• Abstraction and the Organization of Images: František Kupka and the Organization of Graphic Motifs

      Olson, Hope; Lussky, Joan (2008)
      František Kupka (1871-1957), a Czech painter who spent most of his career in France, one of the artists sometimes described as the father of abstract art, a sometime spirit medium and theosophist, also has a contribution to make to the organization of information. At a knowledge organization conference in Washington, DC some years ago I visited the National Gallery of Art and, rounding a corner, was confronted by Kupka's roughly six-by-six foot painting Organization of Graphic Motifs II. The painting along with its earlier and later variants epitomizes Kupka's interpretation of how images are organized in the creation of art. This paper will lay open Kupka's philosophy of art as it parallels or opposes some of the basic tenets of the organization of information with the Organization of Graphic Motifs cluster of works as an example. The proposed paper will elaborate on Kupka's philosophy of art, explore examples, consider the implications for representation of images/knowledge/information, and pose questions. In knowledge organization we typically presume that our goal is to represent reality as closely as possible. For Kupka there is a truth in representing a new, artist-constructed reality. Is the notion of a different reality and a representation that conflicts with "real" reality acceptable or anathema in the organization of images (or knowledge)? Are artists the only ones who can create representations in a new reality or can classifiers/indexers do so as well? How does this vision of representation contribute to inconsistency and subjectivity in the organization of images/knowledge/information?
    • Academic authors, scholarly publishing and open access in Australia

      Kennan, Mary Anne (2007-04)
      This paper briefly describes the rapidly changing research evaluation and funding landscape in Australian universities, specifically in relation to open access and institutional repositories. Recent announcements indicate that funding and evaluation bodies are becoming increasingly concerned that publicly funded research be made publicly available. The paper then reports a survey of all levels of academic staff plus research students at one Australian university conducted in May 2006, prior to the introduction of an institutional repository. The survey, in line with previously reported surveys, found that while there was a high level of engagement with scholarly publishing, there was a low level of awareness of, or concern with, either open access ("green" or "gold") or the roles repositories can play in increasing accessibility of research. Practically, this indicates that much work needs to be done within this university to increase knowledge of, and change behaviours with regard to, open access and repositories if the university and its academics are to make the most of new funding requirements and research evaluation processes.
    • Academic blogs

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram (2005)
      This article provides an overview of academic blogs in general and introduces, ASC Online, an advising and mentoring blog for graduate students in LIS at the University of Arizona. Other types of academic blogs are highlighted along with brief information about blog directories, search engines, and rankings.
    • Academic Libraries in India: a Present-Day Scenario

      Mahajan, Preeti; Bolin, Mary K.; Eckwright, Gail Z. (Library Philosophy and Practice (LPP), 2005)
      Education aims to impart knowledge and makes good citizens. Libraries are the repositories of knowledge and form an integral part of education. Libraries have a long history, starting with the chained and closed-access libraries of earlier times to the present-day hybrid, digital, and virtual libraries that use the latest technology for provision of information through various services. Accordingly, librarians have also changed from storekeepers who were concerned with protection of books against theft, mutilation, and pilferage, to that of information officers, navigators, and cybrarians who find themselves in the vast ocean of reading material and are busy in satisfying their clients who want anytime and anywhere information. With the advent of computers, the nature of libraries has changed dramatically. Computers are being used in libraries to process, store, retrieve and disseminate information. As a result, the traditional concept of library is being redefined from a place to access books to one which houses the most advanced media including CD-ROM, Internet, and remote access to a wide range of resources. Libraries have now metamorphosed into digital institutions. Gone are the days when a library was judged by its quantitative resources. Today, libraries are surrounded by networked data that is connected to a vast ocean of Internet-based services. Moreover, electronic resources relevant to the professions are developing at an unprecedented pace. Academic libraries are considered to be the nerve centres of academic institutions, and must support teaching, research, and other academic programmes. The situation in academic libraries of India is the same as that of academic libraries the world over; however, Indian libraries must provide maximum information with limited resources.
    • Academic Library Code of Ethics

      Nelson, Shawn T. (2003-11)
      This Code of Ethics intends to promote activism on the part of the librarian to advance intellectual freedom and access issues to the community. Libraries are in danger. The danger lies in a few specific areas: in the accessibility of information via the Internet so people do not feel they need to come to a library for information; privacy violations by the government in the name of security; low pay which drives potential librarians to the private sector in search of higher paying jobs; a sense of atrophy in the administration of libraries; rising costs and the corporatization of libraries; and the pressure to compete with retail bookstores in customer service and other quantifiable measures. (Roberto and West, 2003) Librarians must do whatever they can, no matter how small or large the contribution, to fight for their rights and the rights of patrons. Activism is most commonly believed to be picketing, marching, and petitioning; things that are seen on the nightly news. But librarians can be activists on a much more simple level. By becoming a member of every organization in their particular field, reading as much related material as possible, and simply being aware of what is going on in our profession, librarians can become a much more powerful group of professionals.
    • The Academic Library Meets Web 2.0: Applications & Implications

      xu, chen (2007)
      This study proposes a new vision of Academic Library 2.0 based on Web 2.0 applications. A survey of the academic libraries on Long Island, New York will be conducted to find out: 1) What Web 2.0 applications have been actually used in academic libraries, and 2) What implications Web 2.0 would bring to academic libraries. Finally, this study intends to suggest a framework of Academic Library 2.0 according to the survey and related literature.
    • Academic Medical Libraries at the Crossroads: Managing Knowledge to Enhance Our Mission

      Schnell, Eric H.; Cain, Timothy; Kroll, Susan (2005-04)
      This presentation provides an overview of the creation of the Center for Knowledge Management at The Ohio State Univeirsty.

      Chakravarty, Rupak; Randhawa, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Manoj (INFLIBNET Centre, 2006)
      Search engines are about excitement, optimism, hope and enrichment. Search engines are also about despair and disappointment. A researcher while using search engines for resource discovery might have experienced one or the other sentiments. One may say that user satisfaction depends much upon the search strategies deployed by the user. But at the same time its also depends upon the quality of search engine used for information retrieval. Today, there are many search engines used for resource discovery. They display the results of the searches made in readily-comprehensible manner with lots of customization possibilities including refining and sorting. This paper is an attempt to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the three most used and popular search engines for academic resource discovery: Google Scholar, Scirus and Windows Live Academic.
    • The Academic Web Link Database Project

      Thelwall, Mike; Binns, Ray; Harries, Gareth; Page-Kennedy, Teresa; Li, Xuemei; Musgrove, Peter; Price, Liz; Wilkinson, David (2002)
      This project was created in response to the need for research into web links: including web link mining, and the creation of link metrics. It is aimed at providing the raw data and software for researchers to analyse link structures without having to rely upon commercial search engines, and without having to run their own web crawler. This site will contain all of the following. *Complete databases of link structures of collections of academic web sites. *Files of summary statistics about the link databases. *Software tools for researchers to extract the information that they are particularly interested in. *Descriptions of the methodologies used to crawl the web so that the information provided can be critically evaluated. *Files of information used in the web crawling process.
    • Access and Management of Government Information in Africa: the case of Kenya

      Kamar, Nerisa (2006)
      The role of government information in good governance is explained and the factors hindering effective management of this information in Kenya are discussed. These factors relate to lack of a National Information Policy, poor information communication technology infrastructure, unqualified manpower, information illiteracy, poor remuneration, and lack of commitment from the information professionals. It concludes with how the hindering factors may be handled to ensure timely flow of government information. Keywords: Information, Management, Governance, Kenya
    • The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship

      Willinsky, John (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006)
      This work is copyrighted by MIT Press and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License . MIT Press has granted permission to place a copy in dLIST. Readers can also purchase the book from MIT Press, which publishes it (see alternative location for details). Following abstract is from MIT Press: Questions about access to scholarship go back farther than recent debates over subscription prices, rights, and electronic archives suggest. The great libraries of the past -- from the fabled collection at Alexandria to the early public libraries of nineteenth-century America -- stood as arguments for increasing access. In The Access Principle, John Willinsky describes the latest chapter in this ongoing story -- online open access publishing by scholarly journals -- and makes a case for open access as a public good. A commitment to scholarly work, writes Willinsky, carries with it a responsibility to circulate that work as widely as possible: this is the access principle. In the digital age, that responsibility includes exploring new publishing technologies and economic models to improve access to scholarly work. Wide circulation adds value to published work; it is a significant aspect of its claim to be knowledge. The right to know and the right to be known are inextricably mixed. Open access, argues Willinsky, can benefit both a researcher-author working at the best-equipped lab at a leading research university and a teacher struggling to find resources in an impoverished high school. Willinsky describes different types of access -- the New England Journal of Medicine, for example, grants open access to issues six months after initial publication, and First Monday forgoes a print edition and makes its contents immediately accessible at no cost. He discusses the contradictions of copyright law, the reading of research, and the economic viability of open access. He also considers broader themes of public access to knowledge, human rights issues, lessons from publishing history, and "epistemological vanities." The debate over open access, writes Willinsky, raises crucial questions about the place of scholarly work in a larger world -- and about the future of knowledge. John Willinsky is Pacific Press Professor of Literacy and Technology at the University of British Columbia. He is the author of Empire of Words: The Reign of the OED and a developer of Open Journals Systems software.
    • Access to Global Information - A case of Digital Divide in Bangladesh

      Rahman, Md. Anisur (2007)
      ICTs can reduce communication costs and break down geographical borders. In the developed nations government policies are being established which attempt to ensure that all citizens will get the opportunity to access the effective use of ICTs in order to enable them to participate in the educational, social and economic activities and democratic processes. Developed countries are getting much benefit from the advancement of ICTs. There is digital divide between developed and developing countries. The term digital divide has been applied to the gap that exists in most countries between those with ready access to the tools of ICTs, and those without such access or skills. In other words, it is the gap between the haveâ s and the have notâ s. The digital divide around the world is usually measured through statistical indices such as the number of telephone lines, personal computers, websites and Internet users and their ratio to the total population. This paper reviews the papers on issues related to digital divide that are affecting so many citizen in developing countries especially in Bangladesh and the factors that alienate people from enjoying the benefits of ICTs. The author recommends possible strategies that can be implemented in developing countries to reverse the widening gap of digital divide.
    • Action-Research application in Evidence-Based practice for libraries

      Civallero, Edgardo; UDC Consortium (2007-08)
      Evidence Based Librarianship (EBL) seeks for and promotes the improvement of the librarian practice through the use of the best available evidence. Strongly used in medical contexts, Evidence Based Practice can be an important tool for the development of LIS, if practice is carefully thought and wisely combined with research and theoretical reflection. In order to achieve a state of equilibrium between theories and empirical studies, a qualitative method –action research- may be applied, as a dialogue between abstract ideas and the facts and signs provided by concrete experiences. Through action research, librarians can collect the evidence –using a series of qualitative tools- and use it for building theoretical knowledge in order to improve their work and their profession. From this viewpoint, after putting something into practice they will be able to know whether it worked as expected or not, make any change if it is necessary, and test the whole process again, searching more and new evidence. The method becomes a progressive helix that leads librarians to continuously evaluate their activities and services and improve them according of their final users’ needs. Fitting these ideas in the general context of “Library 2.0” new LIS model and in the particular situation of Social Sciences libraries, the conference briefly introduces some basic ideas on how action research should be employed for collecting and using evidence in LIS.
    • Actionable Knowledge Discovery using Multi-Step Mining

      DharaniK; Kalpana Gudikandula; Department of CS, JNTU H, DRK College of Engineering and Technology Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; Department of IT, JNTU H, DRK Institute of Science and Technology Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India (International Journal of Computer Science and Network (IJCSN), 2012-12-01)
      Data mining is a process of obtaining trends or patterns in historical data. Such trends form business intelligence that in turn leads to taking well informed decisions. However, data mining with a single technique does not yield actionable knowledge. This is because enterprises have huge databases and heterogeneous in nature. They also have complex data and mining such data needs multi-step mining instead of single step mining. When multiple approaches are involved, they provide business intelligence in all aspects. That kind of information can lead to actionable knowledge. Recently data mining has got tremendous usage in the real world. The drawback of existing approaches is that insufficient business intelligence in case of huge enterprises. This paper presents the combination of existing works and algorithms. We work on multiple data sources, multiple methods and multiple features. The combined patterns thus obtained from complex business data provide actionable knowledge. A prototype application has been built to test the efficiency of the proposed framework which combines multiple data sources, multiple methods and multiple features in mining process. The empirical results revealed that the proposed approach is effective and can be used in the real world.
    • Adapting Educational Resources for Collaborative On-line Peer Review

      Weatherley, John (2001)
      This thesis looks at a computer-mediated communication (CMC) and publishing system used to facilitate collaborative peer review of multimedia educational objects. The occurrence of electronic scholarly publishing has increased dramatically in recent years due in part to the immediacy and overall reach of the Internet and it’s ability to transmit diverse forms of electronic media. Previous studies indicate, however, that there is a perceived lack of prestige and legitimacy associated with electronic journals as well as electronically enabled peer review. This is due in part to a perceived lack of permanence associated with electronic media, a lack of familiarity with electronic media and a lack of fully developed conventions of citation. New forms of electronically based peer review have been explored that enable a collaborative review process among reviewers and authors, breaking from traditional models where communication channels are mediated through an editor. The ability of CMC to enable collaboration within geographically dispersed communities offers strong motivation for its use. This thesis develops a framework for collaborative peer review based on social capital that suggests an overall benefit for scholarly communities that incorporate collaborative forms of review. An examination is performed of collaborative peer review used in a new journal that features multimedia-rich geoscience educational objects: the Journal of Earth System Science in Education (JESSE). Technical issues surrounding the preparation of these objects for the CMC review environment are discussed and a process model for publishing is developed. A redesign of the toolkit used to prepare objects for the review environment is implemented and task-centered usability assessments are performed. The outcome of these steps suggested a potential for increased legitimacy and prestige of electronic publishing could develop out of a well-designed CMC environment and collaborative review model. It was found that scholars who participated in the peer review perceived a benefit from the collaborative process and that the process was seen as providing a separate service from traditional peer review. On the publishing end, the redesigned toolkit implementation was seen as providing greater accessibility to non-technically oriented users.
    • Adapting educational resources for collaborative on-line peer review

      Weatherley, John (2001)
      This thesis looks at computer-mediated communication (CMC) and publishing system used to facilitate collaborative peer review of multimedia educational objects.
    • Adapting to Seniors: Computer Training for Older Adults

      Bean, Carol; Laven, Michael; Colvin, Gloria (Florida Library Association, 2003-10)
      Teaching older adults to use computers requires taking into account the effects of the aging process. Techniques which work for a younger generation will not necessarily be successful with older novices, but modifications which improve the outcome for older students also work well with younger learners. This article explains how computer trainers at the Palm Beach County Library System's North County Regional Library created a mousing class and modified existing classes to create a series of four classes designed specifically for older adults who have never used a computer before. The article also summarizes the difficulties older adults face in learning to use computers, and ways to improve the learning outcome.
    • Adapting Web Archive Catalogues for Dynamic Change

      Wu, Paul H-J; Ichsan, Tamsir P.; Nguyen, Ngoc Giang; Julien, Masanes; Andreas, Rauber (2007)
      Web archives are an important source of information. However, before a Web archive can be properly utilized, it needs to be catalogued. This is to ensure that the accessed materials yield the historical understanding intended by the researcher. At the same time, the dynamic nature of the Web will easily render these catalogues outdated, and there is a constant need to monitor when the Web catalogues become irrelevant upon change of the Web content. This means a substantial amount of human effort is required to maintain the catalogue records for the Web archives, adding additional burden to any institutions that maintain it. In this paper, we propose an automatic mechanism to monitor changes in Web content, so that human workload can be reduced. The system combines two component technologies to make this possible: (1) a contextualized annotation module and (2) an evidence change detection module. Contextualized annotation enables the cataloguing process to link content on the Web page (the evidence), to the value assigned for an element of a metadata schema. Thus, the metadata is â supportedâ by certain Web content that functions as evidence for a cataloguing decision. Regardless of changes in the webpages outside of the evidence, the metadata remains valid as long as all the evidence remains the same. In order to achieve evidence-specific change detection, we need to extend the traditional Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) based Diff engine using a Page Coordinate translation algorithm, which we argue, through a survey, is the first among many other Web content monitoring approaches.
    • Administrative policy as symbol system: Political conflict and the social construction of identity

      Robbin, Alice (Sage Publications, 2000-12)
      Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, formerly known as Statistical Policy Directive 15, is a classification system that governs the U.S. government's collection and presentation of data on race and ethnicity. The directive underwent a public evaluation between 1993 and 1997 to determine whether the racial and ethnic group categories should be revised. This article links theories of the role of the state in the social order and the social construction of identity to explain how conflictual political processes modify administrative policy. Two narratives on the debates over the reclassification of "Native Hawaiians" and the addition of a "multiracial" category illustrate recent political conflicts over group identities established by state agencies. The author argues that the main explanation for administrative policy changes was the responsiveness of state agencies to political demands of significantly mobilized groups with claims to state resources.
    • Adoption of Open Source Digital Library Software Packages: A Survey

      Jose, Sanjo; Manoj Kumar, K (INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad, 2007)
      Open source digital library packages are gaining popularity nowadays. To build a digital library under economical conditions open source software is preferable. This paper tries to identify the extent of adoption of open source digital library software packages in various organizations through an online survey. It lays down the findings from the survey.