• The M.L.S. Degree: Time for a Two-Year Program?

      Rapple, Brendan A. (Association of Library and Information Science Education, 1996)
      The author began working by asking a question: how well are library schools preparing students for future participation in the library profession? She thought that one year is not long enough for students to gain what they need to become a library and information science professional. She suggested library schools to undertake a major restructuring of their programs and recommended a two-year M.L.S. program.
    • A Machine Learning Approach to Inductive Query by Examples: An Experiment Using Relevance Feedback, ID3, Genetic Algorithms, and Simulated Annealing

      Chen, Hsinchun; Shankaranarayanan, Ganesan; She, Linlin; Iyer, Anand (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 1998-06)
      Information retrieval using probabilistic techniques has attracted significant attention on the part of researchers in information and computer science over the past few decades. In the 1980s, knowledge-based techniques also made an impressive contribution to â â intelligentâ â information retrieval and indexing. More recently, information science researchers have turned to other newer inductive learning techniques including symbolic learning, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing. These newer techniques, which are grounded in diverse paradigms, have provided great opportunities for researchers to enhance the information processing and retrieval capabilities of current information systems. In this article, we first provide an overview of these newer techniques and their use in information retrieval research. In order to familiarize readers with the techniques, we present three promising methods: The symbolic ID3 algorithm, evolution-based genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing. We discuss their knowledge representations and algorithms in the unique context of information retrieval. An experiment using a 8000-record COMPEN database was performed to examine the performances of these inductive query-by-example techniques in comparison with the performance of the conventional relevance feedback method. The machine learning techniques were shown to be able to help identify new documents which are similar to documents initially suggested by users, and documents which contain similar concepts to each other. Genetic algorithms, in particular, were found to out-perform relevance feedback in both document recall and precision. We believe these inductive machine learning techniques hold promise for the ability to analyze usersâ preferred documents (or records), identify usersâ underlying information needs, and also suggest alternatives for search for database management systems and Internet applications.
    • Machine Learning for Information Retrieval: Neural Networks, Symbolic Learning, and Genetic Algorithms

      Chen, Hsinchun (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 1995-04)
      Information retrieval using probabilistic techniques has attracted significant attention on the part of researchers in information and computer science over the past few decades. In the 1980s, knowledge-based techniques also made an impressive contribution to “intelligent” information retrieval and indexing. More recently, information science researchers have turned to other newer artificial-intelligence- based inductive learning techniques including neural networks, symbolic learning, and genetic algorithms. These newer techniques, which are grounded on diverse paradigms, have provided great opportunities for researchers to enhance the information processing and retrieval capabilities of current information storage and retrieval systems. In this article, we first provide an overview of these newer techniques and their use in information science research. To familiarize readers with these techniques, we present three popular methods: the connectionist Hopfield network; the symbolic ID3/ID5R; and evolution- based genetic algorithms. We discuss their knowledge representations and algorithms in the context of information retrieval. Sample implementation and testing results from our own research are also provided for each technique. We believe these techniques are promising in their ability to analyze user queries, identify users’ information needs, and suggest alternatives for search. With proper user-system interactions, these methods can greatly complement the prevailing full-text, keywordbased, probabilistic, and knowledge-based techniques.
    • Maintenance of the Universal Decimal Classification: overview of the past and preparations for the future

      Slavic, Aida; Cordeiro, Maria Inês; Riesthuis, Gerhard (2008-06)
      The paper highlights some aspects of the UDC management policy for 2007 and onwards. Following an overview of the long history of modernization of the classification, which started in the 1960s and has influenced the scheme's revision and development since 1990, major changes and policies from the recent history of the UDC revision are summarized. The perspective of the new editorial team, established in 2007, is presented. The new policy focuses on the improved organization and efficiency of editorial work and the improvement of UDC products.
    • Making Change Happen in the Middle

      Robert Farrell; Lehman College, City University of New York (2013)
      This paper seeks to provide library managers with a theoretical framework for thinking about how change is effected by those in middle management positions. Starting from the principles that change takes place within socio-culturally bounded contexts and is most successful when approached indirectly, two scenarios characteristic of many situations requiring change middle managers commonly face are then put forward. Following each scenario, a possible solution or path towards change is advanced in order to provide the reader with models for putting into practice the theoretical ideas presented. A methodology that combines theoretical frameworks and practical scenarios is adopted in order to ground theory in practice and thereby lead readers toward what might be called a “praxis” of change making.
    • Making the Switch from Print to Online: Why, When and How?

      Ho, Adrian K.; Toth, Joe (2008)
      This bibliography was created for an ALCTS Collection Management & Development Section program at the 2008 American Library Association Annual Conference. It annotates selected articles published from Jan. 2006 through April 2008.
    • Making the Switch from Print to Online: Why, When and How?

      Ho, Adrian K.; Toth, Joe (2008)
      This bibliography was created for an ALCTS Collection Management & Development Section program at the 2008 American Library Association Annual Conference. It annotates selected articles published from Jan. 2006 through April 2008.
    • Making Your Web Site Senior Friendly: A Checklist

      National Institute on Aging, U.S.; National Library of Medicine, U.S. (2002-09)
      This fifteen-page pamphlet includes recommendations regarding designing readable text, presenting information to older adults, improving Web site navigation, and incorporating media into Web sites. A list of references and additional readings is included.
    • Management and Leadership Education in LIS Degree Programs

      Winston, Mark (2005-01)
      This is a juried paper presentation (of 16 slides) in Session 3.4 â LIS Faculty and the Future (Juried Papers) on Wednesday January 12, at the 2005 ALISE Conference. Management and leadership in library operations is important and future LIS graduates must be educated in these areas. Leadership development as a process in ALA has been explored, as has the relationship between management and leadership. Literature in this area is reviewed, current curricula pertaining to this training is evaluated, and suggestions for future development are made.
    • Management of the Digital Library: New Techniques for a New Technology

      Nicholson, Scott (1995)
      The digital library is a user-based library service that seamlessly connects users to the information they need electronically, regardless of source. The new technologies and higher costs cause management new difficulties in five areas: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. The purpose of this report is to collect these problems from the literature and offer solutions when possible. The three largest problems facing the manager of digital library services are cost recovery, copyright issues, and training. Mangers must determine a way to recover the constant costs incurred by the technologies used to run the digital library through increased funding or charging users. Until copyright issues are dealt with, no copywritten material can be placed in a digital library. Constant training requires a commitment of money and time, yet is the most important change a manager can make to guarantee the success of the digital library. These issues must not be avoided, and require managers to re-think traditional management strategies. In order to handle these and other problems and successfully manage a digital library, managers require new tools for a new technology.
    • Managing cognitive and affective trust in the conceptual R&D organization

      Sonnenwald, D. H.; Iivonen, M.; Huotari, M. (Idea Publishing, 2003)
      In today's knowledge-based and competitive economy, research and development (R&D) efforts are increasingly geographically distributed across multiple institutions. This chapter explores the management of cognitive and affective trust and distrust within a new type of geographically distributed and multi-institutional R&D organization, called the conceptual organization. Both cognitive and affective trust are important to the conceptual organization because it relies on collaboration among individual members to achieve its goals, and collaboration is not possible without cognitive or affective trust. Data from a 2-year case study of a conceptual organization illuminates how the organization's structure, use of power and information and communications technology (I&CT) shape and are shaped by cognitive and affective trust. Tightly coupled collaboration appears to only emerge in situations where high cognitive and affective trust simultaneously exist, and no collaboration will emerge in situations with high cognitive and affective distrust exist. In comparison, limited collaboration emerges when affective trust and cognitive distrust exist concurrently, and competitive collaboration appears to emerge when cognitive trust and affective distrust exist concurrently. Different mechanisms to manage the collaboration emerged in these situations. These results help inform our understanding of cognitive and affective trust and distrust, and their management in R&D.
    • Managing discussion group dynamics in e-learning environments

      Richardson, Christine; Exon, Maggie; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper examines the challenges involved in understanding group dynamics when utilizing online teaching platforms, such as WebCT. When the student cohort involved is studying professionally oriented technical subjects, people who have prior knowledge of this professional area may exhibit be-haviors which overwhelm other students. In traditional face-to-face tutorial and workshop environments, teachers are able to interact with students, ensuring that they have a comfortable environment in which to contribute and learn. This may involve bringing them out of themselves when they appear intimidated and re-directing them when they threaten to dominate. Teachers can interpret body language and use their own body language and facial expressions as well as verbal comment to maintain a student-centered learning environment. It is much more difficult to influence the dynamics of online discussion. Our ex-perience at Curtin has shown that the potential for intimidation of students leading to their non-participation is stronger than in the classroom, especially when prior professional knowledge and experi-ence is involved. This outcome is opposite to expectations of web communication, usually believed to be an environment where people can overcome the constraints of their personality and participate in discus-sion more easily. Reasons this may occur will be examined together with techniques for ensuring that students are afforded an equitable learning environment.
    • Manual Evaluation of Robot Performance in Identifying Open Access Articles

      Hajjem, Chawki; Harnad, Stevan (2006-03)
      Antelman et al. (2005) hand-tested the accuracy of the algorithm that Hajjem et al.'s (2005) software robot used to to trawl the web and automatically identify Open Access (OA) and Non-Open-Access (NOA) articles (references derived from the ISI database). Antelman et al. found much lower accuracy than Hajjem et al. Had reported. Hajjem et al. have now re-done the hand-testing on a larger sample (1000) in Biology, and demonstrated that Hajjem et al.'s original estimate of the robot's accuracy was much closer to the correct one. The discrepancy was because both Antelman et al. And Hajjem et al had hand-checked a sample other than the one the robot was sampling. Our present sample, identical with what the robot saw, yielded: d' 2.62, bias 0.68, true OA 93%, false OA 12%. We also checked whether the OA citation advantage (the ratio of the average citation counts for OA articles to the average citation counts for NOA articles in the same journal/issue) was an artifact of false OA: The robot-based OA citation Advantage of OA over NOA for this sample [(OA-NOA)/NOA x 100] was 70%. We partitioned this into the ratio of the citation counts for true (93%) OA articles to the NOA articles versus the ratio of the citation counts for the false (12%) "OA" articles. The "false OA" advantage for this 12% of the articles was 33%, so there is definitely a false OA Advantage bias component in our results. However, the true OA advantage, for 93% of the articles, was 77%. So in fact, we are underestimating the true OA advantage.
    • Mapping Agricultural Research in India: A Profile Based on CAB Abstracts 1998

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Umarani, K. (2001-10)
      CAB Abstracts 1998 had indexed 11,855 publications from India, including 10,412 journal articles, from more than 1280 institutions in 531 locations. These were classified into 21 major research fields and 243 subfields. â Plants of economic importanceâ (FF) is the leading area of research in India, followed by â Animal scienceâ (LL). The three subfields with the largest number of papers are: â Pests, pathogens and biogenic diseases of plantsâ , FF600 (1301 papers), â Plant breeding and geneticsâ , FF020 (1135 papers), and â Plant productionâ , FF100 (786 papers). In contrast, there were only 54 papers in â Biotechnologyâ (WW). Academic institutions accounted for a little over 59% of the papers in 1998, as against 63.4% in the five years 1990â 1994, and scientific agencies of the central government accounted for 22% of the papers. Agricultural universities had published 4039 papers and agricultural colleges 523 papers. Indian researchers had published over 78% of the 10,412 journal articles in 208 Indian journals, 587 papers in 180 UK journals, and 368 papers in 124 US journals. In no other field do Indian researchers publish such a large per cent of papers in Indian journals. Letters journals were used only infrequently: 317 papers in 40 letters journals. More than 8060 papers were published in non-SCI journals, and 1925 papers were published in journals of impact factor less than 1.0. Only 33 papers were published in journals of impact factor higher than 3.0. We have identified institutions publishing large number of papers in different subfields, in different journals, in journals of different impact factors, etc. This macroscopic analysis not only provides an inventory of Indiaâ s publications, but also gives an idea of endogenous research capacity. If appropriately linked with public policy, it can help restructure the nationâ s research priorities.
    • Mapping chemical science research in India: A bibliometric study

      Gunasekaran, Subbiah; Sadikbatcha, M; Sivaraman, P; CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, India (NISCAIR, New Delhi, India, 2006-06)
      Chemical sciences research in India has been mapped with data collected from the CD-ROM version of Chemistry Citation Index [publication year : 2002]. Roughly, 4.5% of the global R&D output in chemical sciences was contributed by Indian in 2002. Indian researchers published 6186 papers from 569 journals and 12 non-journal sources. More than 45% of these papers appeared in journals with an impact factor less than 1.000. Around 2% of the papers were either published in journals with no impact factor or not indexed in JCR 2003. The average impact factor for journal articles during this period is 1.359. While 26% of papers published by Indians were in US journals, the percentages for Indian and UK journals were 21 and 20%, respectively. Among Indian journals, the Asian Journal of Chemistry (IF 0.211) took the major chunk of 269 papers, while the Journal of Indian Chemical Society (IF 0.275) and the Indian Journal of Chemistry B (IF 0.492) carried 224 and 209 papers, respectively. In all, 563 institutions contributed 6199 papers in 2002. Of these papers, 68% were contributed by 10% of Indian institutions. The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore ranks first with 345 papers. This is followed by the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad with 263 papers. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai with 259 papers and the National Chemical Laboratory, Pune with 246 papers come in the third and fourth places, respectively. The largest contributions came from Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kolkata. In terms of states, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal are major contributors. About 16% of the papers had international collaboration (with as many as 53 county ies). Major collaborating countries in chemical sciences were the US, Germany, Japan and Great Britain.
    • Mapping Fish Research in India

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Jayashree, B. (2000-09)
      Fish and aquaculture research in India has been mapped using data from six databases. About 460 papers, roughly 5.5% of the world output, come from India every year, of which 82% are journal articles. Close to 70% of journal articles have appeared in 113 Indian journals. Less than a third of the journal articles are published in journals indexed in SCI. About 61% of publications are contributed by government laboratories and over 25% by academic institutions. Government laboratories publish most of their work in low impact and low visibility journals and academic institutions in journals of medium impact. However, even those papers appearing in better-rated journals are not cited well. Kochi, Chennai, Mumbai and Mangalore are the cities and Tamil Nadu and Kerala are the states contributing large number of papers.
    • Mapping Interdisciplinarity at the Interfaces between the Science Citation Index and the Social Science Citation Index

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      The two Journal Citation Reports of the Science Citation Index 2004 and the Social Science Citation Index 2004 were combined in order to analyze and map journals and specialties at the edges and in the overlap between the two databases. For journals which belong to the overlap (e.g., Scientometrics), the merger mainly enriches our insight into the structure which can be obtained from the two databases separately; but in the case of scientific journals which are more marginal in either database, the combination can provide a new perspective on the position and function of these journals (e.g., Environment and Planning Bâ Planning and Design). The combined database additionally enables us to map citation environments in terms of the various specialties comprehensively. Using the vector-space model, visualizations are provided for specialties that are parts of the overlap (information science, science & technology studies). On the basis of the resulting visualizations, â betweennessâ â a measure from social network analysisâ is suggested as an indicator for measuring the interdisciplinarity of journals. This paper is forthcoming in Scientometrics.
    • Mapping International Collaboration in Science in Asia through Coauthorship Analysis

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Doss, M. Jinandra (2000-09)
      Using data from SCI 1998, we have analysed international collaboration in science in 11 Asian countries. Papers resulting from collaboration among these countries and with G7, European Union, OECD and selected Latin American and African countries were classified under subject categories to characterize each countryâ s total and collaborated scientific literature output. Japan (16.4% of internationally collaborated papers), India (17.6%) and Taiwan (16.3%) recorded an internationalization index less than 30 whereas China (28.5%), South Korea (24.6%) and Hong Kong (36.2%) recorded an internationalization index greater than 40. India, China and South Korea have collaborated more in physics, whereas the other eight countries have collaborated more in life sciences. In almost all fields and for virtually all Asian countries, USA is the most preferred collaborating partner. All G7 countries collaborate more with China, which is emerging as a leader in regional collaboration, than with India.
    • Mapping Life Sciences Research in India: A Profile Based on BIOSIS 1992-1994

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (1999)
      Life sciences research carried out in India, as seen from the journal literature indexed in three years of BIOSIS Biological Abstracts (1992-1994), is quantified and mapped. The Indian institutions active in life sciences research, the journals and sub-fields in which they publish their work, and the impact factors of the journals as seen from Journal Citation Reports 1992 and 1994 are identified. In the three years studied researchers from over 1,400 institutions located in over 450 cities/ towns have authored 20,046 papers in 1,582 journals published from 52 countries. Over 54% of these papers have appeared in 18 Indian journals. While India has contributed papers to al 10 sub-fields, her contribution has exceeded 1,000 papers in three years in only four sub-fields, and 500 papers in seven other sub-fields. Only 49 institutions have published more than 100 papers each. The contribution made by different institutions to 26 sub-fields and to 36 often used journals is highlighted. More than 64% of Indian papers indexed in BIOSIS come from academic institutions. Among scientific agencies, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research have published more than 1,500 papers each. In all Indian researchers have published 188 papers (less than 1.0%) in journals with a 1994 impact factor greater than 4.0. More than 46.3% of Indian papers have appeared in non-5CY journals, and a further 37.5% of papers have been published in journals with impact factors less than 1.0. The analysis reveals the existence of two clusters: a large number of institutions devoted to agriculture and classical biology, publishing mostly in low-impact journals, often in Indian journals, and a smaller group of institutions publishing some papers in new biology and some areas of medicine in quality international journals of medium impact. The larger cluster includes the agricultural universities and many general universities, while the smaller cluster includes the Indian Institute of Science, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Immunology, and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology. While it would be desirable for Indian researchers to publish bulk of the agricultural research and a substantial part of medical research in Indian journals, they have no such constraint in new biology and can publish their work in high-impact international journals. Yet only a small proportion of Indian papers in biochemistry and molecular biology, general and internal medicine, microbiology, biophysics, immunology, and gastroenterology have appeared in such journals.
    • Mapping Mathematics Research in India in 1998: An Analysis Based on Mathsci

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; S I, Rino (2001-10)
      Mathematics research in India, as reflected by papers indexed in Mathsci 1998, is quantified and mapped. Wherever possible, the findings are compared with mathematics research in India in 1994. Overall, compared to 1994, there were 30% fewer publications from India in 1998 - from 1391 in 1994 to 971 in 1998. Of these, 864 papers had appeared in 273 journals published from 3 countries. Among subfields, Quantum theory topped the list with 14 papers, followed by Statistics 85 papers; Economics, operations research, programming, games 55 papers; Fluid mechanics 45 papers; and Relativity and gravitational theory 45 papers. In all, researchers from 143 institutions located in 89 Indian cities/ towns belonging to 21 states/union territories had contributed at least one paper in 1998. ISI, Calcutta, leads the list with 65 papers, followed by TIFR, Mumbai (62 papers), IISc, Bangalore (49 papers), and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (41 papers). The decline is steep in Uttar Pradesh and to a certain extent Delhi. A welcome improvement is the considerable decrease in the number of papers published in lowimpact journals. There seems to be an attempt on the part of Indian mathematicians to publish their work in SCI/-indexed high impact journals. Even so, only a very small percent of papers has appeared in high impact factor journals. There is also a flight away from Indian journals. In ten subfields, including Statistics, Special functions, General topology, and Functions of a complex variable, India publishes more than twice the number of papers expected from the world average. Every third paper from India has resulted from inter-institutional collaboration; 212 papers (about 23%) have resulted from international collaboration. This report was prepared by the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation and was submitted to NISSAT, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research Government of India, New Delhi in October 2001.