• Faceted navigation and browsing features in new OPACs: A more robust solution to problems of information seekers? (extended abstract)

      La Barre, Kathryn; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      In November, 2005, James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, proposed the creation of a “World Digital Library” of manuscripts and multimedia materials in order to “bring together online, rare and unique cultural materials.” Google became the first private sector partner for this project with a pledge of 3 million dollars (http://www.loc.gov/today/pr/2005/05- 250.html). One month later, the Bibliographic Services Task Force of the University of California Libraries released a report: Rethinking how we provide bibliographic services for the University of California. (Bibliographic Services Task Force, 2005). Key proposals included the necessity of enhancing search and retrieval, redesigning the library catalog or OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog), encouraging the adoption of new cataloguing practices, and supporting continuous improvements to digital access. By mid-January, 2006, the tenor of discussion reached fever pitch. On January 12, 2006, the North Carolina State University (NCSU) Library announced the deployment of a revolutionary implementation for their OPAC of Endeca’s ProFind™, which until now had only been used in commercial e-commerce or other business applications. NCSU made the bold claim that “the speed and flexibility of popular online search engines” had now entered the world of the online catalog through the use of faceted navigation and browsing (NCSU, online). A few days later, Indiana University posted A White Paper on the Future of Cataloging at Indiana University which served to identify current trends with direct impact on cataloging operations and defined possible new roles for the online catalog and cataloging staff at Indiana University (Byrd et. al, 2006). The Indiana report was a response to an earlier discussion regarding The Future of Cataloging put forth by Deanna Marcum, Director of Public Service and Collection Management at the Library of Congress (Marcum, 2005). Marcum posed a provocative series of questions and assertions based in part on the Pew Internet and American Life Project study: Counting on the Internet (Horrigan and Rainey, 2005). “[D]o we need to provide detailed cataloging information for digitized materials? Or can we think of Google as the catalog?” Following Marcum’s comments, and the announcement of the “World Digital Library”, the Library of Congress released a commissioned report in March 2006, The changing nature of the catalog and its integration with other discovery tools” (Calhoun, 2006). This report contained blueprints for change to Library of Congress cataloguing processes, advocated integration of the catalog with other discovery tools, included suggestions that the Library of Congress Subject Headings LCSH, long used to support subject access to a variety of cultural objects, be dismantled, and argued that fast access to materials should replace the current standard of full bibliographic records for materials. These arguments were supported by assertions that users seem to prefer the ease of Google over the catalog, and that the proposed changes would place the Library of Congress in a better market position to provide users with the services they want most (Fast and Campbell, 2004; OCLC, 2002). The ensuing debates served to crystallize the intersection and convergence of the traditional missions of the Libraries, Archives and Museum (LAM) communities to provide description, control and access to informational and cultural objects. One consistent theme emerged: What competencies and roles can each community bring to bear upon discussions of digitization, access and discovery, and provide solutions for user needs? The library community had a ready answer. Originally designed to provide inventory, acquisitions and circulation support for library staff, the modern library catalog was designed according to a set of principles and objectives as described by Charles Ammi Cutter in 1876. These principles and objectives underpin the core competency of the library community to create bibliographic records designed to assist users in the following tasks: to find (by author, title and subject), and to identify, select and obtain material that is of interest to them. Discussions about the aims of the catalog are not new and have been ongoing since the early 1970s when the earliest forays of the catalog into the digital age began (Cochrane, 1978). The role played by metadata (i.e. bibliographic records assembled in catalogs), as well as the central importance of search and retrieval mechanisms have long been central players in proposed solutions to providing better services to users. Thus, the suggestions of staff at the Library of Congress, that digitization is tantamount to access, and that search engines, like Google, may supplant the catalog as the chief means of access to cultural and informational materials, have galvanized action throughout the library and information science community. It is critical that any discussions and recommended solutions maintain a holistic view of the principles and objectives of the catalog. The actions and continuing discussions that resulted from these developments drew heavily from several sources, including the experiences of the LAM community with the creation of metadata standards, Web 2.0 applications that make data work harder, more accessible and consolidated, the appeal of folksonomy and social classification, and the importance of leveraging rather than abandoning legacy access systems in a time of spiraling costs and decreasing budgets. For archived discussions of these issues see: lNGC4LIB listserv (Next Generation Catalogs for Libraries http://listserv.nd.edu/archives/ngc4lib.html) and Web4LIB discussion list (http://lists.webjunction.org/web4lib/). Another valuable source is Lorcan Dempsey’s blog, Of libraries, services and networks (http://orweblog.oclc.org/). To leverage some legacy subject access systems it is proposed that more (not less) should be done to process these data, and corresponding authority files (e.g. thesaurus files) in order to use the faceted navigation and browsing features of new online search engines to best advantage. An ongoing research proposal will be described in brief, concentrating on the second goal of a project which plans to develop an integrated conceptual framework which could serve all designers working on information access and discovery systems. A framework for critical analysis of needed and missing features that is grounded in traditional principles, borne out by practice (Cutter, 1976; La Barre, 2006; Ranganathan, 1962) and which builds on feature analysis protocols for early OPACs is urgently needed (Cochrane, 1978; Hildreth, 1995). Further, another analysis of the sufficiency of current data preparation is long overdue (Anderson and Peréz-Carballo, 2005). This position paper builds on La Barre (2006, unpublished dissertation) which studied faceted browsing and navigation in websites, using wireframe analysis. This research uncovered features needed for digital library OPAC design. Building on JISC and Sparks work, a future study will focus on the information seeking research academics and the information seekers, rather than the general public, or the overstudied undergraduate user, thus rounding out the work of others cited by Marcum, Kuhlthau, etc.
    • Facets in UDC: a review of current situation

      Gnoli, Claudio; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2011-12)
      The author explains some general principles in structuring classifications, in particular the facet as a basic building element of the scheme. The paper provides an overview of structural and presentational elements of facets and how these can be expressed through notational system. The author also analyses the way some broad fundamental facets of concepts are presented in UDC tables, when these are represented by special auxiliaries, and proposes a way of normalising facet presentation so that it becomes consistent and easy to recognize in UDC.
    • Facilitating access and use of Bioinformatics Information Resources through Digital Library Systems

      Ram, Shri; Kataria, Sanjay; Chandra, Harish; Hariharan, A (Society for Advancement of Library and Information Science, 2006)
      As the Recombinant DNA, Gene Cloning and DNA sequencing technologies improved in 1970s the scientists began to think about the possibilities of sequencing the 3x109 nucleotide pairs in human genome. This led to the launch of the Human Genome Project (1990), and the greatest discovery in the field of life sciences, is near to completion. Vast and ever expanding diverse information on bioinformatics resources are being developed. These include databases of biological information, software tools etc. Advances in Internet Technology have largely affected to the bioinformatics resources as heterogeneous sources of information. It facilitates the uniform access to the educational, academic and research information sources to the bioinformaticians for their research and developmental activities. This paper describes awareness about the bioinformatics information resources and digital library needs of students at Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan (HP) and how it can be helpful to access the information resources on bioinformatics through digital library techniques.
    • Factors hindering effective management of Government Information in Kenya

      Kamar, Nerisa (2006)
      The role of government information in good governance is explained and the factors hindering effective management of this information in Kenya are discussed. These factors relate to lack of a National Information Policy, poor information communication technology infrastructure, unqualified manpower, information illiteracy, poor remuneration, and lack of commitment from the information professionals. It concludes with how the hindering factors may be handled to ensure timely flow of government information. Keywords: Information, Management, Governance, Kenya
    • Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

      Pomerantz, Jeffrey (2004-07)
      This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance of triage by identifying factors that triagers take into consideration during their performance of question triage. Thirty-eight factors that influence triage decisions were identified, in eight categories. Eight of these factors are intrinsic to the question itself; the remaining thirty factors are extrinsic to the question, situating it in a context for the user and the service. These factors must be taken into consideration by any future system for automated triage.
    • Factors Influencing Error Recovery in Collections Databases: A Museum Case Study

      Marty, Paul F. (2005)
      This article offers an analysis of the process of error recovery as observed in the development and use of collections databases in a university museum. It presents results from a longitudinal case study of the development of collaborative systems and practices designed to reduce the number of errors found in the museumâ s databases as museum employees packed and moved their collections over a period of five years. Drawing upon a specific set of eighteen months worth of records documenting error rates and error management techniques, this article identifies three factors that influenced the ability of museum staff members to recover from errors found in their collections databases. The article concludes by examining the potential impact of these factors on the design of future collections databases in order to shed light on the wider issue of error recovery procedures in all information organizations.
    • The Farming Community in Crisis: The information needs of Cumbrian Farmers during the UK 2001 foot and mouth outbreak and the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs)

      Hagar, Chris (2005-12)
      The UK 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak constituted the biggest crisis ever to affect the UK farming system; it was one of the worst epidemics of its kind in the world. Farmers and rural communities were disrupted and traumatized as FMD spread rapidly through the whole of the country. The crisis unfolded as a series of information and communication problems, primarily from government to farmers with consequences for action in a time of crisis. This study explores the multiple informational needs that faced the Cumbrian farming community, during the crisis. Already geographically remote and isolated farming communities suffered â isolation within isolationâ . As biosecurity measures were implemented to control the spread of the disease, the places where farmers usually meet to communicate and exchange information, either shut down or became inaccessible. It investigates how farmers accessed the information they needed to deal with the crisis and examines the factors which made information seeking difficult. A mixed method approach was used of semi-structured interviews with members of farming house-holds supported by document analysis of a number of publicly available resources. Results highlighted the importance of: changes in information needs at different stages of the crisis; context in which information seeking took place; overlap of information and emotional needs; formal and informal channels of information seeking during the crisis; farmers as information providers as well as information seekers; sense-making approach to information seeking during the crisis; trusted information sources; the need for a mix of ICTs during the crisis; ICTs as a catalyst for innovation during the crisis; place and space and new venues and meeting places for communities in a crisis and providing a local response (The Pentalk Network www.pentalk.org ) to a national crisis.
    • Feasibility of Exploiting Bibliometric Data in European National Bibliographic Databases

      Schwens, Ute (1998)
      Both international organisations like UNESCO and IFLA and national organisations like governmental statistic bureaus, bookseller associations and market research companies have made a continnous effort to collect bibliometric figures on a worldwide, European or national scale. UNESCO publishes this kind of data in its 'Statistical Yearbook'. National statistical yearbooks are published annually containing bookproduction/ bookmarket figures as a special part. Market research companies are charged to find out information concerning special matters of the booktrade based on an international or national level.
    • Federal Repositories: Comparative Advantage in Open Access?

      Hutchinson, Alvin (2005-11)
      Federal science agencies publish a large volume of peer-reviewed papers each year but much of it is restricted to subscribers of commercial publications. Since copyrights are much less restrictive with federally-authored works, these agencies should exploit this "comparative advantage" by creating publicly accessible repositories of these electronic reprints.
    • Federated Search of Scientific Literature

      Schatz, Bruce R.; Mischo, William; Cole, Timothy; Bishop, Ann Peterson; Harum, Susan; Johnson, Eric H.; Neumann, Laura; Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun Dorbin (IEEE, 1999-02)
      The Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) was one of six sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, and NASA from 1994 through 1998. Our goal was to develop widely usable Web technology to effectively search technical documents on the Internet. We concentrated on building the experimental Illinois DLI Testbed with tens of thousands of full-text journal articles from physics, engineering, and computer science, and on making these articles available over the Internet before they are available in print. Our DLI Testbed used document structure to provide federated search across publisher collections, by merging diverse tags from multiple publishers into a single uniform collection. Our sociology research evaluated the usage of the DLI Testbed by more than a thousand UIUC faculty and students. Our technology research moved beyond document structure to document semantics, testing contextual indexing of document content on millions of documents.
    • Federated Search of Scientific Literatures: A Retrospective on the Illinios Digital Library Project

      Schatz, Bruce R.; Mischo, William; Cole, Timothy; Bishop, Ann Peterson; Harum, Susan; Johnson, Eric H.; Neumann, Laura; Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun Dorbin; Harum, S.; et al. (UIUC, 2000)
      The NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), 1994-1998, had the goal of developing widely usable Web technology to effectively search technical documents on the Internet. The DLI testbed focused on using the document structure to provide federated searches across publisher collections. Our sociology research included the evaluation of its effectiveness under use by over 1,000 UIUC faculty and students, a user community an order of magnitude bigger than the last generation of research projects centered on searching scientific literature. Our technology research developed indexing of the contents of text documents to enable a federated search across multiple sources, testing this on millions of documents for semantic federation. This article will discuss the achievements and difficulties we experienced over the past four years.
    • Federating diverse collections of scientific literature

      Schatz, Bruce R.; Mischo, William; Cole, Timothy; Hardin, J.; Bishop, Ann Peterson; Chen, Hsinchun (IEEE, 1996-05)
      A University of Illinios project is developing an infrastructure for indexing scientific literature so that mutliple Internet sources can be searched as a single federated digital library.
    • Fighting organized crimes: using shortest-path algorithms to identify associations in criminal networks

      Xu, Jennifer J.; Chen, Hsinchun (Elsevier, 2004)
      Effective and efficient link analysis techniques are needed to help law enforcement and intelligence agencies fight organized crimes such as narcotics violation, terrorism, and kidnapping. In this paper, we propose a link analysis technique that uses shortest-path algorithms, priority-first-search (PFS) and two-tree PFS, to identify the strongest association paths between entities in a criminal network. To evaluate effectiveness, we compared the PFS algorithms with crime investigatorsâ typical association-search approach, as represented by a modified breadth-first-search (BFS). Our domain expert considered the association paths identified by PFS algorithms to be useful about 70% of the time, whereas the modified BFS algorithmâ s precision rates were only 30% for a kidnapping network and 16.7% for a narcotics network. Efficiency of the two-tree PFS was better for a small, dense kidnapping network, and the PFS was better for the large, sparse narcotics network.
    • Figure and Table Retrieval from Scholarly Journal Articles: User Needs for Teaching and Research

      Sandusky, Robert J.; Tenopir, Carol; Casado, Margaret M. (2007)
      This paper discusses user needs for a system that indexes tables and figures culled from scientific journal articles. These findings are taken from a comprehensive investigation into scientistsâ satisfaction with and use of a tables and figures retrieval prototype. Much previous research has examined the usability and features of digital libraries and other online retrieval systems that retrieve either full-text of journal articles, traditional article-level abstracts, or both. In contrast, this paper examines the needs of users directly searching for and accessing discrete journal article components â figures, tables, graphs, maps, and photographs â that have been individually indexed.
    • Filling Preposition-based Templates To Capture Information from Medical Abstracts

      Leroy, Gondy; Chen, Hsinchun (2002)
      Due to the recent explosion of information in the biomedical field, it is hard for a single researcher to review the complex network involving genes, proteins, and interactions. We are currently building GeneScene, a toolkit that will assist researchers in reviewing existing literature, and report on the first phase in our development effort: extracting the relevant information from medical abstracts. We are developing a medical parser that extracts information, fills basic prepositional-based templates, and combines the templates to capture the underlying sentence logic. We tested our parser on 50 unseen abstracts and found that it extracted 246 templates with a precision of 70%. In comparison with many other techniques, more information was extracted without sacrificing precision. Future improvement in precision will be achieved by correcting three categories of errors.
    • Final Report for the AMeGA (Automatic Metadata Generation Applications) Project

      Greenberg, Jane; Spurgin, Kristina; Crystal, Abe (2005)
      Summary of findings (from Executive Summary of report for Goal 1 (complete), Goal 2, (Partial), Goal 3 (see actual document)): Research in the area of automatic metadata generation falls, primarily, into two areas: Experimental research, focusing on information retrieval techniques and digital resource content, and applications research, focusing on the development of content creation software and metadata generation tools used in the operational setting. The main finding, presented in this report, is that there is a disconnect between experimental research and application development. It seems that metadata generation applications could be vastly improved by integrating experimental research findings. Metadata generation applications might also improve metadata output if they took advantage of metadata generation functionalities supported by content creation software. For example, Microsoft Word supports the metadata generation of a number of elements that conceptually map to the Dublin Core metadata standard. Some of these elements are generated automatically, while others need to be input by a document author or another person. Content creation software provides a means for generating metadata, which can be harvested by metadata generation applications. More research is needed to understand how metadata creation features in content creation software are used in practice. ... Two-hundred and seventeen (217) survey participants provided responses useful for data analysis (the initial goal was to recruit at least 100 participants). Three quarters of participants had three or more years of cataloging and/or indexing experience, verifying their status as metadata experts. Organizations are using a variety of different metadata standards (selected examples include: MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC)â bibliographic format, Dublin Core, Encoded Archival Description, Gateway to Educational Materials, Metadata Object Description Schema, Text Encoding Initiative, and the Government Information Locator Service). Most participants (81%) reported using one or two systems for metadata creation in their organization, whereas one participant reported the use of seven different systems.
    • Finding Finding Aids on the World Wide Web

      Tibbo, Helen R.; Meho, Lokman I. (Society of American Archivists, 2001)
      Reports results of a study to explore how well six popular Web search engines performed in retrieving specific electronic finding aids mounted on the World Wide Web. A random sample of online finding aids was selected and then searched using AltaVista, Excite, Fast Search, Google, Hotbot and Northern Light, employing both word and phrase searching. As of February 2000, approximately 8 percent of repositories listed at the 'Repositories of Primary Resources' Web site had mounted at least four full finding aids on the Web. The most striking finding of this study was the importance of using phrase searches whenever possible, rather than word searches. Also of significance was the fact that if a finding aid were to be found using any search engine, it was generally found in the first ten or twenty items at most. The study identifies the best performers among the six chosen search engines. Combinations of search engines often produced much better results than did the search engines individually, evidence that there may be little overlap among the top hits provided by individual engines.
    • Finding Problems Versus Solving Them: Inquiry in Information Seeking

      Bruce, Bertram C. (2006-06)
      This is the keynote presentation delivered at The Sixth Conference on Problem-Based Learning in Finland: Constructing knowledge in information society, Tampere, 2006 June 6-7. Abstract: Finding information, especially accurate, timely, and relevant information, is increasingly important in nearly all human endeavors. Accordingly, numerous studies have examined the processes information seekers employ, as well as the strategies information providers use to meet their needs. Most models emphasize satisfaction or closure as the criterion for successful completion of an information search; thus the emphasis is on solving a specific problem. But often, information seeking is part of some larger process, which is invisible to the information provider and often unclear even to the seeker. Successful search may lead not so much to eliminating an existing, well-defined problem, as to delineating a new problem within a complex, ill-defined space. This paper examines information seeking from an inquiry, or problem-based perspective, and argues that the fields of information seeking and problem-based learning can benefit from closer dialogue.
    • Finding Problems Versus Solving Them: Inquiry in Information Seeking

      Bruce, Bertram C. (2006-06)
      This is the keynote presentation delivered at The Sixth Conference on Problem-Based Learning in Finland: Constructing Knowledge in information society, Tampere, 2006 June 6-7. Abstract: Finding information, especially accurate, timely, and relevant information, is increasingly important in nearly all human endeavors. Accordingly, numerous studies have examined the processes information seekers employ, as well as the strategies information providers use to meet their needs. Most models emphasize satisfaction or closure as the criterion for successful completion of an information search; thus the emphasis is on solving a specific problem. But often, information seeking is part of some larger process, which is invisible to the information provider and often unclear even to the seeker. Successful search may lead not so much to eliminating an existing, well-defined problem, as to delineating a new problem within a complex, ill-defined space. This paper examines information seeking from an inquiry, or problem-based perspective, and argues that the fields of information seeking and problem-based learning can benefit from closer dialogue.
    • Finding the Skills for Tomorrow: Information Literacy and Museum Information Professionals

      Marty, Paul F. (2006)
      This paper presents results from twenty-one semi-structured interviews with museum information professionals who were asked about their experiences working with information resources, tools, and technologies in museums. The interviews were analyzed to develop an understanding of the information literacy skills of museum information professionals. This paper presents the results of this analysis, and discusses the state of information literacy in museums and the increasing need for museum information professionals to possess information literacy skills. The results illustrate how information literacy is defined by information professionals in museums, and how perceptions of information literacy and its importance to museums have changed over time.