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Digital Libraries: Social Issues and Technological AdvancesThis chapter will focus on digital libraries, starting with a discussion of the historical visionaries, definitions, driving forces and enabling technologies and some key research issues. Also discussed will be some of the US and international digital library projects and research initiatives. Some of the emerging techniques for building large-scale digital libraries, including semantic interoperability, will be described. Finally, the conclusion will offer some future directions for digital libraries.
The landscape of international computingThe landscape of international computing is highly diverse from country to country, reflecting national differences and cultures. In addition, developments at the international level such as the post-war liberalization of international trade, and the activities of the ITU, UNESCO, the IBI, WIPO and other international organizations have done much to aid the global proliferation of information technology. However by the end of the 198Os, the world system was centralized in terms of innovation and manufacturing of information technology, and actions taken to rectify this inequality between nations were ineffective. Dependency theory, development theory and structuralism have all made contributions to understanding the effects of this global inequality and nation states have responded to this inequality according to both their economic status and their relative place within the worldwide system of innovation, manufacturing, and utilization of information technology. They have responded by throttling the supply of information technology with in their borders, its geographic reach and its applications range. These actions, combined with the undlerlying economic development of the nation state, help explain the vast differences and variations we find in information technology around the world -- they help to explain the landscape of international computing. Much empirical research needs to be done to more fully understand these variations.