• E-Learning and E-content Development Opportunities in Library and Information Science

      Rathinasabapathy, G.; Laxman Rao, N.; Sudharshan Rao, S. (IATLIS, 2005)
      E-learning is the use of information technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. It uses the power of networks, primarily those that rely on the Internet technological channels, and digital content. It can include training, the delivery of just-in-time information and guidance from experts. It is the fastest growing sector of the higher education market worldwide. It is sure e-learning is the only way by which we can make India, a knowledge based society. Library and Information science courses are suitable to offer through e-learning mode as e-learning offers so many advantages over the distance education. In this context, this paper attempts to highlight the initiatives taken by various institutions to offer e-learning facilities and the funding offered by Government departments and agencies to support e-learning and e-content development in various disciplines including Library and Information science.
    • E-learning in LIS education in India

      Kawatra, P. S.; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Traces the history of e-learning to the learning age where knowledge will be freely accessed, profoundly abundant, and offered in cornucopia of formats. Distance learning has been accepted and recognized as a mode of education in LIS. The concept of open and distance learning is discussed. In the changing scenario of the society, the skills required of LIS professionals are also identified. The paper also examines the impact of the Internet on the teacher's role and explores the types of skills and strategies that teachers will need to be effective and efficient in online learning environments. The paper provides an insight into the innovative multi-channel delivery modes adopted by the different universities and their effectiveness for the LIS distance learners. Guidelines for distance learning Library services approved by Association of College and Research Libraries on June 29, 2004 are also discussed. For assessment and accreditation of LIS distance education institutions in India, areas have been identified.
    • E-Mail Interviewing in Qualitative Research: A Methodological Discussion

      Meho, Lokman I. (Wiley, 2006-08)
      This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting indepth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitative research. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and telephone interviewing. A list of recommendations for carrying out effective e-mail interviews is presented.
    • E-quality and e-service equality

      Shachaf, Pnina; Oltmann, Shannon M. (IEEE Press, 2007)
      Research is divided about the potential of e-service to bridge communication gaps, particularly to diverse user groups. According to the existing body of literature, e-service may increase or decrease the quality of service received. This study analyzes the level of service received by different genders and ethnic groups when public librarians answer online reference queries. Quality of e-service was evaluated along three dimensions: responsiveness, reliability, and courtesy. This study found no significant differences among different user groups along any of these dimensions, supporting the argument that the virtual environment facilitates equitable service and may overcome some challenges of diverse user groups.
    • E-quality and e-service equality

      Shachaf, Pnina; Oltmann, Shannon M. (IEEE Press, 2007)
      Research is divided about the potential of e-service to bridge communication gaps, particularly to diverse user groups. According to the existing body of literature, e-service may increase or decrease the quality of service received. This study analyzes the level of service received by different genders and ethnic groups when public librarians answer online reference queries. Quality of e-service was evaluated along three dimensions: responsiveness, reliability, and courtesy. This study found no significant differences among different user groups along any of these dimensions, supporting the argument that the virtual environment facilitates equitable service and may overcome some challenges of diverse user groups.
    • e-Research and the Ubiquitious Open Grid Digital Libraries of the Future

      Patkar, Vivek; Chandra, Smita (2006)
      Libraries have traditionally facilitated each of the following elements of research: production of new knowledge, its preservation and its organization to make it accessible for use over the generations. In modern times, the library is constantly required to meet the challenges of information explosion. Assimilating resources and restructuring practices to process the large data volumes both in the print and digital form held across the globe, therefore, becomes very important. A recourse by the libraries to application of successive forms of what can be called as Digital Library Technologies (DLT) has been the imperative. The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is one recent development that is expected to assist the libraries to partner in setting up virtual learning environment and integrating research on a near universal scale. Future extension of this concept is envisaged to be that of Grid Computing. The technologies driving the â Gridâ would let people share computing power, databases, and other on-line tools securely across institutional and geographic boundaries without sacrificing the local autonomy. Ushering an era of the ubiquitous library helping the e-research is thus on the card. This paper reviews the emerging technological changes and charts the future role for the libraries with special reference to India.
    • E-Resources for Indian Universities: New Initiatives

      Chakravarty, Rupak; Singh, Sukhwinder; Gopinath, M.A. (Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, 2005-03)
      Academic Libraries in India are facing the problem of shrinking/static budgets and simultaneous exponential rise in journal prices. The need of the hour is to find a pragmatic solution to this problem. Something substantial has to be done in order to facilitate access to scholarly resources to research scholars and faculties. UGC-INFONET and INDEST- Consortium are two major initiatives that have come to the rescue of academic libraries so that they can cater to the needs of academia depending upon them. These revolutionary steps are providing scholarly resources including peer reviewed journals, databases, abstracts, proceedings, etc. These efforts will definitely boost the higher education system in our country.
    • Ebresphere: a territorial community around blogs

      Gil-Solés, Daniel; Pla-Alcaide, Carme (2007-07)
      Five events are described in a chronological order, which, according to the authors, have driven the consolidation of a territorial community around blogs in Terres de l'Ebre (in Tarragona, south of Catalonia). From this historical evolution, some conclusions come out on the current role blogs are playing in Terres de l'Ebre and their main features along with the proposal of Ebresphere as the name to define this community. Future prospectives and tendencies to follow-up are proposed. Finally, a classification is established about large groups of blogs configuring this community.
    • Echo Chambers or Windows on the World? Partisan Selective Exposure and the Online News Environment

      Garrett, Kelly (2005-12)
      How will people use the Internet and other emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) to shape their exposure to political information? Will Internet users be inclined to fashion an information environment that reflects their own political predispositions, or will they continue to encounter a range of perspectives online? In this talk Garrett addresses these questions using two interconnected research projects. The first project uses nationally representative survey data to examine how contemporary use of the Internet is influencing citizens' overall exposure to political information. The second project focuses on individual choices about exposure to news items in an online environment that affords enhanced control over partisanship. Taken together, these projects clarify the contemporary dynamic of selective political exposure, providing evidence about citizens' underlying preferences regarding political information. The results suggest that individuals' preference for support and their aversion to challenge are different. People (1) seek out sources that support their viewpoints; (2) are interested in news items with which they agree; and (3) use online sources to increase their repertoire of opinion-supporting arguments. They do not, however, systematically exclude exposure to other viewpoints. Ultimately, this research suggests that individuals value awareness of other perspectives, while simultaneously wanting to limit their contact with them.
    • The economic and aesthetic axis of information organization frameworks (extended abstract)

      Tennis, Joseph T.; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      When we examine how and why decisions get made in the indexing enterprise writ large, we see that two factors shape the outcome: economics and aesthetics. For example, the Library of Congress has reduced the time and effort it has spent on creating bibliographic records, while the Library and Archives Canada has begun coordinating the work of librarians and archivists in describing the documentary heritage of Canada (Oda and Wilson, 2006; LAC, 2006). Both of these initiatives aim at reducing costs of the work of description. They are decisions based on economic considerations. When engaged in deciding what fields, tags, and indicators to use in cataloguing, librarians consider the cost of labour and whether or not the system will use that work for display and retrieval. On the other hand, international bodies craft standards that are designed to shape the indexing enterprise. For example, we see the form of controlled vocabularies in ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005. We then evaluate such vocabularies as to whether or not they comport with that form. This is one interpretation of the aesthetic consideration of indexing. We can take this further. We can look at indexing theory and, for example the work of Ranganathan and the CRG, and compare instantiations of classification schemes as to whether or not they are truly faceted. These examples result from designers and implementers of description and identification systems asking: what is good enough? When is my framework for information organization good enough? Though each of these acts is governed by a different purpose (sometimes pragmatic, sometimes artistic), the acts involved, the identification and description of resources, is measured against both economic and aesthetic concerns: how much does it cost, and how well does it comply with an abstract form, how is it evocative of our human urge to name and organize? Information organization frameworks, like those discussed above, comprise structures, work practices, and discourses. Examples of structure would be: the bibliographic record, the archival description, and the list developed by the patrons of the art installation. Work practices enable, result in, and evaluate structures, and the discourse shapes how priorities and purposes are aligned in both work practices and structures. Key to all examples of and components of Information Organization Frameworks are considerations of cost and compliance with abstract form (standardization or design). This paper explores the diversity of information organization frameworks, looking specifically at how aesthetic concerns and economic concerns manifest their work practices, structures, and discourse. In order to do this I examine the manuals and policies that shape work practice, the structures and their paratextual material (introductions, how-to-use guides, etc.), and the literature that references these practices and structures. I take the position that we need to move into a more descriptive stance on practices of knowledge organization, not only in documentary heritage institutions (libraries, archives, and museums), but also into the cultural and artistic realms. By expanding the scope of inquiry we can interrogate the integrity of my assertion above that information organization frameworks wrestle with, and manifest along a spectrum drawn from economic to aesthetic decision-making. This project, investigating the economic-aesthetic axis of information organization frameworks, follows the recent development in knowledge organization research, which is moving from prescriptive (how to design systems) to a descriptive (what systems are being built, how and why) approach, (Beghtol, 2003; Andersen, 2005). By engaging in this work, we grow more familiar with not only the professional concerns with knowledge organization, but rather, expand the scope of our inquiring into the knowledge organization practices for various purposes, and develop a deeper understanding of the human urge to name and organize.
    • Educating 21st century LIS professionals - The needs and expectations: A survey of Indian LIS professionals and alumni

      Varalakshmi,, R. S. R.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      LIS education focuses on developing manpower suitable to the demands of the contemporary information environment. There is need to audit the LIS curriculum for its relevance to the 21st century hybrid environment. This paper analyzes the opinions of young and experienced professionals on existing LIS coursesâ ability to meet the demand and increase employability. The paper proposes a general framework to overcome the lacunae.
    • Educating future knowledge-literate library and information science professionals

      Sarrafzadeh, Maryam; Hazeri, Afsaneh; Hochner, William "Bill"; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper reports the core findings of an international study that examined the perceptions of LIS community towards knowledge management inclusion in the LIS education. Taking the perspectives of members of international LIS communities, we try to identify the rationale for a paradigm shift in library education towards knowledge management. We also explore the perceptions of LIS community towards the nature and content of knowledge management program in the LIS education which best meets the challenges of the knowledge management work environment.
    • Education and training in electronic records management (ERM): The need for partnership building

      Johare, Rusnah; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The use of computers within the electronic environment has led to rapid and dynamic changes in the way governments and businesses operate. One of the significant outcomes of computerization is that managing electronic records now relies on IT and it needs to be integrated into the business processes of an organization. Therefore electronic records management (ERM) not only requires the involvement of key players in recordkeeping, such as records managers and archivists, but also IT personnel and administrators under a common shared responsibility to establish a credible electronic records management programme. According to McLeod, Hare and Johare (2004) managing records in the electronic environment is not only a major challenge but also increasingly a strategic issue for organizations in both the public and private sectors. They suggested that “a key factor in meeting both the challenge and addressing the strategic management is the provision of education and/or training for employees and potential employees (i.e students). In particular, providing this at the appropriate level of detail and in the appropriate areas of the subject, commensurate with roles and responsibilities so that these people can discharge, both effectively and efficiently, their responsibilities for managing records in the electronic environment”. Within this context, this paper examines the education and training opportunities on ERM worldwide and in Asia.
    • Education for Information Literacy Instruction: A Global Perspective

      Julien, Heidi (2004)
      This is an ALISE juried paper presented on Monday, January 11, 2005 in Session 1.4, LIS Curriculum: Global library Perspectives, of the 2005 ALISE Conference, Boston, MA. This is a study that offers a systematic analysis in the area of information literacy instruction. The results suggest a range of appropriate topics for courses in instruction, and highlight exemplary courses that could be used as a starting point to revise an existing course or develop a new one.
    • EDUCATION FOR LIBRARY SERVICE TO YOUTH IN FIVE COUNTRIES

      Adkins, Denice; Higgins, Susan; Maynard, Dr. Sally (Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2006)
      In this study, youth services instructors from five countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States) were surveyed as to the content of youth-oriented classes they had taught between 2000 and 2003. As anticipated, a content analysis of those descriptions revealed that the youth-oriented library curriculum was heavily dominated by childrenâ s and young adult materials. Management of the youth library and foundations of youth library services were less frequently emphasized. Descriptive content is remarkably similar between regions, but looking at an analysis of the content with regard to national differences suggests additions to curricula based on the needs of each country.
    • The education needs of information professionals for South East Asia in the digital era, with special attention to the needs of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Preliminary results of a Delphi study

      Tam, Lawrence Wai-Hong; Mills, John; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper reports the results of PhD research into the future needs of library professionals for educa-tion in the digital era with special consideration to the needs of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The research method used was a Delphi study and representatives from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and the United States were chosen as participants in the study. This paper outlines the special features of this method and why it was se-lected, how it was implemented and initial findings from the study. The research attempted to identify an ideal curriculum especially for use in the Hong Kong SAR, China, but also for consideration in other areas of South East Asia. It was conducted using the Delphi technique which is based upon the premise that a decision made by a group is more reliable and thus more desirable than a decision made by an individual.
    • The effect of display size and text splitting on reading lengthy text from screen

      Dillon, Andrew; Richardson, John; McKnight, Cliff (Taylor & Francis, 1990)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A., Richardson, J. and McKnight, C. (1990) The effect of display size and paragraph splitting on reading lengthy text from screen. Behaviour and Information Technology, 9(3), 215-227. Abstract: The present paper reports on an experimental investigation of reader performance and preferences with a screen-presented journal article. The effects of display size (20 lines and 60 lines) and sentence splitting on readers' manipulation, comprehension and subjective impressions are assessed. The results indicate that neither variable significantly affects comprehension but adjusted manipulation levels are significantly higher in the small window condition. Splitting sentences across screens also caused readers to return to the previous page to re-read text significantly more. Subjective data reveal a preference for larger screens and high awareness of text format. Implications for future work are discussed.
    • The Effect of display size on reading and manipulating electronic text

      Richardson, John; Dillon, Andrew; McKnight, Cliff; Megaw, E.D. (London: Taylor and Francis, 1989)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Richardson, J., Dillon, A., and McKnight, C. (1989) The effect of window size on reading and manipulating electronic text. In E. Megaw (ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 1989. London:Taylor and Francis, 474-479. Abstract: With the advent of hypertext the presentation of electronic text is becoming an increasingly important issue. However, most research to date has focused on simplistic measures of reading speed or navigation in highly controlled presentation formats, often using very constrained texts and task scenarios. The present paper attempts a more meaningful analysis of the effect of window size on reader comprehension and manipulation of real-world texts. Reading a journal article for comprehension and a software manual for specific information are both investigated. Results indicate that screen size is not a major factor in performance on either task but readers express a strong preference for larger screens.
    • Effectively Visualizing Library Data

      Phetteplace, Eric; Chesapeake College (American Library Association, 2012-12-20)
      As libraries collect more and more data, it is worth taking some time to analyze the data we collect and effectively present it. This article details how to use visualization to investigate trends and make compelling arguments with data.