• An assessment of the perception of licensed librarians about their academic preparation and satisfaction in their job as librarians

      David, Lourdes T.; Perez, Dante R.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The study was conducted to find out how librarians perceive their readiness for the workplace after graduation and successfully passing the licensure examination for librarians. The results indicate that there are schools that consistently produce graduates who pass the licensure examination. The successful examinees perceive that the curriculum adequately prepared them for the examination and the workplace. However, they also perceive a gap between theory and practice. To narrow this gap they rec-ommend that libraries must conduct an orientation program for newly hired librarians, provide for grants to enable librarians to attend seminars, workshops, and visit other libraries. They also recommend changes in the curriculum to enable students to acquire competence in using information and communi-cations technologies, dealing with people, marketing and promotion, and business skills. All of the re-spondents found librarianship satisfying. They do not see themselves as leaving the profession in the near future.
    • Automatic multi-document summarization for digital libraries

      Ou, Shiyan; Khoo, Christopher S.G.; Goh, Dion H.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      With the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and online information services, more and more information is available and accessible online. Automatic summarization is an indispensable solution to reduce the information overload problem. Multi-document summarization is useful to provide an overview of a topic and allow users to zoom in for more details on aspects of interest. This paper reports three types of multi-document summaries generated for a set of research abstracts, using different summarization approaches: a sentence-based summary generated by a MEAD summarization system that extracts important sentences using various features, another sentence-based summary generated by extracting research objective sentences, and a variable-based summary focusing on research concepts and relationships. A user evaluation was carried out to compare the three types of summaries. The evaluation results indicated that the majority of users (70%) preferred the variable-based summary, while 55% of the users preferred the research objective summary, and only 25% preferred the MEAD summary.
    • Bibliometric analysis as a new business area in libraries: Theory and practice

      Ball, Rafael; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Supplying users with literature by a seamless linking of media is the goal of (scientific) libraries. By the digitization of primary and secondary data and the convergence of products and providers, libraries have already come very close to achieving this ideal. A digital library is the realization of this goal. However, many librarians are in danger of running out of imagination. What will come after the digital library? Do we still need information professionals today? And, above all, what services are required? This paper identifies new fields of business for libraries with the example of bibliometric analysis. The discussion concerns the shape this service could take in practice, who needs it and what target groups exist in the scientific environment. Concrete examples of bibliometric analysis from the Central Library of Research Centre Jülich, the largest interdisciplinary research institution in Europe, round off the overview.
    • Body of professional knowledge required for academic librarians in Japan

      Nagata, Haruki; Toda, Shin'ichi; Itsumura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Saito, Yasunori; Suzuki, Masanori; Takahashi, Noboru; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper explores the body of professional knowledge for academic librarians by researching library staff in Japanese colleges and universities. The research was undertaken in two ways. Initially 23 focus-group interviews were conducted at eight academic libraries from 2003 to 2005. Secondly a paper survey was carried out in 2004. Both of these targeted the whole body of the library staff, ranging from the chief librarian to junior staff. The authors have identified the knowledge and skills required for todayâ s academic librarians and learning opportunities that they preferred. The body of professional knowledge and skills revealed through the analysis of the outcomes of the research is presented here.
    • Building information literacy through project work: A case study in Singapore

      Tan, May Hwee Mian; Theng, Yin-Leng; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      In this paper, we described a study carried out to investigate whether the incorporation of information literacy standards explicitly in the learner outcomes of Project Work helped students build and achieve a high level of information literacy. In this study, the students self-assessed their acquisition and development of the information literacy competencies through the use of a five-scale Likert survey. Their reflections of the research experience were also analyzed. In addition, the teachers rated their stu-dentsâ achievement levels through the use of a rubric. Findings revealed that students attained a rela-tively good level of competency, extracted relevant information, synthesized the main ideas to construct new knowledge and seemed to concur with teachersâ perceptions of the studentsâ abilities to access, evaluate and use information more effectively.
    • Challenges of preparing LIS professionals for leadership roles in Pakistan: An analysis of the status

      Ameen, Kanwal; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Library leadership is almost an unexplored area in LIS education and literature in Pakistan. All library education schools in the country offer management courses to impart skills needed for managing libraries but there hardly exists awareness regarding the importance of inducing leadership concept and traits—as distinct to managerial skills—among LIS academia, researchers and practitioners. The paper explores different aspects of the issue with specific reference to Pakistan by using triangular research method. The review of the literature was instrumental in developing data-gathering tools. Data was obtained from professionals through questionnaire, content-analysis, focus group, discussion and personal observation & experience. The paper identified fundamental leadership attributes required for LIS professionals and their status among professionals in Pakistan. General and specific barriers related to the profession were also identified as LIS education, poor working of professional associations, low profile among the public, low status among other colleagues in the same organization, low self-esteem and so forth. Findings suggest that emerging social, professional and technological scenario in the country requires information professionals, with leadership qualities, to foresee and create the future by timely planning and not become the victim of unforeseen changes. The role of the concerned quarters in this regard has also been suggested.
    • The challenging and critical role of information professionals in combating AIDS in India

      Ghosh, Maitrayee; Bhatt, Jay; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The nature of work for librarians/information professionals is undergoing a profound transformation, due to the arrival of deadly diseases like AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and the change in information needs of the local community. This change necessitates much more professional expertise, updated knowledge, critical thinking and involvement in developing effective AIDS literacy programs. Information professionals serving in different libraries or potential information dissemination centers can provide dedicated services to society by helping to access AIDS information not only in urban settings but also in rural environments. This paper outlines strategies for effective collaboration in the context of AIDS literacy promotion efforts. It identifies a number of obstacles in the process of empowering the community and suitable measures essential for success.
    • Characteristics of German library science: Sharing lessons learnt with the international community

      Ratzek, Wolfgang; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Seen from an international point of view, the German LIS structure is of many reasons a very special one. Understanding the system, one has to gain insight into the political structure, the hierarchical system, and the salary system for civil servants. Up to the present, library education and training are more or less characterized by a special German way. Various educational and training programs on school, university and university college level are available. The different certificates open the way to different career paths in the LIS sector. In addition to that, the Bologna Declaration causes vital changes in the European university system in general and in that of Germany in particular. This contribution outlines the change from the old to the new paradigm in Germany in an international Context and pinpoints some actual problems.
    • Collaboration and resource sharing among LIS schools in China

      Fan, Fan; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Over the past ninety years, and more so over the recent twenty years, Library and Information Science schools in China have done a lot of work in collaborating and resource sharing. These activities consists of establishing LIS schools, training of teachers, compilation of teaching materials, change of names, application for the authority to enroll graduates and conferring degrees both of master and doctor, and academic exchanges. The demands of society and the policies of the government are important factors promoting the collaboration and resource sharing. Academic exchanges, such as academic meetings, ex-change visits and research papers, are the main channels for LIS schools to collaborate and share re-sources with each other.
    • Comparative study of staff development in academic libraries of Mainland China and Hong Kong

      Woo, Mei Wa Esther; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The aim of this study is to conduct a comparison between the staff training and development (T & D) of academic libraries in Mainland China and Hong Kong -- two systems developed under fast-changing cultural, political and socio-economic environments in the past century. This paper argues that socio-economic, cultural and technological changes are pushing the development of academic library systems in the two regions towards convergence. The comparison identifies differences and similarities in staff T & D policies and practices of academic libraries in the two regions, as well as the contributing factors. The analysis is supported by the results of a survey conducted by the author in 2005. It concluded that the two systems share similar concerns and problems in many aspects, and one of the major contributing factors may be the size of the library.
    • Continuing education programmes of Library & Information Science (LIS) professionals in the Universities of West Bengal (India) with special reference to the University of Calcutta

      Dasgupta, Arjun; Satpathi, Jatindra Nath; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The paper starts with the need of Continuing Education for the LIS professionals in this modern era of information and technology. It narrates the activities of Continuing Education and Professional Development (CEPD) in different developed and developing countries of the world. It enumerates the role of various associations and institutions of India such as ILA, IASLIC, BLA IIMs, ICSSR, AIIMS, which are actively connected with programmes of continuing education. The authors highlight some of the universities and academic institutions of our country which have centres and departments of continu-ing education & critically analyze the work and activities of eight universities of West Bengal based on survey work. The paper suggests some measures to improve the existing conditions and status of con-tinuing education programmes for the university-library professionals of West Bengal.
    • Cultural aspects of library networks in a global changing world: JIBIS & Humaniora and Pustaka Bersama

      Laksmi; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Cultural aspect is an interesting subject to study. In the global changing context, all nations become multicultured. We need to understand that this aspect is one of the factors causing something to work or will not work. There are cultural clashes, differences of norms, values, customs, and so on. Studying these cases of JIBIS & Humanities and Pustaka Bersama, two local library networks working in the same field performed by non-government organizations (NGO), we can make an analogue about the whole description of the cooperation of the Indonesian society. We do not make generalizations but at least we will learn the development process, that cultural aspects influence the system. We can use this own experience to build better networks, in local, national or even international levels. Library networks are built based on the following reasons: information explosion, fast develop-ment of technology and the cost of efficiency. These three reasons are the basic factors. On other case, there are special reasons for the libraries, they are: developing relationship, cost efficiency of their in-frastructure, and developing their professionalism. Based on the research performed by Sulistyo-Basuki, 2002. â Information networks and library co-operation in Indonesia, reports thatâ In IFLA library networks in Indonesia, even its local or national scale, are not sustainable. Although, in the global context, where the information are available every-where, and the explosion of information technology, however, among libraries should build a coopera-tion. The fundamental reason is no single library could fulfill its information to its users needs by itself. The research shows that there are constraints in limitation of librarian behavior and lack of financial support. One of the JIBIS founders, Blasius Sudarsono, at Portal JIBIS dan Humaniora launching, in 26th May 2005, convinced the result, and he added that network activities have the lack of their institu-tion responsibilities. The social phenomenon, which is observed from cultural perspectives, will be understood comprehensively. Library network activities emerged in 1971 when Workshop in Documentation and Information Network System in Indonesia, was held in Bandung. The meeting found that Indonesia needs 4 informa-tion networks. They are in the field of science and technology, agriculture and biology, health and medicine, and social sciences and humanities. But there are several libraries and information networks in Indonesia, in various fields, such as law, agriculture. Unfortunately, only few networks can run continuously in the long period. Though the networks can run, it is limited to the information exchange of collections, the informal meetings be-tween librarian members, etc. Based on the problem above, the paper will be focused on analyzing why individuals who engaged in the networks of JIBIS & Humaniora and Pustaka Bersama could not performed well. With the quali-tative approach, analyzing its cultural aspects. Concerning the data collection, I will use interview method and reviwing the documentation, the cooperation attributes, the websites home page and their symbols. The signification of this paper is to enhance and develop the library network processes in In-donesia to aim their objectives; to introduce new cultural perspective of the network for the library and information science in general. By examining the network problems from multidiscipline approaches which are holistic, we can map their strength and the weaknesses, so we can build a better strategic to develop local and international network in the global change. To understand this paper better, this study uses assumptions. First, the rapport between two indi-viduals or more is based on the similarities on behavior, values, beliefs, and commitment of related individuals. The similarity of basic assumptions on â networkâ facilitates the integration and adaptation of individuals to enter new environment. The idea is supported by cultural and behavioral organiza-tional theory from Tuckman (1965), diffusion process from Rogers (1995: 335). The second, the cul-tural organization influences the cultural individual (corporate culture from Schein in Hampden-Turner, 1990: 13 and Rogers, 1995: 335). The third, the individual behavior is related to the organizational pol-icy, such as financial policy, or other interest. If there are such conflicts, individuals may sustain the network. These assumptions are used as a guide to collect data as social phenomena and used in doing the study stages. Data collected from interviews and observations are interpreted based on the cultural concepts.
    • Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis

      Chu, Heting; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Close to 3,000 courses, both required and elective, listed in each curriculum of the 45 ALA-accredited LIS masterâ s programs in the USA are analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Based on the changes observed in the core, electives and particularly courses that appear being created recently, this study finds that more and more elective courses are offered in LIS education while the number of core requirements is reduced to as few as two courses. In either case, a wider range of subject topics seem being covered nowadays than in the pre-Internet era. On the other hand, approximately 10 percent of all the LIS courses sound new in that they are designed to deal with emerging subjects and latest de-velopments in the field besides reflecting the growing interdisciplinary nature of LIS. This research also shows that catalysts for LIS curricular transformations do not come from technology alone, but also originate from the cultural and societal dimensions. In other words, a holistic approach should be taken for enhancing LIS curricular contents to prepare information professionals for leadership in the time to come.
    • Developing information literacy measures for higher education

      Abdullah, Szarina; Ahmad Kassim, Norliya; Mohd Saad, Mohd Sharif; Tarmuchi, Noe Rashimahwati; Aripin, Rasimah; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This is the first part of a report of an investigation on Information Literacy (IL) among final year students in six Malaysian universities in the Klang Valley. The study attempts to measure studentsâ IL competency in key areas, namely, the ability to identify, access, retrieve, evaluate, and organise needed information to achieve certain purposes. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection, conducted during August and September 2005. Respondents comprised students from 3 main fields, i.e. Science and Technology, Social Science and Humanities, Business and Accountancy. A total of 1,100 responses are used for data analysis. Scores are assigned for identifying levels of competency as: 0 = wrong answer, 1=beginner, 2=intermediate and 3=advanced. Results of the analysis reveal that half (50.1%) of the respondents are at the intermediate IL level while more than one-third (38.4%) are beginners, and slightly more than ten percent (11.5%) can be categorized as at the advanced competency level. Respondents with higher competency levels are those who frequently read materials in English, use the Internet to download programs / software, search databases for aca-demic materials, use the library to read academic journals and discuss academic matters, compared to those who go to the library for other reasons such as to borrow books, meet friends or study. Compulsory information skills courses are found to be related to competency levels, but this relationship is not statistically significant. There is no significant difference in the competency level between those who are currently writing a thesis and those who are not. However, there is a significant difference in IL competency between those who have written assignments in an essay format and those who have not.
    • The development of library and information science through books published in Indonesia, 1952-2005

      Laksmi; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The aim of this study is to analyze the development of library and information science through its publications written by librarians, scholars, and others who are interest to the field in Indonesia since 1952 to 2005. The book publication is limited to the scientific books that contain the knowledge of the library and information science. The analysis is focused on the kind of books, the subjects, the publication, the originality of books, and the writers. The study uses the content analysis approach that is named as bolometric study. This knowledge is needed as references to develop the science and to create more literatures with the various, innovative, and constructive ideas in the future. This version of the paper contains an appendix with a list of book titles that was omitted from the version published in the conference proceedings.
    • Digital librarians: The challenges ahead

      Suman, Aparajita; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The advent of Information and communication technology has revolutionized the way information was accessed and disseminated; one of the most visible changes came in the arena of librarianship. Suddenly, the idea of easy, fingertip access to information became widely prevalent and phrases like "virtual library," "electronic library," "library without walls" and, most recently, "digital library," very popular. However, this produced a new and confusing bog of electronic "stuff" that is hard to find, hard to use, buried in restrictions, unreliable in content, and useless to researchers baffled by bad choices of material for expensive digitisation investments? Now, the question is sustaining digital libraries will require overcoming substantial uncertainties about long-term preservation, institutional commitments, and financing. AND here lies the challenge for the digital librarian!!!! Playing the balancing act between management, fast changing needs of the user community and ever changing information storage media and technologies.
    • Digital libraries in Thailand

      Salaladyanant, Tasana; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper surveys university libraries, special libraries, public libraries, the National Library and school libraries in Thailand about their digital collections and services.
    • Digital reference services in selected public academic libraries in Malaysia: A case study

      Wan Dollah, Wan A. Kadir; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Reference service is one of the library’s primary services besides acquisitions, classification, cataloguing and physical planning. This service provides personalized assistance to library users in accessing and using suitable information resources to meet their needs. This research progress paper attempts to identify the status of digital reference services (DRS) in four public university libraries in Malaysia. In this study, the researcher attempts to identify usage of both traditional and digital reference services, user awareness of DRS, user satisfaction, and need for DRS. Two different sets of questionnaires were distributed: (1) a librarians’ questionnaire to librarians in the four university libraries, namely, Tun Abdul Razak Library, UiTM; University of Malaya (UM) Library; Tun Seri Lanang Library, UKM; and Sultan Abdul Samad Library, UPM; (2) a users’ questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Information Management, UiTM, and the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, UiTM, UM and UPM. The findings show that DRS are effective forms of service delivery but their full potential has not yet been exploited. Email reference, Web forms and Ask-A Librarian are the main channels used in providing digital reference, although plans are under way to implement more sophisticated Internet technologies and collaborative digital reference.
    • Displays and exhibitions in university libraries

      Lu, Su-Huei; Wei, Ling-Fang; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the displays and exhibitions in university libraries. It was conducted by questionnaire survey on six theses: Frequency and purpose, Staffing, Funding, Space and safeguards, Subjects, materials and sources, and Marketing. The results reveal that most libraries held displays and exhibitions and thought displays and exhibitions as marketing and educational ser-vices to patrons. But supporting resources such as staffing, funding, space, security, and facilities were informal and scant. To improve the displays and exhibitions, this paper suggests that libraries should pay more resources and concerns on displays and exhibitions to achieve the marketing and educational goal. Besides, librarians play important roles in displays and exhibitions. To plan a professional and successful displays and exhibitions, librarians need more support on training, display knowledge and credits.
    • E-learning in LIS education in India

      Kawatra, P. S.; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Traces the history of e-learning to the learning age where knowledge will be freely accessed, profoundly abundant, and offered in cornucopia of formats. Distance learning has been accepted and recognized as a mode of education in LIS. The concept of open and distance learning is discussed. In the changing scenario of the society, the skills required of LIS professionals are also identified. The paper also examines the impact of the Internet on the teacher's role and explores the types of skills and strategies that teachers will need to be effective and efficient in online learning environments. The paper provides an insight into the innovative multi-channel delivery modes adopted by the different universities and their effectiveness for the LIS distance learners. Guidelines for distance learning Library services approved by Association of College and Research Libraries on June 29, 2004 are also discussed. For assessment and accreditation of LIS distance education institutions in India, areas have been identified.