• Experimental comparison of 2D and 3D technology mediated paramedic-physician collaboration in remote emergency medical situations

      Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maurin, Hanna; Cairns, Bruce; Manning, James E.; Freid, Eugene B.; Welch, Greg; Fuchs, Henry; Grove, A. (2006)
      We are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology to support collaboration among geographically separated medical personnel in trauma emergency care situations. 3D telepresence technology has the potential to provide richer visual information than current 2D video conferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. We conducted an experimental evaluation, simulating an emergency medical situation and examining the interaction between the attending paramedic and remote, consulting physician. Post-questionnaire data illustrate that the information provided by the consulting physician was perceived to be more useful by the paramedic in the 3D condition than the 2D condition. However, the data pertaining to the quality of interaction and trust between the consulting physician and paramedic showed mixed results. The implications of these results are discussed.
    • Exploring gender differences in perceptions of 3D telepresence collaboration technology: An example from emergency medical care

      Maurin, H.; Sonnenwald, D. H.; Cairns, B.; Manning, J. E.; Freid, E. B.; Fuchs, H. (2006)
      Previous research on gender differences and collaboration technology illustrate the need to investigate gender issues as early as possible in the development cycle in order to avoid any negative consequences the technology may impose. Therefore we are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology now when only a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technology exists. We conducted a controlled lab study using a post-test design in which male and female paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim (a computerized mannequin) in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy. The results show several gender differences that imply male paramedics may inherently receive more benefits from use of the 3D telepresence technology than female paramedics.