• Improving the secondary utilization of clinical data by incorporating context

      D'Avolio, Leonard W.; Rees, Galya; Boyadzhyan, Lousine (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006." There is great potential in the utilization of existing clinical data to assist in decision support, epidemiology, and information retrieval. As we transition from evaluating systemsâ abilities to accurately capture the information in the record, to the clinical application of results, we must incorporate the contextual influences that affect such efforts. A methodology is proposed to assist researchers in identifying strengths and weaknesses of clinical data for application to secondary purposes. The results of its application to three ongoing clinical research projects are discussed.
    • In search of giants: Fostering leadership education in LIS

      Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      It is generally acknowledged that university graduates in library and information science are generally expected to hold management positions at some point in their career. It is also understood that a key role managers play is that of leader and in particular, visionary. But current LIS programs in the Asia Pacific region tend to place little emphasis on leadership education. And the field in general suffers a handicap in this regard, due both to the negative stereotypes, real and perceived, that surround the profession. Librarians are perceived to be timid, bookish and retiring. Recently of course, librarianship has evolved to encompass a wide range of potential occupational roles under the all-encompassing label information professional. Nevertheless, information professionals still find themselves obscured by other more ap-parently alluring domains (computer science, life science, business administration). In this paper, we argue that a powerful means to inspire a visionary approach in LIS students, which will create capabilities for successful leadership and expose students to a more empowering view of the profession, is to consciously develop role models from the past and use them as teaching exemplars. We set ourselves the task of arguing the potential and value of infusing biographies of these figures into the curriculum. However, before moving to those tasks, we present some evidence to support our views as to the validity of our approach.
    • In the margins: Reflections on scribbles, knowledge organization, and access (extended abstract)

      Abbas, June; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      A favored text, dog-eared and yellowed from use, yet still useful, brings back insights that we try to impart to our students when we teach knowledge organization, organization and control of recorded information courses, whichever words we have chosen to label them. Scribbled in the margins1 are notes to self, keywords, subject headings? “tags”? to remind us of why this particular passage was relevant to us. These scribbles include notes about the thoughts, subjects, eloquent linguistics that we wish to remember, and to access at a later time, maybe even our thoughts that occurred as we read the words. Should someone pick up this same text and read the passages and also the notes, would one necessarily draw the same conclusions, or would one have yet other insights into the author’s meanings, the scribbles, the words?2 Wilson (1968) reminds us that “What a text says is not necessarily what it reveals or what it allows us to conclude. . . . but what is not said may interest us more than what is said” (p. 18). How then do we access the facts, truths, assertions, that the text conveys, or doesn’t convey, or the different truths, assertions, that occur to another when they read the text? Our knowledge organization structures provide access points to follow. Classification schemes, controlled vocabularies, ontologies, taxonomies, and the like, have been used to access various levels of subject content within the texts.3 How then, do we access the “meaning”, the conclusions, insights others’ make while reading the words, the scribbles in the margins? This is an old argument. Knowledge organization structures are not static. We struggle to update classification schemes and conduct research to determine if they work. Controlled vocabularies have been criticized as being out of date, containing arcane, discriminatory, Anglo-centric terminology (Olson, 2002). We have conducted studies that show that users don’t understand how to use subject headings (Markey, 1984; Drabenstott and Vizine-Goetz, 1990), or that the words they choose for searching do not match subject headings (Taylor, 1984; Carlyle, 1989; Doyen and Wheeler, 1989; Lester, 1989; Abbas, 2001). So what have we done with the knowledge we gained from this research? Has it changed our way of thinking about knowledge organization and subject access? On the surface, it seems the Web has taken much of knowledge organization out of our hands. Users can access this vast depository of texts by entering a few words into a search box, and they do. Studies have shown us that most web searchers are not concerned with thinking up precise, well defined Boolean search strings. They enter a few key (relevant to them) words and click a button. They then sift through the multitude of hits and find at least one or more that satisfice their information need. In online collaborative sharing communities, such as Flickr (http://www.flickr.com), del.icio.us (http://www.delicious.com), and LibraryThing (http://www.librarything.com), users can organize images, cluster bookmarks, and catalog their own personal libraries, etc. using words that are relevant to them. They are not using our knowledge organization devices. They are creating their own as they use/view others’ tags. Vander Wahl (2006) has been credited with coining the term “folksonomy”, or the resulting cluster of terms that emerges when a community describes texts. Folksonomies are then used for subject representation. Other proponents of this concept/or the process of enabling subject access using user-defined descriptors are: Hastings (1995); O’Connor (1996); Bates (1998); O’Connor, O’Connor, and Abbas (1999); Abbas (2001, 2005) to name a few. The Web gave us an environment to test the efficacy of using user-defined descriptors for subject (as well as physical) access. We might then assume that collaborative sharing communities are in effect, “scribbling in the margins” when they tag their images, their bookmarks, their libraries.4 They are choosing a few words or phrases to represent the “meaning” of the text to them. They are then re-using these words as their own controlled vocabularies. Others are sometimes invited to provide their own tags, thereby providing their meaning for the object. Tag clouds (the resulting structures built as a result of tagging objects) then become visual representations of meaning to at least this one user, microcommunities, and to a larger society of users. Tag clouds become mechanisms not just for representation, but for retrieval. Blair (1990) provides a further context for examining social representation and access issues. He posits that the language we use to represent both our information needs and to index texts is learned in a social context or community. Blair explains the theory of “language games”, as first developed by the early twenty century philosopher Ludwig Wittengenstein and the process in which we learn language and meaning. We do not acquire language purely by learning the word and its definition, but instead learn its use and appropriateness within the context of our “forms of life” or everyday experiences. Furthermore, we have to possess some prior understanding of the form of life or the language game context we are engaged in before the words can have meaning. Users of online sharing communities are engaging within the social context of a particular community. Each person who contributes tags is engaging in “language games” as they go through their daily “forms of life” or experiences. Where this practice may differ from Wittgenstein’s conception, is that there are few limits on what is accepted or unaccepted practice. Users can tag using their own constructions, experiences, meanings, with the only limits imposed being of technological nature. So, where does this leave us? Where do we go from here? We have a rich source that is untapped. Our OPACs gather users’ search terms and search sessions. Websites also track and collect this same information about access. Online collaborative sharing sites are developing folksonomies. Each of these sources can tell us volumes about how our users access information. These sources provide us with a glimpse into user’s perceptions and cognitive processes as they scribble in the margins. At the very least, these sources provide us with the terms used, and with further study, may potentially provide contextual meaning. What we need to consider now is how we can use these sources to adapt, augment, revitalize our knowledge organization structures. There are efforts underway to do just this. Museum and library communities, for example, are exploring the usefulness, as well as logistics, of gathering and incorporating users’ tags into their websites, online exhibits, and WebPACs (Trant, 2006; Spiteri, 2006; Sweda, 2006). Digital libraries that have been developed for youth are also exploring the idea of using user-defined descriptors as subject headings (Abbas, 2001, 2005; Reuter and Druin, 2004). More needs to be considered. More needs to be learned. What do we know about social classification, tagging, and its meaning and use for users? Potential areas of exploration include: *What does tagging mean to users? Is it a way to describe a text, a scribble in the margins, or a search term? Are these potential uses different to users? *What are users’ motivations for tagging (personal findability or organization; communal or familial sharing; meaning making)? *Can we apply Wittgenstein’s “Language Games” theory to what is happening in online sharing communities? Can this inform knowledge organization theory and practice? *What can we learn from collaborative classification, folksonomy development? How can we incorporate this learning into classification scheme and controlled vocabulary development? Should we try to make tags more consistent and follow knowledge organization conventions or do we just watch and learn? Can we/should we apply traditional controlled vocabulary constraints on user-defined descriptors? Notes 1. The author is in no manner condoning the practice of writing in the margins of library or other’s books, but keeps this practice only at a local level. 2. The reader is reminded of the impact on scientific discovery accomplished by reading someone else’s notes in the margins. Johannes Kepler’s work on elliptical orbits was influenced by notes he read in the margins of a second-hand copy of Copernicus’ De revolutionibis. (Gingerich, 2004). 3. Texts for this discussion could include any information bearing object, regardless of format, but to maintain the “argument” being developed, the word “text” will be used. 4. Use of the term scribbling in either context should in no way indicate a quick, easy process void of thought or consideration. Some tags may be created quickly, but others are only applied after much deliberation, examination of existing tags, or even by using the tag clouds, or other social classification structures of the community.
    • In-service training of librarians under the network environment [in Chinese]

      Zhang, Xiya; Zhou, Jingen; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      In view of the reality that traditional libraries are changing to modern ones and the printed information environment is challenged by the networked environment, the evolution of librarian positions and required corresponding qualifications in American academic libraries is reviewed. The librarian positions and qualifications of Chinese academic libraries are examined. The structure of librarians of Chinese academic libraries is analysed. The practice of in-service training of librarians in Qian Xuesen Library is introduced and a discussion is given on the needs and means of in-service training of librarians for academic libraries.
    • Increasing the number of underrepresented high school minorities entering the health information professions

      Cardenas, Olga (2011-01-18)
      Purpose: This paper examines the collective and individual outreach efforts of eight medical institutions to increase the number of underrepresented high school minorities (URHSM) entering the health information professions. Setting/Participants/Resources: Librarians and informaticians from eight major medical institutions in the United States formed partnerships with counselors or diversity coordinators from local high schools, thanks to a $640,000 matching grant. Brief Description: Careers in Health Information, Librarianship, and Informatics (CHILI) is a project funded through a three-year grant from the Department of Education and the Institute for Museum and Library Services, awarded in 2005. This paper describes the project, activities, outcomes and post status of this collaborative effort. Results/Outcome: The partnership and collaborative efforts between the eight medical libraries produced fruitful exposure to health information professions for thousands of participants in various degrees of significance, depth, and degrees of success. CHILI incorporated elements found in other successful projects with similar goals. In addition, the invaluable project was captured and readily accessible through the CHILI Website and a CHILI Wiki furthering the project goal to provide outreach to URHSM and their families during the duration of the project and after the project formally ended. Furthermore, lasting positive effects were found in three of the eight medical centers involved. Evaluation Method: Various project tools, reports, and articles were reviewed and three interviews were made to determine the local impact and status of the project. In addition, CHILI’s activities and components were compared with those of successful programs sharing similar goals.
    • The Index Catalogue and Historical Shifts in Medical Knowledge, & Word Usage Patterns

      Lussky, Joan; Breitenstein, Mikel (dLIST, 2004)
      Faithful aggregated accounts of the advancement of science are invaluable for those setting scientific policy as well as scholars of the history of science. As science develops the scholarly communityiÌ s determination of the accepted knowledge undergoes shifts. Within medicine these shifts include our understanding of what can cause disease and what defines specific disease entities. Shifts in accepted medical knowledge are captured in the medical literature. The Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon GeneraliÌ s Office, United States Army, published from 1880 -1961, is an extremely large index to medical literature. The newly digitized form of this index, referred to as the IndexCat, allows us a way to generate faithful accounts of the development of medical science during the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries. My data looks at shifts within the IndexCat surrounding three disease entities: syphilis, Huntington's chorea, and beriberi, and their interactions with two disease causation theories: germ and hereditary, from 1880-1930. Temporal changes in the prominent subject heading words and title words within the literature of these diseases and disease theories corroborate qualitative accounts of this same literature, which reports the complex and sometimes oblique process of knowledge accretion. Although preliminary, my results indicate that the IndexCat is a valuable tool for studying the development of medical knowledge.
    • Indexing and Abstracting on the World Wide Web: An Examination of Six Web Databases

      Nicholson, Scott (1997)
      Web databases, commonly known as search engines or web directories, are currently the most useful way to search the Internet. In this article, the author draws from library literature to develop a series of questions that can be used to analyze these web searching tools. Six popular web databases are analyzed using this method. Using this analysis, the author creates three categories for web databases and explores the most appropriate searches to perform with each. The work concludes with a proposal for the ideal web database.
    • Indexing and retrieving images in a multilingual world (extended abstract)

      Ménard, Elaine; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      The Internet constitutes a vast universe of knowledge and human culture, allowing the dissemination of ideas and information without borders. The Web also became an important media for the diffusion of multilingual resources. However, linguistic differences still form a major obstacle to scientific, cultural, and educational exchange. With the ever increasing size of the Web and the availability of more and more documents in various languages, this problem becomes all the more pervasive. Besides this linguistic diversity, a multitude of databases and collections now contain documents in various formats, which may also adversely affect the retrieval process. This paper presents the context, the problem statement, and the experiment carried out of a research project aiming to verify the existing relations between two different indexing approaches: (1) traditional image indexing recommending the use of controlled vocabularies or (2) free image indexing using uncontrolled vocabulary, and their respective performance for image retrieval, in a multilingual context. The use of controlled vocabularies or uncontrolled vocabularies raises a certain number of difficulties for the indexing process. These difficulties will necessarily entail consequences at the time of image retrieval. Indexing with controlled or uncontrolled vocabularies is a question extensively discussed in the literature. However, it is clear that many searchers recognize the advantages of either form of vocabulary according to circumstances (Arsenault, 2006). It appears that the many difficulties associated with free indexing using uncontrolled vocabularies can only be understood via a comparative analysis with controlled vocabulary indexing (Macgregor & McCulloch, 2006). This research compares image retrieval within two contexts: a monolingual context where the language of the query is the same as the indexing language; and a multilingual context where the language of the query is different from the indexing language. This research will indicate if one of these indexing approaches surpasses the other, in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of the image searchers. For this research, three data collection methods are used: (1) the analysis of the vocabularies used for image indexing in order to examine the multiplicity of term types applied to images (generic description, identification, and interpretation) and the degree of indexing difficulty due to the subject and the nature of the image; (2) the simulation of the retrieval process with a subset of images indexed according to each indexing approach studied, and finally, (3) the administration of a questionnaire to gather information on searcher satisfaction during and after the retrieval process. The quantification of the retrieval performance of each indexing approach is based on the usability measures recommended by the standard ISO 9241-11, i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of the user (AFNOR, 1998). The need to retrieve a particular image from a collection is shared by several user communities including teachers, artists, journalists, scientists, historians, filmmakers and librarians, all over the world. Image collections also have many areas of application: commercial, scientific, educational, and cultural. Until recently, image collections were difficult to access due to limitations in dissemination and duplication procedures. This research underlines the pressing necessity to optimize the methods used for image processing, in order to facilitate the imagesâ retrieval and their dissemination in multilingual environments. The results of this study will offer preliminary information to deepen our understanding of the influence of the vocabulary used in image indexing. In turn, these results can be used to enhance access to digital collections of visual material in multilingual environments.
    • Indexing the Internet

      Hubbard, John (1999-11)
      Essay analyzes the question of what is the best way to index the Internet.
    • Indian Digital Library in Engineering Science and Technology (INDEST) Consortium: Consortia-Based Subscription to Electronic Resources for Technical Education System in India: A Government of India Initiative

      Arora, Jagdish; Agrawal, Pawan; Salgar, S.; Kumbar, T.; Saraf, Veena; Buvakutty, M.; Chand, Prem (Information and Library Network Centre, 2003)
      The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set-up a â Consortia-based Subscription to Electronic Resources for Technical Education System in Indiaâ on the recommendations made by the Expert Group appointed by the ministry. The consortium is named as the Indian National Digital Library in Science and Technology (INDEST) Consortium. The INDEST Consortium has commenced its operation since Dec., 2002 through its headquarters at the IIT Delhi. The Consortium subscribes to full-text electronic resources and bibliographic databases for 38 leading engineering and technological institutions in India including IITs (7), IISc (1), NITs / RECs (17), IIMs (6) and a few other institutions directly funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). While the expenditure on electronic resources proposed for subscription under the consortium for these 38 institutions are being met from the funds made available by the MHRD, the consortium being an open-ended proposition, welcomes all other institutions to join it on their own for sharing benefits it offers in terms of highly discounted subscription rates and better terms of agreement with the publishers. Moreover, beneficiary institutions may also subscribe to additional electronic resources through the consortium that are not being funded by the MHRD. This article introduces the INDEST Consortium, its activities and services.
    • Indian Libraries and Librarianship : An Overview

      Kumbar, Tukaram S. (2006)
      This is a presentation (28 slides) prepared and delivered in July 2006, as a report to the University of Calgary Library, by the author who was the 2006/2007 Canadian Studies Faculty Research Fellow. Provides a quick summary about libraries and library education in India, and quick pointers to library networks, associations, etc. in the country.
    • Indiana's Community Networking Movement: Websites Then and Now

      Clodfelter, Kathryn; Buente, Wayne; Rosenbaum, Howard (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006".
    • Indicators of Accuracy of Consumer Health Information on the Internet

      Fallis, Don; Fricke, Martin; Miller, Randolph (American Medical Informatics Association, 2002)
      Objectives: To identify indicators of accuracy for consumer health information on the Internet. The results will help lay people distinguish accurate from inaccurate health information on the Internet. Design: Several popular search engines (Yahoo, AltaVista, and Google) were used to find Web pages on the treatment of fever in children. The accuracy and completeness of these Web pages was determined by comparing their content with that of an instrument developed from authoritative sources on treating fever in children. The presence on these Web pages of a number of proposed indicators of accuracy, taken from published guidelines for evaluating the quality of health information on the Internet, was noted. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation between the accuracy of Web pages on treating fever in children and the presence of proposed indicators of accuracy on these pages. Likelihood ratios for the presence (and absence) of these proposed indicators. Results: One hundred Web pages were identified and characterized as "more accurate" or "less accurate." Three indicators correlated with accuracy: displaying the HONcode logo, having an organization domain, and displaying a copyright. Many proposed indicators taken from published guidelines did not correlate with accuracy (e.g., the author being identified and the author having medical credentials) or inaccuracy (e.g., lack of currency and advertising). Conclusions: This method provides a systematic way of identifying indicators that are correlated with the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of health information on the Internet. Three such indicators have been identified in this study. Identifying such indicators and informing the providers and consumers of health information about them would be valuable for public health care.
    • Indicators of Innovation in a Knowledge-based Economy

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2001)
      The concept of â modes of knowledge productionâ was used by Gibbons et al. (1994)[1] to distinguish between transdisciplinary (â Mode 2â ) R&D and more traditional (â Mode 1â ) research. This paper explores whether the Internet provides a means to operationalize â Mode 2â knowledge production as containing a differently codified communication pattern which can be compared to co-word and citation patterns in scientometric databases (â Mode 1â ). Innovations on the drugs market, for example, can be indicated at the commercial end by using the trade names of the drugs (e.g., Evista), while the very same innovation can be retrieved in the patent and science citation databases using the generic names of the active substances involved (in this case, raloxifene). By using the generic names the new drugs can be traced back into their respective knowledge bases.
    • Indicators of Structural Change in the Dynamics of Science: Entropy Statistics of the SCI Journal Citation Reports

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2002)
      Can change in citation patterns among journals be used as an indicator of structural change in the organization of the sciences? Aggregated journal-journal citations for 1999 are compared with similar data in the Journal Citation Reports 1998 of the Science Citation Index. In addition to indicating local change, probabilistic entropy measures enable us to analyze changes in distributions at different levels of aggregation. The results of various statistics are discussed and compared by elaborating the journal-journal mappings. The relevance of this indicator for science and technology policies is further specified.
    • Individual Differences and Task-based User Interface Evaluation: A Case Study of Pending Tasks in Email.

      Gwizdka, Jacek; Chignell, Mark (Elsevier, 2004)
      This paper addresses issues raised by the ever-expanding role of email as a multi-faceted application that combines communication, collaboration, and task management. Individual differences analysis was used to contrast two email user interfaces in terms of their demands on users. The results of this analysis were then interpreted in terms of their implications for designing more inclusive interfaces that meet the needs of users with widely ranging abilities. The specific target of this research is the development of a new type of email message representation that makes pending tasks more visible. We describe a study that compared a new way of representing tasks in an email inbox, with a more standard representation (the Microsoft Outlook inbox). The study consisted of an experiment that examined how people with different levels of three specific cognitive capabilities (flexibility of closure, visual memory, and working memory) perform when using these representations. We then identified combinations of representation and task that are disadvantageous for people with low levels of the measured capabilities.
    • Individual Differences in Personal Information Management

      Gwizdka, Jacek; Chignell, Mark; Jones, William; Teevan, Jamie (University of Washington Press., 2007)
      In an increasingly complex world where people routinely handle large amounts of information, individuals are constantly challenged to manage and effectively use the information that they are responsible for. While email is the canonical example of an information overloading application, other well known PIM applications and tasks cited in earlier chapters of this book include maintaining addresses and contacts, scheduling, and organizing the various documents and bookmarks that one is interested in. Not surprisingly, there are individual differences (ID) in how, and how well, people cope with the challenge of personal information management. This greatly complicates any scientific analysis of PIM behavior. Thus, in addition to the evaluation methods discussed in the previous chapter, researchers and designers need to consider when and how individual differences should be included within parsimonious interpretations and explanations of PIM behavior. In this chapter we propose an approach where differences between individuals are considered last, after the influences of the environment and the task context have first been considered, and after group difference (e.g., between job classifications) have been investigated. We believe that this is a logical way to proceed, since like observing an ant walking over sand-dunes (cf. Simon, 1996) we should not ascribe complexities to an individual if they can instead be explained as due to properties of the environment. The goal of this chapter will be to review and synthesize some of the key findings in how PIM behavior differs between individuals. Some of the reasons why these differences occur and what can be done about them will also be discussed.
    • Individual learning and organizational learning in academic libraries

      Su, Sherry Shiuan; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Learning has been viewed as a continuous lifelong activity recently. Facing the changing information, academic librarians have increasing responsibilities for his/her own learning. The idea of developing learning skills has become widespread as well. This paper reviews the literature on individual learning and organizational learning in the libraries. Issues concerning librarians as learners; librariansâ work-based learning; and academic libraries and learning organization are discussed.
    • IndMED and medIND: NIC's Online Biomedical databases

      Pandita, Naina; Singh, Sukhdev (2003-10)
      Very few Indian biomedical journals have found place in international databases due to various reasons like delayed / irregular publishing, lack of quality articles, etc. The National Library of Medicine's (NLM, USA) MEDLINE database covers approximately 50 Indian journals. As far as the full-text of these journals are concerned, MEDLINE has only covered three Indian journals. The ICMR-NIC Centre for Biomedical Information, the 17th International MEDLARS Centre has been catering to the biomedical information needs of the medical professionals since 1986. One of the tasks undertaken by the Centre is to meet the glaring and obvious "unavailability" of Indian biomedical research literature. Hence, the Centre took up the challenging task to develop databases of Indian biomedical journals and provide a platform for making this literature available to the Indian as well as international medical community. One such database developed is the IndMED, which covers the bibliographic details from 75 peer reviewed Indian biomedical journals. IndMED has received a lot of recognition and the Centre strives to keep this database at par with the MEDLINE database. The 2nd database being developed is the Online full-text database of Indian biomedical journals, medIND, which would cover the full-text of IndMED journals and serve as one vital resource for all Indian biomedical literature.
    • IndMED: Indian biomedical research database developed at NIC - a case study.

      Singh, Sukhdev; Pandita, Naina; Gaba, Surinder K; Agarwal, Rajesh (2003)
      IndMED is an online bibliographic tool for indexing Indian Biomedical Journals. It was conceived to fill up the gaps of reporting medical research from India by major indexing tools in the field like MEDLINE. 75 Indian Bio-Medical journals were selected by a committee to be covered in IndMED. A suitable database structure was adopted based on International Standards. Suitable back-end and front end were developed to publish it on the web. It is available from Internet free of cost. Along with the bibliographic details of the articles it also provides links to the source journals on the web if any.