• Call numbers, book numbers and collection arrangements in European library traditions

      Slavic, Aida; UDC Consortium (Ess Ess Pub, 2009)
      Throughout the long history of the library, there have been many examples of methodical approaches to creating techniques, tools and knowledge that contribute to creating the library profession as we know it today. Collection arrangement and book labelling represent skills that are built into the very foundations of librarianship.With the opening of each new library, with collection merging or moving, or when building open access to a collection from scratch, librarians continue to question the methods they inherited. Librarians have to have a good understanding of the details and functions of book labelling in order to make an informed decision on how much of the work required for book labelling and re-shelving can be saved or replaced by other methods of locating and presenting documents.
    • CAMEOs of a Researcher: Marcia J. Bates

      White, Howard D. (2005-01)
      This is a presentation (of 16 slides) in Session 3.1 - Contemporary Intellectual History: Reflections on the Work of Marcia J. Bates, on Wednesday, Jan. 12, at the 2005 ALISE Conference. The work of Marcia J. Bates is discussed by concentrating on 1) her research areas, and 2) her citation records. Bates' work is portrayed in four different ways: descriptors assigned to her works over time, her citation identity (authors whom she cites), her citation image-makers (authors who cite her), and her citation images (authors co-cited with her).
    • Can Scientific Journals be Classified in terms of Aggregated Journal-Journal Citation Relations using the Journal Citation Reports?

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      This is a preprint of an article published in Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57 (5):601-613, 2006. The aggregated citation relations among journals included in the Science Citation Index provide us with a huge matrix which can be analyzed in various ways. Using principal component analysis or factor analysis, the factor scores can be used as indicators of the position of the cited journals in the citing dimensions of the database. Unrotated factor scores are exact, and the extraction of principal components can be made stepwise since the principal components are independent. Rotation may be needed for the designation, but in the rotated solution a model is assumed. This assumption can be legitimated on pragmatic or theoretical grounds. Since the resulting outcomes remain sensitive to the assumptions in the model, an unambiguous classification is no longer possible in this case. However, the factor-analytic solutions allow us to test classifications against the structures contained in the database. This will be demonstrated for the delineation of a set of biochemistry journals.
    • Canadian Copyright Law: Perceptions of Creators and Users

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2005-05)
      Information is increasingly seen as the commodity which drives both national and international trade. The legal concept of copyright can function to regulate and balance the dissemination of information to ensure that creators are fairly compensated for access to their creations. Advances in information technology have resulted in increasing interest in the harmonisation of copyright law as copying of material and transportation across borders becomes much easier and much harder to control. While owners and creators wage a desperate battle to remain in complete control of the distribution of their creations, libraries and educational institutions imagine the possible benefits of 24/7 access to information for their patrons. The important question is how to ensure the continuance of the balance between the rights of the creators of information, in order to ensure their continued production of works, and the rights of the users of information. Canada has recently amended its copyright act (http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/c-42/38965.html) to further the process of coming into compliance with international treaties. In preparation for these changes, the government of Canada solicited comments on proposed changes to copyright law. These comments are available on the web and consist of the unedited submissions from 700 Canadians or interested groups, both corporate and non-profit. (http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/incrp-prda.nsf/en/h_rp01105e.html) These responses will be analysed using content analysis and informetric methods. The emphasis will be on examining how people are viewing their relationship to copyrighted works and the Copyright Act. The attitudes discovered in these responses will be compared to the published Library and Information Science literature. This material is ripe for analysis and will provide valuable insights into Canadian perspectives on copyright.
    • Canonization, Archivalization, and the "Archival Imaginary"

      Matienzo, Mark A. (2008-07)
      In this paper, I argue that there are archival counterparts to the constructs of literary canon formation. Using Eric Ketelaar’s concept of ‘archivalization,’ which is the sociocultural process that determines whether something will be archived, I subsequently define the concept of ‘archivicity’ as the abstract set of properties of a record that determines if a record is ‘archival’ or ‘non-archival.’ We will also investigate the institutional embodiment of a holistic ‘archival paradigm,’ wherein archives and archivists recognize their role as preserving and potentially interpreting records as a form of cultural capital. However, as we will see, this paradigm also has a central role in the perpetuation of ideology. Finally, we will investigate ways in which to ‘open the archives’ by transforming and rethinking archival practice given our analysis.
    • Capturing Evolving Visit Behavior in Clickstream Data

      Moe, Wendy W.; Fader, Peter S. (2001-01)
      Many online retailers monitor visitor traffic as a measure of their storesâ success. However, summary measures such as the total number of visits per month provide little insight about individual-level shopping behavior. Additionally, behavior may evolve over time, especially in a changing environment like the Internet. Understanding the nature of this evolution provides valuable knowledge that can influence how a retail store is managed and marketed. This paper develops an individual-level model for store visiting behavior based on Internet clickstream data. We capture cross-sectional variation in store-visit behavior as well as changes over time as visitors gain experience with the store. That is, as someone makes more visits to a site, her latent rate of visit may increase, decrease, or remain unchanged as in the case of static, mature markets. So as the composition of the customer population changes (e.g., as customers mature or as large numbers of new and inexperienced Internet shoppers enter the market), the overall degree of visitor heterogeneity that each store faces may shift. We also examine the relationship between visiting frequency and purchasing propensity. Previous studies suggest that customers who shop frequently may be more likely to make a purchase on any given shopping occasion. As a result, frequent shoppers often comprise the preferred target segment. We find evidence supporting the fact that people who visit a store more frequently are more likely to buy. However, we also show that changes (i.e., evolution) in an individualâ s visit frequency over time provides further information regarding which customer segments are more likely to buy. Rather than simply targeting all frequent shoppers, our results suggest that a more refined segmentation approach that incorporates how much an individualâ s behavior is changing could more efficiently identify a profitable target segment.
    • Capturing Users' Behavior in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL)

      Pan, Bing (2003-05)
      This is a report prepared by the author in the Human-Computer Interaction Group, Information Science Program, Department of Communication at Cornell University. It firstly gives an introduction to NSDL; then the complexity of capturing userâ s behavior on the Internet is discussed. The report then discussed the details of this project, including the web log analysis tools used, data cleaning process, the results of data analysis and its interpretation. Finally a general conclusion was given and its implication for digital library design is provided.
    • Castles and Inverted Castles: The work of Marcia J. Bates

      Hartel, Jenna (2005)
      A total of 32 slides were presented in Session 3.1 â Contemporary Intellectual History: Reflections on the Work of Marcia J. Bates, at the 2005 ALISE Conference. The presentation uses â castleâ and â inverted castleâ as metaphors for Batesâ work. It concludes that Bates has created â castlesâ and â inverted castlesâ across the field of Library and Information Science, that clarify, structuralize, and popularize key notions about information. The work of Bates and influence on others is discussed.
    • The Catalog as Portal to the Internet

      Thomas, Sarah E. (Library of Congress, 2000)
      For well over a century, the catalog has served libraries and their users as a guide and index to publications collected by an institution. The attributes of the catalog that have made it a valuable resource are desirable traits in any information management tool.The Library catalog user has traditionally assumed that items listed in the catalog were carefully chosen to support an institutional mission and that they were available for her inspection. Internet portals, gateways to the Web, like the catalog, offer access to a wide range of resources, but differ from the catalog in a number of ways, perhaps most significantly in that they facilitate searching and retrieval from a vast, often uncoordinated array of sites, rather than the carefully delimited sphere of the library's collections. Web information has proven much more volatile, ephemeral, and heterogeneous. Can we re-interpret the catalog so that it can serve effectively as a portal to the Internet? Is the catalog the appropriate model for discovery and retrieval of highly dynamic, rapidly multiplying, networked documents? Until relatively recently, the catalog has been the dominant index to published literature for library users. Web portals are rapidly usurping this primacy. Libraries today are struggling as they strain to incorporate a variety of resources in diverse formats in their catalogs and to maintain centrality and relevancy in the digital world. This paper will examine the features of the catalog and their portability to the Web, and will make recommendations about the Library catalog's role in providing access to Internet resources.
    • Cataloging and You: Measuring the Efficacy of a Folksonomy for Subject Analysis

      Smith, Tiffany; Lussky, Joan (2007)
      Folksonomies, or user-created taxonomies, are currently used as collaborative tools to describe images, films, hyperlinks, and other objects and documents. LibraryThing is a website that lets users catalog their own book collections through the use of Library of Congress Subject Headings and social tagging. This paper records the results of exploratory research focusing on the connection between folksonomies and controlled vocabulary and utilizing LibraryThing as a possible benchmark to measure taggingâ s efficacy and accuracy as an instrument for subject analysis.
    • Cataloging Theory in Search of Graph Theory and Other Ivory Towers. Object: Cultural Heritage Resource Description Networks

      Murray, Ronald J.; Tillett, Barbara B.; Library of Congress (2011-07-18)
      The report summarizes a research program that has been investigating how catalogers, other Cultural Heritage information workers, World Wide Web/Semantic Web technologists, and the general public understand, explain, and manage resource description tasks by creating, counting, measuring, classifying, and otherwise arranging descriptions of Cultural Heritage resources within the Bibliographic Universe and beyond it.
    • Categorization Is Difficult: Use of an Electronic Notebook For Organizing Design Meeting Notes

      Gwizdka, Jacek (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES), 1998)
      The electronic engineering notebook is a pen-based computer tool designed to capture engineering notes and to assist in structuring them to facilitate subsequent information access. Experiments were conducted in which free-form and fixed-form note-taking interfaces were compared with respect to capturing and structuring notes from a design meeting. Suitability of domain-based and user-defined terminologies for semantic structuring was also tested. Results from the experiment confirmed that a free-form interface was easier to use for note-taking and structuring notes than were forms with fixed structure. However, difficulties with applying semantic categorizations were observed in both types of interface. The results indicated that terminology should be chosen appropriately to a task, and that experienced users have less problems with applying it. The experiment also demonstrated high diversity in note-taking styles, thus highlighting the need to accommodate individual preferences in electronic notebooks.
    • cc-IFF: A Cascading Citations Impact Factor Framework for the Automatic Ranking of Research Publications

      Dervos, Dimitris A.; Kalkanis, Thomas (IEEE, 2005)
      A new framework is proposed for the calculation of impact factor ratings of research publications. Given a collection of research articles, the corresponding citations graph is constructed in the form of a relational table. The impact value is considered at the article level, and is calculated by considering not only the citations made directly to an article, but also citations made to the corresponding citing article(s). In this respect, an improved algorithm is utilized, namely one that traverses all the threads in the citations graph, in an attempt to improve the degree of fairness in assigning credit for the impact value of each one article. When two articles have an equal number of (direct) citations, the one that has triggered more research activity (i.e. its citing articles attract a larger number of citations at subsequent levels in the citations graph) is assigned a higher impact value and, consequently, is ranked to be better.
    • The Challenge of Scientometrics: The Development, Measurement, and Self-Organization of Scientific Communications, pp. 1-25

      Leydesdorff, Loet (Universal Publishers, Parkland, Florida, 2001)
      The quantitative study of scientific communication challenges science and technology studies by demonstrating that organized knowledge production and control is amenable to measurement. First, the various dimensions of the empirical study of the sciences are clarified in a methodological analysis of theoretical traditions, including the sociology of scientific knowledge and neo-conventionalism in the philosophy of science. Second, the author argues why the mathematical theory of communication enables us to address crucial problems in science and technology studies, both on the qualitative side (e.g., the significance of a reconstruction) and on the quantitative side (e.g., the prediction of indicators). A comprehensive set of probabilistic entropy measures for studying complex developments in networks is elaborated. In the third part of the study, applications to S&T policy questions (e.g., the emergence of a European R&D system), to problems of (Bayesian) knowledge representations, and to the study of the sciences in terms of 'self-organizing' paradigms of scientific communication are provided. A discussion of directions for further research concludes the study.
    • Challenges of preparing LIS professionals for leadership roles in Pakistan: An analysis of the status

      Ameen, Kanwal; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Library leadership is almost an unexplored area in LIS education and literature in Pakistan. All library education schools in the country offer management courses to impart skills needed for managing libraries but there hardly exists awareness regarding the importance of inducing leadership concept and traits—as distinct to managerial skills—among LIS academia, researchers and practitioners. The paper explores different aspects of the issue with specific reference to Pakistan by using triangular research method. The review of the literature was instrumental in developing data-gathering tools. Data was obtained from professionals through questionnaire, content-analysis, focus group, discussion and personal observation & experience. The paper identified fundamental leadership attributes required for LIS professionals and their status among professionals in Pakistan. General and specific barriers related to the profession were also identified as LIS education, poor working of professional associations, low profile among the public, low status among other colleagues in the same organization, low self-esteem and so forth. Findings suggest that emerging social, professional and technological scenario in the country requires information professionals, with leadership qualities, to foresee and create the future by timely planning and not become the victim of unforeseen changes. The role of the concerned quarters in this regard has also been suggested.
    • The Challenging and Critical Role of Information Professionals in Combating AIDS in India

      Ghosh, Maitrayee (2006)
      This is the presentation version of the paper (same title) published in the Proceedings of the 2006 Asia-Pacific Conference on Library & Information Education & Practice (ALIEP), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The nature of work for librarians and information professionals are undergoing a profound transformation due to the arrival of deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS and changing information needs of users. Information professionals serving in different libraries can provide dedicated service to the society by helping to provide health care information about HIV/AIDS not only in urban setting but also in rural environment.
    • The challenging and critical role of information professionals in combating AIDS in India

      Ghosh, Maitrayee; Bhatt, Jay; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The nature of work for librarians/information professionals is undergoing a profound transformation, due to the arrival of deadly diseases like AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and the change in information needs of the local community. This change necessitates much more professional expertise, updated knowledge, critical thinking and involvement in developing effective AIDS literacy programs. Information professionals serving in different libraries or potential information dissemination centers can provide dedicated services to society by helping to access AIDS information not only in urban settings but also in rural environments. This paper outlines strategies for effective collaboration in the context of AIDS literacy promotion efforts. It identifies a number of obstacles in the process of empowering the community and suitable measures essential for success.
    • The Changing Nature of Information Work in Museums

      Marty, Paul F. (2005)
      Slides from Marty, P.F. (2005). The Changing Nature of Information Work in Museums. iForum Lecture Series, School of Information, University of Texas at Austin. October 20, 2005.
    • The Changing Nature of Information Work in Museums

      Marty, Paul F. (2007)
      This paper presents results from twenty-one semi-structured interviews with museum information professionals (MIPs) who were asked about their experiences working with information resources, tools, and technologies. Interviews were analyzed to determine 1) the challenges MIPs face as they adapt to changing technical capabilities and strive to meet the changing needs and expectations of museum users; and 2) the coping mechanisms MIPs employ on the job that enable them to deal effectively with those challenges. The paper presents the results of this analysis, exploring how MIPs cope with the changing nature of information work in museums by relying on thirteen different strategies, including assessing new technologies in relation to the museumâ s core mission, helping museum professionals embrace new ideas about information access and provision, and promoting internal practices that encourage the sharing of information and the integration of information science into museum work. The paper discusses the implications of these challenges and strategies for current and future MIPs, and assesses their impact on changing perceptions, roles, and research for information professionals in museums as they work to meet the information needs of all museum users.
    • Changing reference service environment: A review of perspectives from managers, librarians, and users

      Rieh, Soo Young (Elsevier B.V., 1999)
      This is a preprint of an article published in the Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(3), pp. 178-186. This article reviews the literature on academic library reference service, and examines changes in the traditional reference desk model. Based on the review from the perspectives of managers, librarians, and users, new research directions are proposed in which usersâ information-search processes and librariansâ intervention in reference service are integrated.