• Gaining Strategic Advantage through Bibliomining: Data Mining for Management Decisions in Corporate, Special, Digital, and Traditional Libraries

      Nicholson, Scott; Stanton, Jeffrey M.; Nemati, H.; Barko, C. (Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2003)
      Library and information services in corporations, schools, universities, and communities capture information about their users, circulation history, resources in the collection, and search patterns (Koenig, 1985). Unfortunately, few libraries have taken advantage of these data as a way to improve customer service, manage acquisition budgets, or influence strategic decision-making about uses of information in their organizations. In this chapter, we present a global view of the data generated in libraries and the variety of decisions that those data can inform. We describe ways in which library and information managers can use data mining in their libraries, i.e. bibliomining, to understand patterns of behavior among library users and staff members and patterns of information resource use throughout the institution. The chapter examines data sources and possible applications of data mining techniques and explores the legal and ethical implications of data mining in libraries.
    • GANNET: A machine learning approach to document retrieval

      Chen, Hsinchun; Kim, Jinwoo, 1963- (M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1994-12)
      Information science researchers have recently turned to new artificial intelligence-based inductive learning techniques including neural networks, symbolic learning and genetic algorithms. An overview of the new techniques and their usage in information science research is provided. The algorithms adopted for a hybrid genetic algorithms and neural nets based system, called GANNET, are presented. GANNET performed concept (keyword) optimization for user-selected documents during information retrieval using the genetic algorithms. It then used the optimized concepts to perform concept exploration in a large network of related concepts through the Hopfield net parallel relaxation procedure. Based on a test collection of about 3,000 articles from DIALOG and an automatically created thesaurus, and using Jaccard's score as a performance measure, the experiment showed that GANNET improved the Jaccard's scores by about 50% and helped identify the underlying concepts that best describe the user-selected documents.
    • Gender and Communication Styles on the World Wide Web

      Sutcliffe, Tami (1998)
      Certain human communication traits have historically been identified as gender-specific. The purpose of this paper is to collect and compare the most widely-indexed, gender-specific World Wide Web sites from five given interest areas, and to then determine which, if any, traditionally gender-based communication patterns were present within these sites. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, this study found that in many cases: * Female-oriented sites in this study emphasized communality * stressed sharing personal experience * resisted authoritative language * encouraged emotional interaction # Male-oriented sites in this study relied on authoritative language # emphasized privacy # stressed professionalism # minimized personal interaction . Although these sites represent only a miniscule "snap shot" of communication on the Web, they seemed to suggest that the core of traditionally identified gender-specific communication traits is being actively transplanted into Cyberspace.
    • General Library Classification in Learning Material Metadata: the Application in IMS/LOM and DCMES Metadata Schemas

      Slavic, Aida; McIlwaine, I.C. (K G Saur, 2003)
      This paper analyses the approach to resource discovery in the educational domain and stresses this community's need for a subject approach to information. The use of both general (Dublin Core) and domain specific (IEEE Learning Object Metadata/IMS Metadata) metadata schemas for learning resource discovery suggests that library classification could be used for subject description. There are several reasons why this indexing language might be suitable for the indexing of education resources. The paper will explain the reasoning behind the application of Universal Decimal Classification in the EASEL (Educator's Access to Services in the Electronic Landscape - http://www.fdgroup.com/easel) project. EASEL deploys two Dublin Core and several different application profiles of LOM i.e. IMS Metadata and this paper will explain how these two types of metadata support the use of classification.
    • Generating, Integrating, and Activating Thesauri for Concept-based Document Retrieval

      Chen, Hsinchun; Lynch, K.J.; Basu, K.; Ng, Tobun Dorbin (IEEE, 1993-04)
      This Blackboard-based design uses a neural-net spreading-activation algorithm to traverse multiple thesauri. Guided by heuristics, the algorithm activates related terms in the thesauri and converges on the most pertinent concepts.
    • Genescene: Biomedical Text And Data Mining

      Leroy, Gondy; Chen, Hsinchun; Martinez, Jesse D.; Eggers, Shauna; Falsey, Ryan R.; Kislin, Kerri L.; Huang, Zan; Li, Jiexun; Xu, Jie; McDonald, Daniel M.; et al. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 2005)
      To access the content of digital texts efficiently, it is necessary to provide more sophisticated access than keyword based searching. Genescene provides biomedical researchers with research findings and background relations automatically extracted from text and experimental data. These provide a more detailed overview of the information available. The extracted relations were evaluated by qualified researchers and are precise. A qualitative ongoing evaluation of the current online interface indicates that this method to search the literature is more useful and efficient than keyword based searching.
    • Genetic Erosion of Agrobiodiversity in India and Intellectual Property Rights: Interplay and some Key Issues

      Chaudhuri, Sabuj Kumar; DAMODARAN, A.D. (PATENTMATICS, 2005-06)
      This article has been published in Patentmatics 5 (6), June 2005. Agrobiodiversity is the backbone of a nationâ s food security and the basis of economic development as a whole. Over the years this diversity in India is under pressure due to the massive commercialisation of agriculture leading to the almost extinction of traditional farming systems. The top-down system of agricultural research, where farmers are seen merely as recipients of research rather than as participants in it, has contributed to an increased dependence on a relatively few plant varieties. This trend and the increasing industrialization of agriculture are key factors in what can only be called "genetic erosion". The term refers to both the loss of species and the reduction of variety. Behind this commercialization there lies the interest of the breeders for obtaining intellectual property rights. It has a very complicated relationship with this diversity. The paper highlights this relationship and provides some suggestions in order to rectify the current negative phenomenon.
    • Genres and the Web - is the home page the first digital genre?

      Dillon, Andrew; Grushowski, Barbara; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 2000-01)
      Genre conventions emerge across discourse communities over time to support the communication of ideas and information in socially and cognitively compatible forms. Digital genres frequently borrow heavily from the paper world even though the media are very different. This research sought to identify the existence and form of a truly digital genre. Preliminary results from a survey of user perceptions of the form and content of web home pages reveal a significant correlation between commonly found elements on such home pages and user preferences and expectations of type. Results suggest that the personal home page has rapidly evolved into a recognizable form with stable, user-preferred elements and thus can be considered the first truly digital genre.
    • The Geographic Distribution of Open Access Journals

      Haider, Jutta (2005)
      The regional distribution of Open Access (OA) journals in the ISI citation databases differs significantly from the overall distribution of journals, namely in favour of peripheral areas and regions constituted predominantly of poorer countries. According to McVeigh (2004) in the ISI citation databases as a whole, North America and Western Europe account for 90% of the titles indexed, yet they account for only 40% of OA journals. Less than 2% of European and North American journals employ the OA model, yet 15% of those from the Asia-Pacific region and 40% from Central and South America are OA. This leads the author to conclude that "[for] many journals, providing free content online expands their access to an international readership" (McVeigh 2004, p.4). Departing from this assumption the study at hand addresses the following questions: Is the geographic distribution of OA journals in general more favourable towards peripheral publishing countries? How does it differ from the distribution of scholarly journals in general? Which proportions of scholarly journals and of scholarly online journals are OA in different regions and in groups of economically similar countries?* For this purpose, publishing data for active scholarly/academic journals from Ulrich's Periodicals Directory and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) were gathered and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. The data was gathered in May 2005. The results indicate interesting differences between the geographic distribution of scholarly journals in general and the subgroup of OA journals. To illustrate, among the top 25 publishing countries for all journals, 7 do not belong to the group of high income countries*, and only 6 in the case of scholarly online journals. Yet for OA journals this number increases to 11, with Brazil taking the 3rd and India the 5th spot. According to the DOAJ almost a fifth (18%) of OA journals in the Health Sciences and over a quarter (26%) of Biology and Life Science OA journals are published in the Latin American and Caribbean region. While the group of high income countries publishes 6% of its online journals as OA, 32% of those from upper middle income countries, 10% of those from lower middle income countries, and 34% of online journals emanating from low income countries are OA. Correspondingly, 5% of online journals published in Western Europe* and 6% of those from Canada and the USA are OA, yet 51% of online journals published in Latin America and the Caribbean are. (South Asia: 7%, Africa/Middle East: 8%, Eastern Europe/Central Asia: 15% East Asia/Pacific: 15%) This also has to be seen in the light of the fact that the USA, Canada, and the countries of Western Europe together account for 80% of all registered academic online journals, while their share of OA journals amounts to 59%. Due to the fast changing nature of the subject the results are meant to provide a snapshot as well as to be indicative and exploratory, and also to invite different interpretations. Yet at the same time they are also intended to instigate debate about the role OA is attributed and its significance as a peripheral practice. Notes: * see World Bank Classification of Economies. http://www.worldbank.org/data/countryclass/countryclass.html ** for the purpose of this study â Western Europeâ means pre-enlargement European Union, plus Switzerland, Iceland, and Norway.
    • A Geographical Knowledge Representation System (GKRS)for Multimedia Geospatial Retrieval and Analysis

      Chen, Hsinchun; Smith, Terrence R.; Larsgaard, Mary L.; Hill, Linda L.; Ramsey, Marshall C. (Springer-Verlag, 1997-09)
      Digital libraries serving multimedia information that may be accessed in terms of geographic content and relationships are creating special challenges and opportunities for networked information systems. An especially challenging research issue concerning collections of geo-referenced information relates to the development of techniques supporting geographic information retrieval (GIR) that is both fuzzy and concept-based. Viewing the meta-information environment of a digital library as a heterogeneous set of services that support users in terms of GIR, we define a geographic knowledge representation system (GKRS) in terms of a core set of services of the meta-information environment that is required in supporting concept-based access to collections of geospatial information. In this paper, we describe an architecture for a GKRS and its implementation in terms of a prototype system. Our GKRS architecture loosely couples a variety of multimedia knowledge sources that are in part represented in terms of the semantic network and neural network representations developed in artificial intelligence research. Both textual analysis and image processing techniques are employed in creating these textual and iconic geographcal knowledge structures. The GKRS also employs spreading activation algorithms in support of concept-based knowledge retrieval. The- paper describes implementational details of several of the components of the GKRS as well as discussing both the lessons learned from, and future directions of, our research.
    • GIF versus JPEG: Choosing a Graphics Compression Format for Web Publications

      Nicholson, Scott (1998)
      Currently, there are two formats for graphics that are used in Web publications: GIF (officially pronounced "jif") and JPEG (also known as JPG, and pronounced "jay-peg"). Each of these standards takes a computer image and compresses it up to 100 times. Today's browsers have built-in decompressors for each format, so many Web page creators do not know which one to use. The common myth is that JPEG creates smaller files, but this is not always true. The intention of this article is to help Web page creators make an informed decision when selecting a format for each graphic in a Web publication.
    • Global Information Courses Across The Curriculum

      Albright, Kendra; Raber, Douglas (2005-01)
      This is a presentation (of 11 slides) on Tuesday January 11, 2005 in the session sponsored by the Curriculum SIG titled "Preparing Students for the International Information Society: Studying the Global Context in LIS" at the 2005 ALISE Conference, Boston, MA. The curricula of two courses offered at the School of Information Sciences, University of Tennessee are discussed: 1) The Information Society and 2) International Information Policy. The silence on issues of internationalism and "others" as evidenced by an informal content analysis of the Proceedings of the 67th Annual Meeting of the Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIST 2004 Conference) is also briefly explored.
    • A Global Perspective on Library Association Codes of Ethics

      Shachaf, Pnina (Elsevier, 2005-12)
      This study of 28 countries involves comparative content analysis of the English versions of codes of ethics proposed by professional associations. It yielded an empirically grounded typology of principles arranged in twenty categories. The most frequently identified principles were professional development, integrity, confidentiality or privacy, and free and equal access to information. While confidentiality and privacy, and equal access to information, appear in all existing typologies of library and information science ethics, other principles, such as copyright and intellectual property, democracy, and responsibility toward society, which appear in almost all other typologies, were evident in fewer than half of the codes. This empirical study provides a global perspective on library association code of ethics.
    • The Global Research Village: A view from the Periphery

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (2002)
      There is a vast difference between the rich and poor countries in every respect. The difference is very pronounced in scientific and technical research, in terms of both volume and impact. Indeed the distribution of science is even more skewed than the distribution of wealth among nations. Science in the developing countries suffers from poor funding, poor laboratory and library facilities, low productivity and poor visibility. Developing country scientists have access to only a tiny fraction of the information they need and their own contribution to science is hardly noticed by others. They are often the also-rans in world science and are rarely members of international invisible colleges or collaboratories. It is important that these countries strengthen their scientific research and their scientists become fully integrated members of the worldwide network of science. But, unfortunately, the transformations effected in the conduct of science with the advent of the new ICTs (such as high bandwidth Internet) and the ever-increasing cost of subscriptions to journals and secondary services are widening the gulf between the industrialized and developing countries. Ironically, the steep rise in the cost of S&T information has helped Third World scientists in a way, as it forced scientists and librarians in the advanced countries to think of measures to overcome the â serials crisisâ many of which can benefit Third World scientists. These include, among others, the Open Archives and E-print Initiatives, Public Library of Science, the Budapest Open Access Initiative, SPARC (the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), and BioMed Central. Also, eminent scientists like Bruce Alberts and editors like Richard Smith and world leaders like Gro Harlem Brundtland are championing the cause of enhanced access to information for Third World scientists. In response to such moves, commercial publishers of journals have allowed free delayed electronic access to a few high impact journals through institutions such as the Highwire Press of the Stanford University. Under WHOâ s Health InterNetwork, more than 25 commercial publishers have agreed to provide free (or low-cost) web access to about 2,000 biomedical journals for scientists, faculty and students working in universities, hospitals and other public institutions in the poor countries. To benefit from these initiatives, scientists in the Third World should have access to PCs and high bandwidth Internet, and many of them do not. As Bruce Alberts suggests, even if it means subsidising, such access must be ensured. Agencies such as the Third World Academy of Sciences, Inter Academy Panel, and the Inter Academy Council and Foundations such as the Soros Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Andrew Mellon Foundation, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation should work in unison to facilitate free flow of S&T information for the benefit of scientists and people everywhere. Scientists everywhere should stop publishing in expensive commercial journals and support efforts aimed at democratising access to scientific information. All this is easier said than done. Commercial publishers will not easily let go the stranglehold they enjoy now, and those who want to bring about drastic changes are dispersed around the world and cannot really act as a cohesive body that can take on the might of the commercial publishers. Mere idealism cannot win. Scientists in developing countries should take advantage of recent initiatives to open up free and low-cost access to scientific and technical information, examine the pros and cons of different possibilities that have become available and choose the right options and enlist the support of key organizations, both national and regional and international. They should become proactive. This is a background paper commissioned by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
    • Globalisation and education for the information management professions: Challenges for small countries

      Oliver, Gillian; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Globalisation raises many issues which are relevant to information management. These include the creation and implementation of international standards, records management, archives and library operational needs of multinational companies and international organisations, the transborder flow of information and the increasing international mobility of information management professionals. This paper considers the tensions that ensue from increasing globalisation in terms of small countries, specifically New Zealand, in terms of the provision of education for information management.
    • The Globalization of an Author

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2002)
      Cybermetric methodologies can be expected to reveal dimensions of communication other than those shown by scientometric operationalizations. In a previous study entitled â The organization of the semantic space of an author,â [1] I studied the use of words in titles of articles by Professor Tibor Braun as a scientific author. This was on the occasion of his 60th birthday. This year, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, the Internet has become available as another domain. Among other things, the Internet enables us to study the â globalizationâ of an author. Techniques and methodologies similar to the ones used in the previous (p)scientometric study will be used for the analysis of the semantic space of â Tibor Braunâ as a search term. The globalization of â Tibor Braunâ can then be visualized by using a simulation.
    • Goldman on Probabilistic Inference

      Fallis, Don (Springer, 2002)
      In his latest book, Knowledge in a Social World, Alvin Goldman claims to have established that if a reasoner starts with accurate estimates of the reliability of new evidence and conditionalizes on this evidence, then this reasoner is objectively likely to end up closer to the truth. In this paper, I argue that Goldmanâ s result is not nearly as philosophically significant as he would have us believe. First, accurately estimating the reliability of evidenceâ in the sense that Goldman requiresâ is not quite as easy as it might sound. Second, being objectively likely to end up closer to the truthâ in the sense that Goldman establishesâ is not quite as valuable as it might sound.
    • Google Scholar and 100% Availability of Information. Information Technology and Libraries, 25(1), 52-56

      Pomerantz, Jeffrey (2006-06)
      This paper discusses Google Scholar as an extension of Kilgourâ s goal to improve the availability of information. Kilgour was instrumental in the early development of the online library catalog, and he proposed passage retrieval to aid in information seeking. Google Scholar is a direct descendent of these technologies foreseen by Kilgour. Google Scholar holds promise as a means for libraries to expand their reach to new user communities, and to enable libraries to provide quality resources to users during their online search process.
    • Government Information and Roles of Libraries and Archives: Recent Policy Issues in Japan

      Koga, Takashi (National Institute of Informatics (Japan), 2005-03)
      Government information is an important part of the "knowledge infrastructure" of a government's citizens, in the way such information provides a reliable knowledge base relating both to laws and to everyday life. In addition, government information forms part of the historical and cultural heritage and serves as a means of accountability for current and future generations, provided that this information is archived and that its long-term accessibility is ensured. Recently, central and local governments in Japan have developed a variety of policies concerning government information, including: (1) development of e-government and (2) promotion of archival systems. This article reviews these policies and discusses the challenges faced by libraries and archives in Japan in maintaining government information as part of the nation's knowledge infrastructure.
    • GPO Access Training Manual

      Office of Electronic Information, Dissimination Service (2003)