• Hardening the Browser: Protecting Patron Privacy on the Internet

      Phetteplace, Eric; Kern, Mary Kathleen; Chesapeake College; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (American Library Association, 2012)
    • Has the market place for information professionals changed?

      Raghavan, K. S.; Agrawal, Nupur; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The focus of the information profession (LIS profession) has been and continues to be: providing access to and delivery of information needed by end-users. Until the arrival of the Internet and online era this activity was largely library-centered. But there is increasing ‘dis-intermediation’ and ‘deinstitutionalization’ of the process of information search, access and delivery. This has implications for manpower development programmes. The composition of the emerging information market also needs to be understood in order to design and implement appropriate manpower development programmes. Based on an examination of ‘market indicators’ this paper suggests that the ‘divide’ between products of educational programmes and the requirements of the market place needs to be bridged.
    • HCI and MIS: shared concerns (Editorial)

      Zhang, Ping; Dillon, Andrew; Zhang, Ping; Dillon, Andrew (Elsevier, 2003)
      The fields of HCI and MIS share many concerns but have traditionally not shared literatures, theories and results. This special issue is a first attempt at bridging the disciplinary divide. In this paper, the history of both fields is briefly outlined and reasons for the independence of eachare examined. The criteria for paper inclusion are outlined and each paper is briefly introduced.
    • HCI Hypermedia

      Dillon, Andrew; Karwowski, Waldemar (London: Taylor and Francis, 2001)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (2001) Usability Issues in Hypermedia. In: W. Karwowski (ed). Encyclopedia of Human Factors and Ergonomics. London: Taylor and Francis. 1. Introduction: Hypermedia is a general term used to describe the presentation of graphical, textual, audio and video information in nodes (chunks) that can be linked together and accessed in a manner determined by the immediate interests of the user. Originating as an idea for mechanized information access and organization that better reflected the natural workings of the human mind by Vannevar Bush (1945), the potential of the computer to provide the best means of supporting hypermedia was recognized early on by thinkers such as Ted Nelson and Doug Engelbart (for a historical overview see Conklin, 1987). The move toward hypermedia-based digital documents holds with it the promise of user-controlled, immediate access to the world of published information and stored data. While originally a specialist application domain, in the last few years the World Wide Web has brought to everyoneâ s desktop the power and problems of hypermedia interaction. Yet from the outset, human factors researchers have noted a range of user issues that prevent the simple transition from analog to digital resources
    • Health informatics on the Web

      Ebenezer, Catherine; Hann, William (Free Pint Ltd., 2002)
      An overview of web-based resources for health informatics in the UK.
    • Healthfinder Search Tips

      U.S. Department of, Health and Human Services (2004)
    • The hegemonic work of automated election technology in the Philippines

      Luyt, Brendan (2007)
      This article addresses the political role of information technology in the Philippines. It uses a theoretical framework inspired by Antonio Gramsci to examine the discourse surrounding automated elections in two major daily papers, the Philippine Daily Inquirer and Business World Philippines. It argues that this discourse strengthens current conceptions of the development process by appealing to the interests not only of the dominant fraction of capital in the country today, but also to the middle class. Such operations are essential for the creation of a historic bloc capable of exercising hegemony.
    • HelpfulMed: Intelligent Searching for Medical Information over the Internet

      Chen, Hsinchun; Lally, Ann M.; Zhu, Bin; Chau, Michael (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 2003-05)
      Medical professionals and researchers need information from reputable sources to accomplish their work. Unfortunately, the Web has a large number of documents that are irrelevant to their work, even those documents that purport to be â medically-related.â This paper describes an architecture designed to integrate advanced searching and indexing algorithms, an automatic thesaurus, or â concept space,â and Kohonen-based Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technologies to provide searchers with finegrained results. Initial results indicate that these systems provide complementary retrieval functionalities. HelpfulMed not only allows users to search Web pages and other online databases, but also allows them to build searches through the use of an automatic thesaurus and browse a graphical display of medical-related topics. Evaluation results for each of the different components are included. Our spidering algorithm outperformed both breadth-first search and PageRank spiders on a test collection of 100,000 Web pages. The automatically generated thesaurus performed as well as both MeSH and UMLSâ systems which require human mediation for currency. Lastly, a variant of the Kohonen SOM was comparable to MeSH terms in perceived cluster precision and significantly better at perceived cluster recall.
    • The Heritage of Facet Analysis in North America: Past Lessons as Pathways for Contemporary Exploration

      La Barre, Kathryn; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      This paper will contrast the broad contours of Ranganathanâ s legacy in North America with a general assessment of contemporary North American facet applications. It will also offer a potential model for contemporary researchers that outlines heritage facet-analytical protocols currently in use.
    • High energy physics R&D productivity of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre as reflected in the e-Print Archives holdings of SLAC

      Prakasan, E.R.; Tara Ashok, *; Lalit Mohan, *; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Rane, Madhuri; Nabar, Gita; Upadhye, R.P.; Mandal, Minati; Tiwari, Shalini; Gudekar, H.D.; et al. (2004-07)
      Contribution of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to the e-Print Archive services of Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) on Internet is the main focus of the study. E-Print Archives where BARC is at least one of the affiliation of authors are downloaded from the site â http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/hep/â (297 records as on November 2002) and analysed based on some bibliometric parameters. The study lead to some of the results like most productive high energy physicists, author collaboration pattern, institutional collaboration pattern both international and national, preference of publication types by HEP scientists, core journals in which scientists preferred to publish their articles, inclusion of the records in two well known databases INIS and INSPEC where high energy physics related publications are likely to occur, citations received in Science Citation Index (SCI) of ISI and the HEP database itself and key areas of research through keyword analysis. In addition to that highlight the e-print archive services are additional bibliographic sources for HEP scientists.
    • High-Performance Computing Needs of Digital Library Community: A Knowledge Management Perspective

      Chen, Hsinchun (1998-07)
      The Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Working Group, the highest level of the country's National Information Infrastructure (NII) technical committee, held an invited workshop in May 1995 to define a research agenda for digital libraries. The shared vision is an entire net of distributed repositories in which objects of any type and any size can be organized and searched within and across different indexed collections. The ultimate goal, as described in the IITA report, is the Grand Challenge of Digital Libraries: "deep semantic interoperability -- the ability of a user to access, consistently and coherently, similar (though autonomously defined and managed) classes of digital objects and services, distributed across heterogeneous repositories, with federating or mediating software compensating for site-by-site variations...Achieving this will require breakthroughs in description as well as retrieval, object interchange and object retrieval protocols. Issues here include the definition and use of metadata and its capture or computation from objects (both textual and multimedia), the use of computed descriptions of objects, federation and integration of heterogeneous repositories with disparate semantics, clustering and automatic hierarchical organization of information, and algorithms for automatic rating, ranking, and evaluation of information quality, genre, and other properties." "The use of computed descriptions of (multimedia) objects" and "clustering and automatic hierarchical organization of information" present pressing scientific and engineering problems that have a significant potential impact on the US society in this era of the Internet and distributed, multimedia computing.
    • High-speed Multiplier Design Using Multi-Operand Multipliers

      Nezhad, Mohammad Reza Reshadi; Navi, Kaivan; Department of Electrical and Computer engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Tehran 1983963113, Iran; Faculty of Department of Computer engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673440, Iran (IJCSN, 2012-04-01)
      Multiplication is one of the major bottlenecks in most digital computing and signal processing systems, which depends on the word size to be executed. This paper presents three deferent designs for three-operand 4-bit multiplier for positive integer multiplication, and compares them in regard to timing, dynamic power, and area with classical method of multiplication performed on today architects. The three-operand 4-bit multipliers structure introduced, serves as a building block for three-operand multipliers in general
    • Historical Census

      Dickstein, Ruth (1999)
      Instructional material on finding historical United States census information on the Web.
    • How Can Classificatory Structures Be Used to Improve Science Education?

      Buchel, Olha; Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Budd, John (2003-01)
      There is increasing evidence that libraries, traditional and digital, must support learning, especially the acquisition and enhancement of scientific reasoning skills. This paper discusses how classificatory structures, such as a faceted thesaurus, can be enhancedfor novice science learning. Physical geography is used as the domain discipline, and the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype project provides the test bed for instructional materials and user analyses. The use of concept maps and topic maps for developing digital learning spaces is briefly discussed.
    • How collaborative is collaborative writing? An Analysis of the production of two technical reports

      Dillon, Andrew; Sharples, Mike (London: Springer-Verlag, 1993)
      Published in: M.Sharples (Ed) Computer Supported Collaborative Writing. (London: Springer-Verlag) 1993. pp 69-86. INTRODUCTION: Psychologists have been taking an increasing interest in the writing process over the last decade and models of human cognition and task behaviour during writing are emerging (see e.g., Hayes and Flower 1980, Sharples et al 1989). Though we are far short of a complete model of this process several basic components have been identified and most theorists allude to these at some stage in their description. For example, it is reckoned (as much from common sense as experimental analysis) that most writing proceeds through a basic sequence of actions from a rough plan through a draft to a revision stage which may occur cyclically until the writer believes the document is ready. Plans can be considered as either detailed or vague, influenced by expectations of the readerâ s knowledge, the typical form of the document being produced and so forth. The drafts may vary from the extremely sketchy to the almost complete depending on the writerâ s experience, knowledge of the subject, preferred writing style etc. and revisions include such acts as minor spell checking, proofreading or complete re-writes.
    • How is knowledge about the consumer of information being applied in the design and delivery of information products and services?

      Hepworth, Mark; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This article looks at how the consumer of data, information and knowledge becomes increasingly important in relation to the design and development of electronic information products and services. In web based environment, where products are bought and sold, such services are increasingly being â tailoredâ to suit the individual and community they serve. However, current situation has meant that there is an increasing need to provide access to data, information and knowledge electronically. Reasons for this include the growing number of potential users who value and need information but cannot or may not want to be serviced face-to-face even when remote access to electronic resources has become prevalent. There is a need to create electronic environments that can relate to the complex cultural, sociological and psychological needs of the consumer. This paper provides an overview of current theories and knowledge about the information consumer. It is informed by the commoditization of information and communication tech-nologies (ICTs), products and services, the use and non-use of information in Library and In-formation Science (LIS) discipline, the need to create appropriate learning environments and lastly, the perception that all people should have equal access to such products and services and that society should be inclusive. Examples are also provided of how and where knowledge is applied, highlighting the importance of IB knowledge. The paper concludes that a deeper understanding is needs to be developed as current application of knowledge about the information consumer is rudimentary. There is a need to apply and test current knowledge.
    • How Much of It is Real? Analysis of Paid Placement in Web Search Engine Results

      Nicholson, Scott; Sierra, Tito; Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Park, Ji-Hong; Barkow, Philip; Pozo, Erika J.; Wan, Yunzhen "Jane" (2005)
      Most Web search tools integrate sponsored results with results from their internal editorial database in providing results to users. The goal of this research is to get a better idea of how much of the screen real estate displays â realâ editorial results as compared to sponsored results. The overall average results are that 40% of all results presented on the first screen are â realâ results, and when the entire first Web page is considered, 67% of the results are non-sponsored results. For general search tools like Google, 56% of the first screen and 82% of the first Web page contain non-sponsored results. Other results include that query structure makes a significant difference in the percentage of non-sponsored results returned by a search. Similarly, the topic of the query can also have a significant effect on the percentage of sponsored results displayed by most Web search tools.
    • How the Internet is Failing the Developing World

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (1999)
      One of the promises of the information revolution was that it would increase the opportunities for all people to share knowledge. But what if you don't happen to live in a developed country? Subbiah Arunachalam argues that the current lack of access to the internet for scientists in the developing world is creating a new form of poverty - information poverty - which is making it harder for them to stay abreast, let alone catch up with their colleagues in the developed world.
    • How to define a scientific term such as â A Workâ . Presentation given at American Society for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, November 12-17, 2004, Providence, Rhode Island, Sunday, November 14, 3:30-5pm Session: Interdisciplinary Concepts of the â Workâ Entity.

      Hjørland, Birger (2004-11)
      In this presentation I try to say something about how to define scientific terms in general as well as something about the specific term â a workâ . The way we define terms depends on our philosophical assumptions. I have illustrated differences between positivist and non-positivist ways of defining terms and advocated a pragmatic way of understanding terms, concepts and knowledge. I have also indicated that different subcultures within LIS tend to use different terms and concepts (such as "a work"), but have tried to demonstrate that we may gain a more coherent and satisfactory state of our field if we try to overcome the barriers between those subcultures.
    • How to survive during the transition: for publishers and librarians

      Goodman, David (2004)
      If we cannot get the system to work, the scientists will run it themselves