• E-Mail Interviewing in Qualitative Research: A Methodological Discussion

      Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2006-08)
      This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting indepth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitative research. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and telephone interviewing. A list of recommendations for carrying out effective e-mail interviews is presented.
    • Expertise and the perception of shape in information

      Dillon, Andrew; Schaap, Dille; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 1996-10)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. and Shaap, D. (1996) Expertise and the perception of structure in discourse. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 47(10), 786-788. Abstract: Ability to navigate an information space may be influenced by the presence or absence of certain embedded cues that users have learned to recognize. Experimental results are presented which indicate that experienced readers of certain academic journals are more capable than inexperienced readers in locating themselves in an information space in the absence of explicit structural cues.
    • Extending SGML to accommodate database functions: A Methodological Overview

      Sengupta, Arjit; Dillon, Andrew; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 1997-07)
      A method for augmenting an SGML document repository system with database functionality is presented. SGML (ISO 8879, 1986) has been widely accepted as a standard language for writing text with added structural information that gives the text greater applicability. Recently there has been a trend to use this structural information as metadata in databases. The complex structure of docuuments, however, makes it difficult to directly map the structural information in documents to database structures. In particular, the flat nature of relational databases makes it extremely difficult to model documents that are inherently hierarchical in nature. Consequently, documents are modeled in object-oriented databases (Abite-boul, Cluet, & Milo, 1993), and object-relational databases (Holst, 1995), in which SGML documents are mapped into the corresponding database models and are later reconstructed as necessary. However, this mapping strategy is not natural and can potentially cause loss of information in the original SGML documents. Moreover, interfaces for building queries for current document databases are mostly built on form-based query techniques and do not use the â â look and feelâ â of the documents. This article introduces an implementation method for a complex-object modeling technique specifically for SGML documents and describes interface techniques tailored for text databases. Some of the concepts for a Structured Document Database Management System (SDDBMS) specifically designed for SGML documents are described. A small survey of some current products is also presented to demonstrate the need for such a system.
    • Genres and the Web - is the home page the first digital genre?

      Dillon, Andrew; Grushowski, Barbara; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 2000-01)
      Genre conventions emerge across discourse communities over time to support the communication of ideas and information in socially and cognitively compatible forms. Digital genres frequently borrow heavily from the paper world even though the media are very different. This research sought to identify the existence and form of a truly digital genre. Preliminary results from a survey of user perceptions of the form and content of web home pages reveal a significant correlation between commonly found elements on such home pages and user preferences and expectations of type. Results suggest that the personal home page has rapidly evolved into a recognizable form with stable, user-preferred elements and thus can be considered the first truly digital genre.
    • Information Architecture in JASIST: Just where did we come from?

      Dillon, Andrew (Wiley, 2002-08)
      The emergence of Information Architecture within the information systems world has been simultaneously drawn out yet rapid. Those with an eye on history are quick to point to Wurmanâ s 1976 use of the term â architecture of information,â but it has only been in the last 2 years that IA has become the source of sufficient interest for people to label themselves professionally as Information Architects. The impetus for this recent emergence of IA can be traced to a historical summit, supported by ASIS&T in May 2000 at Boston. It was here that several hundred of us gathered to thrash out the questions of just what IA was and what this new field might become. At the time of the summit, invited to present a short talk on my return journey from the annual ACM SIGCHI conference, I entered the summit expecting little and convinced that IA was nothing new. I left 2 days later refreshed, not just by the enthusiasm of the attendees for this term but by IAâ s potential to unify the disparate perspectives and orientations of professionals from a range of disciplines. It was at this summit that the idea for the special issue took root. I proposed the idea to Don Kraft, hoping he would find someone else to run with it. As luck would have it, I ended up taking charge of it myself, with initial support from David Blair. From the suggestion to the finished product has been the best part of 2 years, and in that time more than 50 volunteers reviewed over 20 submissions. ... In this overview I am exercising my prerogative as editor to outline the Big Six issues that have dominated discussions among IAâ s since that landmark summit in Boston.
    • Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the web

      Rieh, Soo Young; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 2002)
      This is a preprint of an article published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53, 145-161. This study examines the problem of the judgment of information quality and cognitive authority by observing people's searching behavior in the Web. Its purpose is to understand the various factors that influence peopleâ s judgment of quality and authority in the Web, and the effects of those judgments on selection behaviors. It was found that the subjects made two distinct kinds of judgment: predictive judgment and evaluative judgment. The factors influencing each judgment of quality and authority were identified in terms of characteristics of information objects, characteristics of sources, knowledge, situation, ranking in search output, and general assumption.
    • Modeling the Information-Seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis's Study Revisited

      Meho, Lokman I.; Tibbo, Helen R. (Wiley, 2003-04)
      This paper revises David Ellis's information-seeking behavior model of social scientists, which includes six generic features: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, and extracting. The paper uses social science faculty researching stateless nations as the study population. The description and analysis of the information-seeking behavior of this group of scholars is based on data collected through structured and semistructured electronic mail interviews. Sixty faculty members from 14 different countries were interviewed by e-mail. For reality check purposes, face-to-face interviews with five faculty members were also conducted. Although the study confirmed Ellis's model, it found that a fuller description of the information-seeking process of social scientists studying stateless nations should include four additional features besides those identified by Ellis. These new features are: accessing, networking, verifying, and information managing. In view of that, the study develops a new model, which, unlike Ellis's, groups all the features into four interrelated stages: searching, accessing, processing, and ending. This new model is fully described and its implications on research and practice are discussed. How and why scholars studied here are different than other academic social scientists is also discussed.
    • Ranking the Research Productivity of LIS Faculty and Schools: An Evaluation of Data Sources and Research Methods

      Meho, Lokman I.; Spurgin, Kristina M. (Wiley, 2005-10)
      This study evaluates the data sources and research methods used in earlier studies to rank the research productivity of Library and Information Science (LIS) faculty and schools. In doing so, the study identifies both tools and methods that generate more accurate publication count rankings as well as databases that should be taken into consideration when conducting comprehensive searches in the literature for research and curricular needs. With a list of 2,625 items published between 1982 and 2002 by 68 faculty members of 18 American Library Associationâ (ALA-) accredited LIS schools, hundreds of databases were searched. Results show that there are only 10 databases that provide significant coverage of the LIS indexed literature. Results also show that restricting the data sources to one, two, or even three databases leads to inaccurate rankings and erroneous conclusions. Because no database provides comprehensive coverage of the LIS literature, researchers must rely on a wide range of disciplinary and multidisciplinary databases for ranking and other research purposes. The study answers such questions as the following: Is the Association of Library and Information Science Educationâ s (ALISEâ s) directory of members a reliable tool to identify a complete list of faculty members at LIS schools? How many and which databases are needed in a multifile search to arrive at accurate publication count rankings? What coverage will be achieved using a certain number of databases? Which research areas are well covered by which databases? What alternative methods and tools are available to supplement gaps among databases? Did coverage performance of databases change over time? What counting method should be used when determining what and how many items each LIS faculty and school has published? The authors recommend advanced analysis of research productivity to provide a more detailed assessment of research productivity of authors and programs.
    • The Role of Subjective Factors in the Information Search Process

      Gwizdka, Jacek; Lopatovska, Irene (Wiley, 2009)
      We investigated the role of subjective factors in the information search process. Forty eight participants each conducted six web searches in a controlled setting. We examined relationships between subjective factors (happiness levels, satisfaction with and confidence in the search results, feeling lost during search, familiarity with and interest in the search topic, estimation of task difficulty), and objective factors (search behavior, search outcomes and search task characteristics). Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate statistical test (Canonical Correlations Analysis). The findings confirmed existence of several relationships suggested by prior research, including relationships between objective search task difficulty and the perception of task difficulty; between subjective states and search behaviors and outcomes. One of the original findings suggests that higher happiness levels before the search and during the search correlate with better feelings after the search, but also correlates with worse search outcomes and lower satisfaction, suggesting that, perhaps, it pays off to feel some â painâ during the search in order to â gainâ quality outcomes.
    • The shifting balance of intellectual trade in information studies

      Cronin, Blaise; Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2008-02)
      The authors describe a large-scale, longitudinal citation analysis of intellectual trading between information studies and cognate disciplines. The results of their investigation reveal the extent to which information studies draws on and, in turn, contributes to the ideational substrates of other academic domains. Their data show that the field has become a more successful exporter of ideas as well as less introverted than was previously the case. In the last decade, information studies has begun to contribute significantly to the literatures of such disciplines as computer science and engineering on the one hand and business and management on the other, while also drawing more heavily on those same literatures.
    • Using the H-index to Rank Influential Information Scientists

      Cronin, Blaise; Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2006-07)
      We apply a new bibliometric measure, the h-index (Hirsch, 2005), to the literature of information science. Faculty rankings based on raw citation counts are compared with those based on h-counts. There is a strong positive correlation between the two sets of rankings. We show how the h-index can be used to express the broad impact of a scholarâ s research output over time in more nuanced fashion than straight citation counts.
    • Who's Zooming Whom? Attunement to animation in the interface

      Chui, Michael; Dillon, Andrew; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 1997-01)
      A number of references in the Human-Computer Interaction literature make the common-sense suggestion that the animated zooming effect accompanying the opening or closing of a folder in the Apple Macintosh graphical user interface aids in a user's perception of which window corresponds to which folder. We examine this claim empirically using two controlled experiments. Although we did not find a statistically significant overall difference resulting from the presence or absence of the zooming effect, a post hoc analysis revealed a highly significant interaction between the experience of users with the Macintosh user interface and the zooming effect. This individual difference suggests that users become attuned to the informational content of the zooming effect with experience.