• James Duff Brown's Subject Classification and Evaluation Methods for Classification Systems

      Beghtol, Clare; Breitenstein, Mikel (dLIST, 2004)
      James Duff Brown (1862-1914), an important figure in librarianship in late nineteenth and early twentieth century England, made contributions in many areas of his chosen field. His Subject Classification (SC), however, has not received much recognition for its theoretical and practical contributions to bibliographic classification theory and practice in the twentieth century. This paper discusses some of the elements of SC that both did and did not inform future bibliographic classification work, considers some contrasting evaluation methods in the light of advances in bibliographic classification theory and practice and of commentaries on SC, and suggests directions for further research.
    • The Java Search Agent Workshop

      Chen, Hsinchun; Ramsey, Marshall C.; Li, P.; Gamriella, P.; Crestani, F. (Physica-Verlag, 2000)
      As part of the ongoing Illinois Digital Library Initiative project, this paper presents the Java Search Agent Workshop (JSAW), a testbed designed for Java-based information searching. Based on artificial intelligence, neural networks, and G-Search, we implemented several search methods in Java to demonstrate their feasibility in various database, Internet, Intranet, and digital library search tasks. In addition to detailing our design rationale and implementation status, we present several sample Java implementations including a best first search spider and G-Search spider for Internet searching, and a Hopfield neural network based visualizer for database searching. Lessons learned and future directions are also presented.
    • Journal article publication patterns and authorship of librarians in Taiwan and China [in Chinese]

      Lin, Wen-Yau Cathy; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Practical and theoretical researches are equally important in the discipline of library and information science. For providing a better service to users, librarians need to continuously improve problem solving and decision making skills in their workplace. Significant improvement of library service could therefore be fulfilled by studies performed and published by librarians. Consequently, evaluations on research and publishing conducted by librarians could reveal how they contribute to individual career and to the whole field advancement. Contributions to the professional literature, in the perspective of publication patterns, productivity of librarian, article types, research methodologies employed, and research topics, through collaborative by Taiwan and China librarians in selected journals from 1998 to 2002 were examined in this research. Author characteristics, such as production of individual, institutional affiliation, and co-authorship were also statistical analyzed. Three major findings stand out from this study; first, percentage of Taiwan librarian author within the overall author population in selected journals was lower than that in China. Second, â Researchâ type of articles are surprisingly rare in China. And finally, collaborations between librarians or with other professions increased through the years but were not so popular in Taiwan until now. Based on these findings, this study suggests that librarians in Taiwan should constantly pursue working with fellow librarians or other professions, and for China, library and information education should improve training on methodology.
    • Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the web

      Rieh, Soo Young; Kraft, Donald H. (Wiley, 2002)
      This is a preprint of an article published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53, 145-161. This study examines the problem of the judgment of information quality and cognitive authority by observing people's searching behavior in the Web. Its purpose is to understand the various factors that influence peopleâ s judgment of quality and authority in the Web, and the effects of those judgments on selection behaviors. It was found that the subjects made two distinct kinds of judgment: predictive judgment and evaluative judgment. The factors influencing each judgment of quality and authority were identified in terms of characteristics of information objects, characteristics of sources, knowledge, situation, ranking in search output, and general assumption.
    • A Kaleidoscope of Digital American Literature

      Brogan, Martha L.; Rentfrow, Daphnée (Digital Library Federation and Council on Library and Information Resources, 2005-09)
      This report will be useful to anyone interested in the current state of online American literature resources. Its purpose is twofold: to offer a sampling of the types of digital resources currently available or under development in support of American literature; and to identify the prevailing concerns of specialists in the field as expressed during interviews conducted between July 2004 and May 2005. Part two of the report consolidates the results of these interviews with an exploration of resources currently available. Part three examines six categories of digital work in progress: (1) quality-controlled subject gateways, (2) author studies, (3) public domain e-book collections and alternative publishing models, (4) proprietary reference resources and full-text primary source collections, (5) collections by design, and (6) teaching applications. This survey is informed by a selective review of the recent literature. Daphnée Rentfrow assisted in writing and editing the report. This 176 page report is also available from purchase for $30 from CLIR or the DLF. It is freely available in html or pdf formats from their web sites. This publication was deposited with permission of the publisher who holds copyright (Digital Library Federation Council on Library and Information Resources Washington, DC.).
    • Keeping on the Same Page and Working Together: The SIG III Approach

      Zhang, Yin (2005-10)
      This is a presentation (25 slides) at the Leadership Development session of the 2005 ASIS&T Annual Meeting at Charlotte, N.C. on October 30th. Yin Zhang is the Chair of the SIG III for 2004-2005. The presentation includes: 1) Illustration of major tools SIG III utilizes to keep everyone informed, and 2) Examples of how SIG III works on group projects such as a) International Paper Contest, and b) International Reception Planning. SIG III stands for Special Interest Group International Information Issues. ASIS&T is the American Society for Information Science & Technology.
    • Knowing our users and responding to their needs-The impact of research on services in two university libraries

      Ling, Zhang; Wang, Cong; McCarthy, Austin; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      In an earlier paper the authors discussed reference services in two university libraries and suggested changes to the services based on a user survey. They also quoted research into staff and student use of information resources. Although libraries have no difficulty in compiling quantitative data, the use of such qualitative research to delve beyond the statistics, in order to better understand user needs, perceptions and behaviours, is a recent development at Harbin Engineering University Library, China. However, at the Library of the University of Northumbria in England there is a long history of using research to evaluate services. This paper gives a very brief introduction to the value of qualitative re-search in evaluating services and providing a sound basis for management decisions about staffing and service delivery. Some of the methods used at the two universities are outlined. Finally, two case studies of research projects, one from each university, will be described and the extent to which they have resulted in changes to policies or practices will be examined.
    • Knowledge acquisition and conceptual models: A Cognitive analysis of the interface

      Dillon, Andrew; Diaper, Dan; Winder, Russell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (1987) Knowledge acquisition and conceptual models: a cognitive analysis of the interface. In: D. Diaper and R.Winder (eds.) People and Computers III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 371-379. Abstract: Understanding how users process the information available to them through the computer interface can greatly enhance our abilities to design usable systems. This paper details the results of a longitudinal psychological experiment investigating the effect of interface style on user performance, knowledge acquisition and conceptual model development. Through the use of standard performance measures, interactive error scoring and protocol analysis techniques it becomes possible to identify crucial psychological factors in successful human computer use. Results indicate that a distinction between "deep" and "shallow" knowledge of system functioning can be drawn where both types of user appear to interact identically with the machine although significant differences in their respective knowledge exists. The effect of these differences on user ability to perform under stress and transfer to similar systems is noted. Implications for the design of usable systems are discussed.
    • Knowledge Management in the digital age: Challenges and opportunities in India

      Ghosh, Maitrayee (Chiang Mai University, 2003)
      Digital revolution has transformed the intellectual function of traditional libraries and Information System managers have to play a significant role in managing internal and external knowledge resources and make it available to scientists, scholars,educators or the rural poor. In this article author discusses the concept of Knowledge Management in digital libraries and need for advanced personalisation and customization of information. The additional skills required in managing information in digital environment and especially the role of a chief knowledge officer are elaborated.
    • Knowledge Management Systems: A Text Mining Perspective

      Chen, Hsinchun (Knowledge Computing Corporation, 2001)
      This bookâ s purpose is to present a balanced and integrated view of what a Knowledge Management System (KMS) is. We first define Knowledge Management (KM) from various consulting and IT perspectives and then pay particular attention to new and emerging technologies that help promote this new field. In particular, we present a review of some key KMS sub-fields: search engines, data mining, and text mining. We hope to help readers better understand the emerging technologies behind knowledge management, i.e., Knowledge Management Systems. A high-level, although systematic, discussion of text mining is presented. Unlike search engines and data mining that have a longer history and are better understood, text mining is an emerging technical area that is relatively unknown to IT professionals. We therefore present several case studies and conclude with lessons learned and future research and development directions. This book is intended to provide a gentle introduction to researchers and IT professionals who are new to KMS. We hope it provides a non-technical and practical review of this fascinating field as well as a look at the potential and pitfalls of these emerging technologies.
    • Knowledge Management: Challenges for the special librarian

      Weerasinghe, Shivanthi; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Knowledge Management is considered important for organizational development, and organizational librarians are seen as capable players in this field. This paper presents the view that special libraries can be places for the knowledge management practices but concludes that the librarians have to move from their passive roles and assume the roles of partners in this environment.
    • Knowledge mobilization: The challenge for information professionals

      Keen, Peter G.W.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper examines the challenges that the success of library and information systems design and implementation is now generating. It makes a distinction between management and mobilization and argues that the organizational success of the interrelated fields of knowledge management and in-formation systems (KM/IS) rests on strengthening (1) their descriptive understanding of how individuals in organizations make their own choices about accessing, using and sharing knowledge and (2) corre-sponding prescriptive recommendations for adapting the technical designs of KM/IS to best accommo-date those choices. It is success that has created this need, in that every major trend in KM/IS adds to user choices and reduces institutional control; the library now has no locked doors and experts can â meetâ wherever they are and whenever they want. Blogs bypass all the formal traditions, practices, edi-torial policies, verification procedures and protections against libel and misrepresentation of traditional print media. The frequent use of the term â democratic journalismâ to describe the blog phenomenon (George, 2006) in itself implies that traditional journalism is non-democratic. While KM/IS is not driven by a search for profits in the mass consumer market, it shares the same basic aim as leaders in consumer electronics, mobile data services, and even the gaming field. It is a commitment of institutional funds, whether from research grants or in-house sources, to innovate through information technology. The pur-pose of the innovation is to enable and encourage new behaviors. Knowledge management is focused in this regard on knowledge-sharing and collaboration. Information services are generally more centered on individual information-seeking and learning. When user choices determine the adoption and impact of this type pf innovation, then obviously it is essential to understand the foundations and dynamics of choice.
    • Knowledge Organization

      Broughton, Vanda; Hansson, Joacim; Hjørland, Birger; López-Huertas, Marí­a J.; Kajberg, L.; Lorring, L. (Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, 2005)
      This chapter deals with the part of the library and information science (LIS) curriculum involving knowledge organizational systems and processes, which is an important core of the LIS discipline; arguably - together with information seeking & retrieval (IS&R) - the central core. Knowledge Organization (KO) contributes to make documents accessible for users whether they browse or search. KO is about providing optimal conditions for the identification and retrieval of documents or parts of documents. The suggestions made in this chapter are based on an analysis of the scientific knowledge about KO as developed until now.
    • Knowledge organization systems, network standards and semantic Web

      Slavic, Aida (Zavod za informacijske studije, Sveuciliste u Zagrebu, 2005)
      Aimed at students of library and information science, this paper is introductory in nature and provides basic information about the relationship between knowledge organization systems, ontologies and the World Wide Web architecture known as the Semantic Web. The Web is expected to be gradually populated by content with formalized semantics that will enable the automation of content organization and its retrieval. As implied by its name, the Semantic Web will assume a higher level of connectivity which is going to be based on resource content and meaning while the information organization will predominantly be automatic i.e. based on machine to machine (m2m) information services. This is the reason why the Semantic idea is closely related to the development of ontologies (a simple explanation of an ontology and ontology languages is given based on relevant literature). Traditional knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as classifications and thesauri have been deployed for resource organization and discovery on the Internet and have become de facto standards in resource discovery. KOS tools are likely to become even more important with the Semantic Web, providing they can be exposed and shared using ontologically orientated standards.
    • The Knowledge Pyramid: A Critique of the DIKW Hierarchy

      Fricke, Martin (2008)
      The paper evaluates the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom (DIKW) Hierarchy. This hierarchy is part of the canon of information science and management. The paper considers whether the hierarchy, also known as the ‘Knowledge Hierarchy’, is a useful and intellectually desirable construct to introduce, whether the views expressed about DIKW are true and have evidence in favour of them, and whether there are good reasons offered or sound assumptions made about DIKW. Arguments are offered that the hierarchy is unsound and methodologically undesirable. The paper identifies a central logical error that DIKW makes. The paper identifies the dated and unsatisfactory philosophical positions of operationalism and inductivism as the philosophical backdrop to the hierarchy. The paper concludes with a sketch of some positive theories, of value to information science, on the nature of the components of the hierarchy: that data is anything recordable in a semantically and pragmatically sound way, that information is what is known in other literature as ‘weak knowledge’, that knowledge also is ‘weak knowledge’ and that wisdom is the possession and use.
    • Knowledge representation

      Hjørland, Birger (2006)
      Present the concept of knowledge representation from an epistemological point of view. A given knowledge representation is always reflecting the object being represented as well as the subject doing the representation. Any given knowledge representation is always biased and perspectival. Knowledge representation in Media Studies, Psychology, Linguistics,Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence is briefly overviewed. The article is intended as an introduction to this concept for library and Information Scientists.
    • Knowledge strategy and its influence on knowledge organization

      Kasten, Joseph; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      Knowledge strategy is the set of guidelines that shape the decisions that an organization makes regarding the acquisition, storage, manipulation, and application of its knowledge base. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the influence knowledge strategy has on the manner in which an organizationâ s knowledge is organized. Using semi-structured interviews of upper level executives from various industries, relationships are established between certain characteristics of knowledge strategy types (e.g. proactive or reactive knowledge acquisition) and the organization of knowledge within the organization. Results indicate that certain aspects of a knowledge strategy are linked to certain approaches to knowledge organization, though organizational characteristics such as structure and industry type also play a major role.
    • Knowledge structures and the vocabulary of engineering novices. Presented at the Eighth International ISKO Conference, London, July 13-16, 2004.

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram (2004-07)
      This presentation is based on the refereed paper published in the ISKO 8 proceedings (see References for citation). It describes a study of the language used by undergraduate engineering students engaged in a civil engineering laboratory. Learnerâ s concepts and relationships in the area of soil consolidation were elicited in order to provide an understanding of the structural knowledge of novices and compare it with the knowledge structures of a human expert and a thesaurus tool. Concept maps and pathfinder networks were used to visualize and analyze the resultant knowledge structures of novice learners, expert, and tool. Results show that there is little similarity between the knowledge structures of the novice, the expert, and the tool. There is preliminary evidence that students with complex knowledge structures earn better grades thereby, encouraging collaborative research between instructional evaluation and knowledge organization in order to measure the educational impact of digital libraries (DL); for example, cause-effect relationships could be studied between the vocabularies used in browsing and other navigational systems in a DL and the educational outcomes achieved.
    • A Knowledge-Based Approach to the Design of Document-Based Retrieval Systems

      Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant (ACM, 1990)
      This article presents a knowledge-based approach to the design of document-based retrieval systems. We conducted two empirical studies investigating the users' behavior using an online catalog. The studies revcaled a range of knowledge elements which are necessary for performing a successful search. We proposed a semantic network based representation to capture these knowledge elements. The findings we derived from our empirical studies were used to construct a knowledge-based retrieval system. We performed a laboratory experiment to calculate the search performance of our system. The experiment showed that our system out-performed a conventional retrieval system in recall and user satisfaction. The implications of our study to the design of document-based retrieval systems are also discussed in this article.
    • Knowledge-Based Document Retrieval: Framework and Design

      Chen, Hsinchun (1992-06)
      This article presents research on the design of knowledge-based document retrieval systems. We adopted a semantic network structure to represent subject knowledge and classification scheme knowledge and modeled experts' search strategies and user modeling capability as procedural knowledge. These functionalities were incorporated into a prototype knowledge-based retrieval system, Metacat. Our system, the design of which was based on the blackboard architecture, was able to create a user profile, identify task requirements, suggest heuristics-based search strategies, perform semantic-based search assistance, and assist online query refinement.