• Name Networks: A Content-Based Method for Automated Discovery of Social Networks to Study Collaborative Learning

      Gruzd, Anatoliy (2009)
      As a way to gain greater insight into the operation of Library and Information Science (LIS) e-learning communities, the presented work applies automated text mining techniques to text-based communication to identify, describe and evaluate underlying social networks within such communities. The main thrust of the study is to find a way to use computers to automatically discover social ties that form between students just from their threaded discussions. Currently, one of the most common but time consuming methods for discovering social ties between people is to ask questions about their perceived social ties via a survey. However, such a survey is difficult to collect due to the high cost associated with data collection and the sensitive nature of the types of questions that must be asked. To overcome these limitations, the paper presents a new, content-based method for automated discovery of social networks from threaded discussions dubbed name networks. When fully developed, name networks can be used as a real time diagnostic tool for educators to evaluate and improve teaching models and to identify students who might need additional help or students who may provide such help to others.
    • Naming and Reclaiming Indigenous Knowledges in Public Institutions: Intersections of Landscapes and Experience

      Doyle, Ann M.; Budin, Gerhard; Swertz, Christian; Mitgutsch, Konstantin (Ergon Verlag, 2006)
      Abstract: This paper tells a story of a practitionerâ s experience in a First Nations library and how it shaped a doctoral research project on knowledge organization. It connects the landscape on the edge of a pacific forest to considerations of the impacts of the erasures of Indigenous knowledges by dominant knowledge organization systems and practices. The LIS literature on cultural bias in knowledge organization is reviewed and some ameliorative initiatives described. A theoretical lens conjoins the new sociology of education with analyses by Indigenous governance organizations. The potential of LIS research to contribute to the naming and reclaiming of Indigenous knowledges is highlighted and a proposed research plan to contribute to methodologies for Indigenous knowledge organization is outlined.
    • NanoPort: A Web Portal for Nanoscale Science and Technology

      Chau, Michael; Chen, Hsinchun; Qin, Jailun; Zhou, Yilu; Sung, Wai-Ki; Chen, Mark; Qin, Yi; McDonald, Daniel M.; Lally, Ann M. (ACM/IEEE-CS, 2002)
      Areas related to nanotechnology, or nanoscale science and engineering (NSSE), have experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. While there are a large variety of useful resources available on the Web, such information are usually distributed and difficult to locate, resulting in the problem of information overload. To address the problem, we developed the NanoPort system, an integrated Web portal aiming to provide a one-stop shopping service to satisfy the information needs of researchers and practitioners in the field of NSSE [1]. We believe that the approaches taken also can be applied to other domains.
    • NASKO 2007 [images and commentary on North American Symposium for Knowledge Organization 2007]

      Graham, Jennifer E. (2007-06)
      I had the honor of attending the first NASKO conference held at the University of Toronto, June 14th and 15th 2007. This set holds images from the presentations and some of the informal moments of my trip. I have done my best to be thorough with metadata but I welcome the addition of tags or comments from other conference attendees. Please, join in the perfomative and informative experience of helping me classify my collection of images. Our collection.
    • National Library of India: A Historical Perspective

      Raman Nair, R; Bhagi, Surya N.K. (ILM, 1987)
      Traces the history of organized document collections of India from very ancient times, the contribution of Europeans especially the British rulers of India for systematization and conservation of such collections, and the origins of public library systems that culminated in the establishment of the National Library of India. Critically evaluates the National Library system of India as well as its present set up, resources and services. The paper argues that the main characteristics of a national library, which distinctly delineate it from other types of libraries is its specialization in a particular geographical area for its content. It should achieve maximum reliability of the collection in that mandatory area. The paper points out that in coverage and reliability in the mandatory areas as well as in extending services to the expected users including those living in remote villages; Indian National Library has failed. The study suggests decentralization of the resources by physically spreading it among the regions of concerned languages, establishment of subject specific divisions and other measure that can enable the National Library of India to fulfill its objectives.
    • National Science Digital Library: Educational Impact and Evaluation Standing Committee

      Bartolo, Laura (2005-10)
      This is a presentation (25 slides) at the ASIS&T Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC in the session on Progress and Design in the Evaluation of Digital Libraries: Implications for Research and Education (session moderator: Kyung-Sun Kim).
    • Nationwide Library Consortia Life Cycle

      Shachaf, Pnina (2003)
      Library consortia development processes were examined from an ecological approach, combining historical perspective, dynamic developmental approach, and social structure, stressing the issues of permeable boundaries in library consortia and the manifestation of inter-organization relationships. A comparative analysis of several nationwide consortia (from Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Italy, Micronesia, Spain and the U.K.) using six criteria enables delineation of a developmental pattern. Additional support for the model is based on a study of U.S. state-wide consortia conducted by Potter in 1997. A four-stage life cycle sequence is outlined: embryonic, early development, development, and maturation. In addition, the ecological approach stresses founding and disbanding processes, suggesting disbanding as a fifth stage. The contribution of this paper to developmental theories at other levels of analysis (individual, group, organization) is in proposal of an inter-organizational life cycle model.
    • Nationwide Library Consortia Life Cycle

      Shachaf, Pnina (2003)
      Library consortia development processes were examined from an ecological approach, combining historical perspective, dynamic developmental approach, and social structure, stressing the issues of permeable boundaries in library consortia and the manifestation of inter-organization relationships. A comparative analysis of several nationwide consortia (from Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Italy, Micronesia, Spain and the U.K.) using six criteria enables delineation of a developmental pattern. Additional support for the model is based on a study of U.S. state-wide consortia conducted by Potter in 1997. A four-stage life cycle sequence is outlined: embryonic, early development, development, and maturation. In addition, the ecological approach stresses founding and disbanding processes, suggesting disbanding as a fifth stage. The contribution of this paper to developmental theories at other levels of analysis (individual, group, organization) is in proposal of an inter-organizational life cycle model.
    • Navigation in hypertext: A Critical review of the concept

      Dillon, Andrew; Richardson, John; McKnight, Cliff; Diaper, Dan; Gilmore, David J.; Cockton, Gilbert; Shackel, Brian (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1990)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A., Richardson, J. and McKnight, C. (1990) Navigation in Hypertext: a critical review of the concept. In D.Diaper, D.Gilmore, G.Cockton and B.Shackel (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction-INTERACT'90. North Holland: Amsterdam, 587-592. Abstract: With the advent of hypertext it has become widely accepted that the departure from the so-called "linear" structure of paper increases the likelihood of readers or users becoming lost. In this paper we will discuss this aspect of hypertext in terms of its validity, the lessons to be learned from the psychology of navigation and the applicability of the navigation metaphor to the hypertext domain.
    • NC Exploring Cultural Heritage Online Heritage Partners: A first year analysis of collaboration

      Gore, Emily (2005-10)
      This is a presentation (15 slides) at the 2005 ASIS&T Annual Meeting session on Collaboration in Digital Libraries: Luminous Ideas from Health Informatics, Academic Libraries, and Historical Archives.
    • Needs and challenges with respect to establishing a collaboratory within library and information science: Practioners' perspectives

      Alexsson, A.; Sonnenwald, D. H.; Spante, M. (2006)
      This paper reports on a study that explored the needs and challenges with respect to the creation of a collaboratory for library and information science practitioners. To identify needs and challenges interviews were conducted with practitioners at a variety of institutions. The results suggest that there is a need for a collaboratory to facilitate on-demand, personalized knowledge sharing. The collaboratory should also be well integrated into the everyday practice of library and information science practitioners.
    • Network Structure, Self-Organization and the Growth of International Collaboration in Science. Research Policy, 34(10), 2005, 1608-1618.

      Wagner, Caroline S.; Leydesdorff, Loet (2005)
      Using data from co-authorships at the international level in all fields of science in 1990 and 2000, and within six case studies at the sub-field level in 2000, different explanations for the growth of international collaboration in science and technology are explored. We find that few of the explanations within the literature can be supported by a detailed review of the growth of international collaboration during the 1990s. We hypothesize that growth may be due to recognition and rewards as ordering mechanisms within the system. We apply new tools emerging from network science to test whether international collaborations can organize based on rules of recognition and reward. These enquiries show that the growth of international co-authorships can be attributed to self-organizing phenomenon based on preferential attachment among collaborators at the sub-field level. The co-authorship links can be considered as a complex network with sub-dynamics involving features of both competition and cooperation. The analysis suggests that the growth of international collaboration during the 1990s has more likely emerged from dynamics at the sub-field level operating in all fields of science, albeit under institutional constraints. Implications for the management of global scientific collaborations are explored.
    • Network-Based Electronic Serials

      Bailey, Charles W. (Library and Information Technology Association, 1992)
      New forms of scholarly communication are evolving on international computer networks such as BITNET and Internet. Scholars are exchanging information on a daily basis via computer conferences, personal e-mail, and file transfers. Electronic serials are being distributed on networks, often at no charge to the subscriber. Electronic newsletters provide timely information about current topics of interest. Electronic journals, which are often refereed, provide scholarly articles, columns, and reviews. Utilizing computer networks, scholars have become electronic publishers, creating an alternative publication system. Electronic serials hold great promise, but a variety of problems currently limit their effectiveness. Given the serials pricing crisis, librarians should encourage the development of network-based electronic serials.
    • Never mind the theory, feel the data: Observations on the design of hypertext-based user interfaces

      Dillon, Andrew; McKnight, Cliff; Schuler, Wolfgang; Hannemann, Jorg M.; Streitz, Norbert (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. and McKnight, C. (1995) Never mind the theory, feel the data: Observations on the design of Hypertext-based User Interfaces, In W. Schuler, J. Hannemann and N. Streitz (eds.) Designing User Interfaces for Hypermedia, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 117-125. Introduction: In the present paper we will seek to place the design of hypermedia-based user interfaces in the appropriate context of user-centred system design. In so doing we will outline what we believe to be the major methodological issues. As this will indicate, we view hypermedia design as essentially no different from any other kind interface design in terms of process and problem. Hence the methodological issues for hypermedia interfaces need to be seen as design problems rather than cognitive scientific ones. In this vein, we argue for a data-driven approach to design that seeks theoretical insight at the methodological and process level of design rather than the user level.
    • New age competencies for information professionals

      Rehman, Sajjad ur; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The paper discusses competencies for new age information professionals. Emphasis has been on the changes within LIS market during the last 2-3 decades, with a particular emphasis on the new roles LIS professionals have to assume in information and knowledge management positions in the corporate world. Management and functional competencies have also been explored, that would make LIS professionals relevant in the emerging market.
    • The New Context for Bibliographic Control In the New Millennium

      Lynch, Clifford (the Library of Congress, 2000)
      Information finding is changing in a world of digital information and associated search systems, with particular focus on methods of locating information that are distinct from, but complementary to, established practices of bibliographic description. A full understanding of these developments is essential in re-thinking bibliographic control in the new millennium, because they fundamentally change the roles and importance of bibliographic metadata in information discovery processes. There are three major approaches to finding information: through bibliographic surrogates, that represent an intellectual description of aspects and attributes of a work; through computational, content-based techniques that compare queries to parts of the actual works themselves; and through social processes that consider works in relationship to the user and his or her characteristics and history, to other works, and also to the behavior of other communities of users.
    • New Directions in the Organization of Information --Overview of Metadata

      Su, Yu (2006-07)
      This presentation is given as part of a panel discussion entitled "New Directions in Information Organization" for a graduate class in library and information science at the University of Arizona. The presentation covers the basic concepts of metadata, metadata standards, metadata crosswalks, and system interoperability. It also discusses different perspectives on data management from library science, management information science and computer science.
    • New education and school library: Experience of half a century

      Ranganathan, S. R. (Vikas Publishing (Delhi, India), 1973)
      This is the last book written by S.R. Ranganathan printed in 1973 (India) based on his experience during the last fifty years. It includes a Foreword to Editition 1 (1942) by Sir John Sargent (Educational Commissioner, Govt. of India). Table of Contents: Part A - Preliminaries, Part B/E - Why of school library, Part F/J - What of school library, Part K/N - How of school library, Part P/R - Present difficulties, Part S/Y - Library techniques, Bibliography, Index. © Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (SRELS). Permission for non-profit use granted by SRELS. To purchase reprints of this work, please visit Ess Ess Publications at http://www.essessreference.com/.
    • A New Framework for the Citation Indexing Paradigm

      Dervos, Dimitris A.; Samaras, Nikolaos; Evangelidis, Georgios; Folias, Theodore (ASIS&T, 2006)
      A new citation indexing paradigm is proposed: the cascading citation indexing framework (c2IF, for short). It improves the way research publications are assessed for their impact in promoting science and technology. Given a collection of articles and their citation graph, citations are considered at the (article, author) level. Each one article is uniquely identified by means of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI, http://www.doi.org). To identify each one author uniquely, a Universal Author Identifier (UAI) scheme is established. In addition to the citations directly made to a given (article, author) pair, citation paths that target each one citing article are also considered. The granularity of the paradigm is further increased by introducing the concept of the chord, whereby a citation path of length one co-exists with paths of length two or higher, involving the same source- and target- articles. The c2IF output emerges in the form of a medal standings table, analogous to the one that ranks teams at athletic events: when two (article, author) pairs receive the same number of (direct) citations, the one that is cited by more popular articles (i.e. articles that comprise targets to a larger number of paths in the citation graph), is assigned a higher rank value.