and evaluate educational impact. Our Interactives Evaluation strategy has been shared with users and stakeholders at various venues such as the Harvill conference and the NSDL Participant Interaction Digital Workshop, February 2004
    • Hyperincursion and the globalization of a knowledge-based economy

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2005)
      This is an invited paper for the Seventh International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems CASYSâ 05, Liège, Belgium. August 8-13, 2005. It is forthcoming in American Institute of Physics, Proceedings. In biological systems, the capacity of anticipationâ that is, entertaining a model of the system within the systemâ can be considered as naturally given. Human languages enable psychological systems to construct and exchange mental models of themselves and their environments reflexively, that is, provide meaning to the events. At the level of the social system expectations can further be codified. When these codifications are functionally differentiatedâ like between market mechanisms and scientific research programsâ the potential asynchronicity in the update among the subsystems provides room for a second anticipatory mechanism at the level of the transversal information exchange among differently codified meaning-processing subsystems. Interactions between the two different anticipatory mechanisms (the transversal one and the one along the time axis in each subsystem) may lead to co-evolutions and stabilization of expectations along trajectories. The wider horizon of knowledgeable expectations can be expected to meta-stabilize and also globalize a previously stabilized configuration of expectations against the axis of time. This recursive incursion on the incursive dynamics of expectations can be modeled using hyper-incursion. The knowledge-based subdynamic at the global level which thus emerges, enables historical agents to inform the reconstruction of previous states and to co-construct future states of the social system, for example, in a techno-economic co-evolution.
    • Hypermedia as an educational technology: a review of the empirical literature on learner comprehension, control and style

      Dillon, Andrew; Gabbard, Ralph; Smith, P.; Pellegrinni, A. (London: Routledge, 2000)
      Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon and Gabbard (1998) Hypermedia as an educational technology: a review of the empirical literature on learner comprehension, control and style. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 322, 349. Reprinted in P. Smith and A. Pellegrinni (eds.) (2000) The Psychology of Education: Major Themes, London: Routledge, 3, 496-531. Abstract: By virtue of its enabling rapid, non-linear access to multiple forms of information, hypermedia technology is considered a major advance in the development of educational tools to enhance learning and a massive literature on the use of hypermedia in education has emerged. The present review examines the published findings from experimental studies of hypermedia which emphasized quantitative, empirical methods to assess learning outcomes. Specifically, the review categorizes this research into three themes: studies of learner comprehension compared across hypermedia and other media; effects on learning outcome offered by increased learner control in hypermedia environments, and the individual differences that exist in learner response to hypermedia. The review concludes that to date, the benefits of hypermedia in education are limited to learning tasks reliant on repeated manipulation and searching of information, and are differentially distributed across learners depending on their ability and preferred learning style. Methodological and analytical shortcomings in this literature limit the generalizability of all findings in this domain. Suggestions for addressing these problems in future research and theory development are outlined.
    • Hypertext/Hypermedia

      Dillon, Andrew; Richardson, John; McKnight, Cliff; Kent, Allen (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: McKnight, C., Dillon, A. and Richardson, J. (1992) Hypermedia. In A. Kent (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Vol. 50, New York: Marcel Dekker, 226-255. Overview: The field of hypertext/hypermedia has mushroomed so much in the last five years that an article such as this cannot hope to be all-embracing. Rather, what we will do is provide a perspective on hypertext/hypermedia while offering guidance to the published literature. The perspective we give is essentially user-centred since we believe that ultimately it is user issues which will determine the success or failure of any technology. We begin with a brief introduction and history then draw together some of the relevant research which has a bearing on hypertext/hypermedia usability. Some of this research has been conducted specifically in the field of hypertext but some general human-computer interaction research also needs to be considered. We look briefly at some of the issues involved in creating hypertexts and also at some of the claims made for hypertext. Finally, we attempt to see what the future holds for hypertext and offer a list of further reading.