• Inductive Query by Examples (IQBE): A Machine Learning Approach

      Chen, Hsinchun; She, Linlin (1994)
      This paper presents an incremental, inductive learning approach to query-by examples for information retrieval (IR) and database management systems (DBMS). After briefly reviewing conventional information retrieval techniques and the prevailing database query paradigms, we introduce the ID5R algorithm, previously developed by Utgoff, for ``intelligent'' and system-supported query processing. We describe in detail how we adapted the ID5R algorithm for IR/DBMS applications and we present two examples, one for IR applications and the other for DBMS applications, to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Using a larger test collection of about 1000 document records from the COMPEN CD-ROM computing literature database and using recall as a performance measure, our experiment showed that the incremental ID5R performed significantly better than a batch inductive learning algorithm (called ID3) which we developed earlier. Both algorithms, however, were robust and efficient in helping users develop abstract queries from examples. We believe this research has shed light on the feasibility and the novel characteristics of a new query paradigm, namely, inductive query-by examples (IQBE). Directions of our current research are summarized at the end of the paper.
    • The Influence of Medical Librarians in Addressing Health Literacy Issues

      Freitas, K.A. (2008-12)
      Purpose: This paper reports on the strategies and tactics medical librarians can use to address health literacy disparities in their health care facility and their community. Setting: Medical libraries with a consumer health collection. Brief Description: A patientâ s ability to understand basic medical information is critical to not only their ability to comprehend their diagnosis and follow treatment plans but also in maintaining their overall health. Hospital librarians are in a position to recognize those patients who may have health literacy issues. They can provide these patients with the health information they need as well as educate clinicians on how to ensure their patients understand the information they are providing.
    • The Influence of User Perceptions on Software Utilization: Application and Evaluation of a Theoretical Model of Technology Acceptance

      Morris, Michael G.; Dillon, Andrew (IEEE, Inc., 1997)
      This paper presents and empirically evaluates a Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which can serve as a simple to use, and cost-effective tool for evaluating applications and reliably predicting whether they will be accepted by users. After presenting TAM, the paper reports on a study designed to evaluate its effectiveness at predicting system use. In the study the researchers presented 76 novice users with an overview and hands-on demonstration of Netscape. Following this demonstration, data on user perceptions and attitudes about Netscape were gathered based on this initial exposure to the system. Follow up data was then gathered two weeks later to evaluate actual use of Netscape following the demonstration. Results suggest that TAM is an effective and cost effective tool for predicting end user acceptance of systems. Suggestions for future research and conclusions for both researchers and practitioners are offered.
    • Influencing Adaptation: Discourse, values and information and communication technologies

      Nathan, Lisa P. (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006"
    • Informatics in Clinical Practice in Developing Countries: Still Early Days

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (1999-11)
      Tamil Nadu will soon become the first state in India to provide telemedicine in the public sector when the local hospital in Thiruvallur is connected to the Chennai Medical College (about 40 km away) through an integrated services digital network (ISDN) line and linked terminals. Tamil Nadu cannot yet connect every district and taluk hospital to the nearest medical college because the ISDN facility is not available in many places outside Chennai. This reflects misplaced priorities in a country which has developed technologies for launching missiles and satellites and for producing nuclear bombs; provides cellular telephones, colour televisions, and luxury cars for the rich; and sends thousands of computer professionals to the United States every year. The story is the same everywhere in the developing world.
    • Information Accessibility by the Marginalized Communities in South Africa and the Role of Libraries

      Ocholla, Dennis (2006)
      This paper discusses the nature and levels of information access by the information deprived communities in South Africa and the role libraries play in supporting information access to the information poor. The marginalized communities and information access are defined, and how, why and where such communities access information is discussed. The library system in South Africa is described and its role, activities, programmes and services are examined. The paper further discusses how the libraries are resourced and managed, and the challenges and opportunities they face. An attempt is made to compare South African library model support to the information poor communities with those of other countries of the region. It is concluded that South Africa has a strong information access capacity and library services, though comparatively better than those in other African countries in terms of management, resource support and distribution, but still lacks the capacity for effective information provision to the marginalized communities largely because of their location and information content and format that is largely in favor of information rich environments.
    • Information and Communication Technology and Its impact on Open and Distance Learning

      Nirmal Ranjan Mazumdar (SSDN, New Delhi, India, 2012-01)
      The impact of ICT in open and distance learning is now become a common phenomenon. The rapid use of internet and other communication facilities have brought the open and distance education closer to the student community. The paper highlights the application of ICT in open and distance learning system of Assam.
    • Information and digital literacies; a review of concepts

      Bawden, David (2001)
      This is a reprint of a paper (29 pages) published in the Journal of Documentation, 2001. The concepts of â information literacyâ and â digital literacyâ are described, and reviewed, by way of a literature survey and analysis. Related concepts, including computer literacy, library literacy, network literacy, internet literacy and hyperliteracy are also discussed, and their relationships elucidated. After a general introduction, the paper begins with the basic concept of â literacyâ , which is then expanded to include newer forms of literacy, more suitable for complex information environments. Some of these, for example library, media and computer literacies, are based largely on specific skills, but have some extension beyond them. They lead to general concepts, such as information literacy and digital literacy, which are based on knowledge, perceptions and attitudes, though reliant on the simpler skills-based literacies.
    • Information Architecture

      Dillon, Andrew; Turnbull, Don (New York: Marcel Dekker, 2005)
      Information architecture has become one of the latest areas of excitement within the library and information science (LIS) community, largely resulting from the recognition it garners from those outside of the field for the methods and practices of information design and management long seen as core to information science. The term, â â information architectureâ â (IA), was coined by Richard Wurman in 1975 to describe the need to transform data into meaningful information for people to use, a not entirely original idea, but certainly a first-time conjunction of the terms into the now common IA label. Building on concepts in architecture, information design, typography, and graphic design, Wurmanâ s vision of a new field lay dormant for the most part until the emergence of the World Wide Web in the 1990s, when interest in information organization and structures became widespread. The term came into vogue among the broad web design community as a result of the need to find a way of communicating shared interests in the underlying organization of digitally accessed information.
    • Information Architecture in JASIST: Just where did we come from?

      Dillon, Andrew (Wiley, 2002-08)
      The emergence of Information Architecture within the information systems world has been simultaneously drawn out yet rapid. Those with an eye on history are quick to point to Wurmanâ s 1976 use of the term â architecture of information,â but it has only been in the last 2 years that IA has become the source of sufficient interest for people to label themselves professionally as Information Architects. The impetus for this recent emergence of IA can be traced to a historical summit, supported by ASIS&T in May 2000 at Boston. It was here that several hundred of us gathered to thrash out the questions of just what IA was and what this new field might become. At the time of the summit, invited to present a short talk on my return journey from the annual ACM SIGCHI conference, I entered the summit expecting little and convinced that IA was nothing new. I left 2 days later refreshed, not just by the enthusiasm of the attendees for this term but by IAâ s potential to unify the disparate perspectives and orientations of professionals from a range of disciplines. It was at this summit that the idea for the special issue took root. I proposed the idea to Don Kraft, hoping he would find someone else to run with it. As luck would have it, I ended up taking charge of it myself, with initial support from David Blair. From the suggestion to the finished product has been the best part of 2 years, and in that time more than 50 volunteers reviewed over 20 submissions. ... In this overview I am exercising my prerogative as editor to outline the Big Six issues that have dominated discussions among IAâ s since that landmark summit in Boston.
    • Information as a Tool for Management Decision Making: A Case Study of Singapore

      de Alwis, Shrianjani Marie (Gina); Higgins, Susan Ellen (2002)
      The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of how Singapore's managers behave as information users and determine if their behavioural patterns are similar to their counterparts in other countries (as disclosed in the literature) or if it differs, in what ways. A total of 369 questionnaires were mailed to individual members of Singapore's Institute of Management. Only twenty members responded. The main focus of the survey was the relative uses of the different types of information sources. The survey also touched briefly on the relative importance of domains, and the correlation between hierarchical and functional levels. Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision making included Competitor Trends followed by Regional Economic Trends. Types of information considered important included Business news followed by Political, Social, and Supplier trends, Regulatory information, Use of Information Technology, Demographic Trends and New Management methods. Sources given a very high preference rating were Personal Contact for Competitor Trends and the use of Government Publications for obtaining regulatory information. Respondents also preferred use of Government Publications for Local Economic information and the use of Newspapers for Political Trends and Business News. Internal computer printouts were used for forecasting information and company performance. Subordinate managers were referred to for information on the use of technology, Forecasting, and Company Performance. Because the Company Library provided access to newspapers (very high usage) and business news, information about Political Trends, International and Local Economic Information and Competitor Trends were associated with it. However, the Company Library was perceived as a storage facility rather than a dynamic information resource. Local libraries were also used for Regional and International Economic information. Radio and television were used to obtain regional and Local Economic Information in Singapore, but were rated low in accessibility. Very high preference was given to personal contacts as a source of information. Managers in Singapore did not exploit all types of information sources available to them, mainly due to lack of awareness, lack of information skills and lack of accessibility to world news channels.
    • Information Behavior In Support Of Instruction: Designing the ADEPT Digital Library to Support Dual Work-Roles of Academic Geographers

      Smart, Laura (2003)
      The educational client interface to the ADEPT digital library is envisioned as a â learning spaceâ where digital objects are tightly integrated with instruction to improve the scientific reasoning and geographic thinking skills of undergraduates. Geography faculty, acting in the work-role of instructor, will be the primary agents utilizing this ADEPT interface. The information behavior of academics is well documented in relation to their work roles as researchers, but little has been published on their information behavior in support of instruction. We report findings from our exploratory study on the information practices of geography faculty in this context. Results suggest that the information behavior of academic geographers follows the Leckie dynamic feedback-loop model. A tentative pattern may exist in the intersection of work roles and information sources. Information seeking for instruction may be characterized as passive and formal while information seeking for research may be characterized as active and informal.
    • Information Behaviors of Academic Researchers in the Internet Era: An Interdisciplinary & Cross-cultural Study

      Wang, Peiling (2006)
      This paper reports on part of a study of academic researchers' use of Internet information and communication technologies (IICTs) to support information-seeking activities. The goal of this research is to gain insight into disciplinary and cultural differences of information seeking in the Internet Era. The project is ongoing to include more participants from different cultures.
    • Information Ethics for 21st Century Library Professionals

      Fallis, Don (2007)
      Purpose: To provide an introduction to concepts and resources that will be useful to library professionals learning about information ethics. Methodology: This paper argues for the importance of information ethics to 21st century library professionals. It describes what various authors have said about how information ethics can be applied to the ethical dilemmas faced by library professionals. Findings: In order to deal effectively with their ethical dilemmas, library professionals must have a good working knowledge of information ethics. Codes of professional ethics can help to provide such knowledge, but they are not sufficient. Courses on information ethics must be part of the education of information professionals. Such courses should provide library professionals with an understanding of ethical theories and how they apply to concrete practical cases. Such courses should also make explicit the connection between information ethics and the mission of the library professional. Research limitations: This paper is not intended to provide an exhaustive list of publications on the topic of information ethics and library professionals. Value: This paper provides library professionals with a concise introduction to information ethics.
    • Information for Research in Developing Countries - Information Technology, a Friend or Foe?

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (2003)
      The difference between the advanced and developing countries in the matter of access to information for research has been continually increasing. The advent of the Internet and electronic sources of information has not only exacerbated the gap but also led to the exclusion of developing country researchers from taking part as equal partners in publishing, refereeing, and in international collaboration. If handled imaginatively, the very same technologies can help bridge the information gap between the rich and the poor countries and help improve research productivity worldwide. Many initiatives that are already in place are described and suggestions are given on steps to be taken by developing country researchers.
    • Information Literacy and Digital Literacy

      Hjørland, Birger; da Silva, Armando Malheiro (2008-12)
      This paper considers â information literacyâ as a scholarly skill associated with knowledge about information sources, â source criticismâ , critical thinking and theory of knowledge. From the perspective of Library and Information Science (LIS) it should be defined in relation to the research field of LIS: What we can offer and what we should offer in relation to this concept? It is argued that the core issue is the critical understanding of knowledge production and knowledge claims and how to enable users to make rational decisions in the overloaded information ecology. Emphasis should be put on the functions of the scholarly communication system considered from sociological and epistemological perspectives
    • Information Literacy Competency and Readership Study of Five Specific Localities in Urban, Industrial and Semi-Urban Areas of Kolkata Metropolitan City

      Dutta, Chaitali (2008-05)
      The Department of Library and Information Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, in association with UNESCO, completed a research study to measure information literacy competency and reading habits amongst the urban and semi-urban habitants in a metropolitan city in India. UNESCO releases a report on this research entitled Information Literacy Competency and Readership Study of Five Specific Localities in Urban, Industrial and Semi-Urban Areas of Kolkata Metropolitan City. The study sought to identify and critically examine the information literary competency and reading habits of mixed habitants, having contrasting professions or vocations. More particularly, the study had the following objectives: * to assess the readership of people from different social strata of five specific localities of Kolkata metropolitan city; * to measure the encroachment of different media on people's reading habit; * to find out the probable causes behind the difference in pattern of the reading habits of people in different localities of Kolkata; * to assess the role played by public libraries in promoting reading habits; and * to map the information literacy level of people living in urban, industrial and semi-urban areas of Kolkata. This study illustrates information seeking behaviour of diverse groups of habitants, including youths, women, industrial workers and elderly persons. The report concludes that the number of men who do not read regularly far exceeds the number of women in the same category, and that women are more prone to use libraries for satisfaction of their reading needs. Among the non-print media, television attracted most respondents. The study also demonstrated that, despite the electronic media boom, reading still survives. The public libraries in the city play wider role to inculcate reading habits amongst youths and neo-literates. This study suggests that information literacy competency and lifelong education can also be imparted to marginalised groups through public library networks in the country.
    • Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education

      American Library Association (ALA), Association for College and Research Libraries (ACRL) (2000)
      Contents of the standard: Information Literacy Defined; Information Literacy and Information Technology; Information Literacy and Higher Education; Information Literacy and Pedagogy; Use of the Standards; Information Literacy and Assessment; Standards, Performance Indicators and Outcomes; Appendix I: Selected Information Literacy Initiatives; Developers of the Information Literacy Competency Standards
    • Information literacy education in the context of project work: Application of multiple intelligences and mediated learning

      Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Majid, Shaheen; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Information literacy (IL) has become a vital competency in the current knowledge society. For students, the key to becoming independent learners and future knowledge workers lies in being information literate. However, existing information literacy education approaches have not been very successful in equipping students with these crucial skills to ensure deep erudition and long-lasting retention. Hence, pedagogy becomes critical in information literacy education. This research hypothesises that (i) informa-tion literacy skills have a positive impact on the quality of studentsâ project work; (ii) students grasp in-formation literacy skills more effectively when their innate interests, such as that determined by their re-spective dominant intelligences, are stimulated and applied to their work; and (iii) students internalise what they learn when they are coached over an extended period of time, on how to apply their newly ac-quired information literacy skills, and thus exhibit greater retention of such knowledge and competen-cies. Consequently they would produce work of better quality. To verify these postulations, an informa-tion literacy course was designed for students undertaking project work to equip them with the necessary information literacy skills, by using two established pedagogical approaches â Gardnerâ s Theory of Mul-tiple Intelligences and Feuersteinâ s Mediated Learning Experience. Subsequently the quality of the pro-ject work between the experimental and control groups were compared. This on-going research seeks to identify a utilitarian and viable pedagogical methodology that makes the teaching and learning of infor-mation literacy skills more effective and long-lasting respectively.