• A Parallel Computing Approach to Creating Engineering Concept Spaces for Retrieval: The Illinios Digital Library Initiative Project

      Chen, Hsinchun; Schatz, Bruce R.; Ng, Tobun Dorbin; Martinez, Joanne; Kirchhoff, Amy; Lin, Chienting (IEEE, 1996-08)
      This research presents preliminary results generated from the semantic retrieval research component of the Illinois Digital Library Initiative (DLI) project. Using a variation of the automatic thesaurus generation techniques, to which we refer as the concept space approach, we aimed to create graphs of domain-specific concepts (terms) and their weighted co-occurrence relationships for all major engineering domains. Merging these concept spaces and providing traversal paths across different concept spaces could potentially help alleviate the vocabulary (difference) problem evident in large-scale information retrieval. We have experimented previously with such a technique for a smaller molecular biology domain (Worm Community System, with 10+ MBs of document collection) with encouraging results.
    • Partnership Reviewing: A Cooperative Approach for Peer Review of Complex Educational Resources

      Weatherley, John; Sumner, Tamara; Khoo, Michael; Hoffmann, Marcel (ACM, 2002)
      Review of digital educational resources, such as course modules, simulations, and data analysis tools, can differ from review of scholarly articles, in the heterogeneity and complexity of the resources themselves. The Partnership Review Model, as demonstrated in two cases, appears to promote cooperative interactions between distributed resource reviewers, enabling reviewers to effectively divide up the task of reviewing complex resources with little explicit coordination. The shared structural outline of the resource made visible in the review environment enables participants to monitor other reviewersâ actions and to thus target their efforts accordingly. This reviewing approach may be effective in educational digital libraries that depend on community volunteers for most of their reviewing.
    • A Path to Concept-based Information Access: From National Collaboratories to Digital Libraries

      Houston, Andrea L.; Chen, Hsinchun; Olson, G.M.; Malone, T.W.; Smith, J.B. (Lawrence Eribaum Associates, 2000)
      This research aims to provide a semantic, concept-based retrieval option that could supplement existing information retrieval options. Our proposed approach is based on textual analysis of a large corpus of domain-specific documents in order to generate a large set of subject vocabularies. By adopting cluster analysis techniques to analyze the co-occurrence probabilities of the subject vocabularies, a similarity matrix of vocabularies can be built to represent the important concepts and their weighted “relevance” relationships in the subject domain. To create a network of concepts, which we refer to as the “concept space” for the subject domain, we propose to develop general AI-based graph traversal algorithms and graph matching algorithms to automatically translate a searcher’ s preferred vocabularies into a set of the most semantically relevant terms in the database’s underlying subject domain. By providing a more understandable, system-generated, semantics-rich concept space plus algorithms to assist in concept/information spaces traversal, we believe we can greatly alleviate both information overload and the vocabulary problem. In this chapter, we first review our concept space approach and the associated algorithms in Section 2. In Section 3, we describe our experience in using such an approach. In Section 4, we summarize our research findings and our plan for building a semantics-rich Interspace for the Illinois Digital Library project.
    • Pattern of online library resource usage per user in a distributed graduate education environment

      Kramer, Stefan (2006)
      The frequency distribution on online library resource usage by individual users (mostly students) at a distributed education graduate school is notably skewed, with a relatively small number of users showing frequent usage, and a large number of users showing infrequent usage.
    • Patterns and Inconsistencies in Collaborative Tagging Systems: An Examination of Tagging Practices

      Kipp, Margaret E. I.; Campbell, D. Grant (2006)
      This paper analyzes the tagging patterns exhibited by users of del.icio.us, to assess how collaborative tagging supports and enhances traditional ways of classifying and indexing documents. Using frequency data and co-word analysis matrices analyzed by multi-dimensional scaling, the authors discovered that tagging practices to some extent work in ways that are continuous with conventional indexing. Small numbers of tags tend to emerge by unspoken consensus, and inconsistencies follow several predictable patterns that can easily be anticipated. However, the tags also indicated intriguing practices relating to time and task which suggest the presence of an extra dimension in classification and organization, a dimension which conventional systems are unable to facilitate.
    • Patterns in Tagging: An Analysis of Collaborative Classification Practices in Social Bookmarking Tools

      Kipp, Margaret E. I. (2006-05)
      This study analyses the tagging patterns exhibited by users of del.icio.us and citeulike. Frequency data, coword analysis and thesaural comparisons are used to examine tagging practices and determine where they are continuous or discontinuous with traditional classification and indexing. Results show many commonalities and some intriguing differences.
    • Peer Review of Chat Reference Transcripts: Approaches and Strategies

      Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Luo, Lili; McClure, Charles R. (2006)
      NCknows is a collaborative statewide chat-based reference service, launched in North Carolina in February 2004. The authors were contracted by the State Library of North Carolina as program evaluators for the NCknows project. This article reports on one component of the overarching evaluation effort: an analysis of the transcripts of NCknows chat sessions. This analysis was performed as a peer review, where NCknows librarians critiqued transcripts from the service. This study has three main findings: (1) The quality of reference service being provided by NCknows is high overall. (2) NCknows librarians are more engaged with users than are 24/7 staff members, but they are no more skilled in research or use of information sources. (3) Public librarians provide superior service, but academic librarians provide superior referrals. The implications of these findings for staffing chat reference services are discussed, with respect to librarians' credentials and the participating libraries' service philosophies.
    • Perceptions Towards On-line Banking Security: An Empirical Investigation of a Developing Country`s Banking Sector, how secure is On-line Banking

      Bongani Ngwenya; Khanyisa Malufu; Dean, faculty of Business, Solusi University Bulawayo, +263, Zimbabwe; Department of Computers and Information Systems Solusi University, Bulawayo, +263, Zimbabwe (IJCSN, 2012-12-01)
      The increase in computer crime has led to scepticism about the move made by the banks to introduce on-line banking. Some view this as a noble move which has made the banking system more efficient, reliable and secure, while others view it as a risky and insecure way of banking. The aim of this study was to assess whether on-line banking in the developing countries is secure or not. The researcher chose a descriptive-quantitative research design. Data was collected using a self constructed questionnaire. Convenience sampling and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the main subjects of the study. Generally on average there was no significant difference between the perceptions of management bank personnel and non-management bank personnel on the security of on-line banking. The study recommends further future studies on the security of on-line banking in developing countries based on the perceptions of the customers themselves, who are using on-line banking services, the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security and also a study of the latent dimensions of on-line banking security as extracted by factor analysis, how they differ from elements of information security as derived from the theoretical framework and literature.
    • Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Particle Swarm Optimization

      Urade, Hemlata S.; Patel, Rahila; Department Computer Science & Engineering, RCERT, RTMNU Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India; Department Computer Science & Engineering, RCERT, RTMNU Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India (IJCSN, 2012-02-15)
      In this paper the concept of dynamic particle swarm optimization is introduced. The dynamic PSO is different from the existing PSO’s and some local version of PSO in terms of swarm size and topology. Experiment conducted for benchmark functions of single objective optimization problem, which shows the better performance rather the basic PSO. The paper also contains the comparative analysis for Simple PSO and Dynamic PSO which shows the better result for dynamic PSO rather than simple PSO.
    • Performance measurement of quality services in academic and research libraries in India

      Sherikar, Amruth; Jange, Suresh; Sangam, S.L.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      A National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) has been established in India for quality and excellence in higher education. NAAC has developed set of objective indicators for the library, as it is the fulcrum of support for the community of academic and research pursuits. This has resulted in a general consensus for rising demands for evaluation and accountability of academic and research librar-ies to develop performance evaluation and measure service quality. For this study, a total of 1200 questionnaires were distributed to the user community of ten university libraries of Karnataka, India, of which 768 (64%) were duly received from students, research scholars and faculty members. The quality dimensions in the light of SERVQUAL viz., Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Access, Communication, Tangibles, Empathy and Security have been applied and the results indicate that the service quality dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, access, communication and tangibles applied to university libraries in Karnataka are found to be satisfactory to a little extent based on the scale techniques. The study suggests several areas for future research and for collaboration among li-brary managers, educational administrators, scholars and measurement theorists towards improving the performance of library and information system in India to meet the high standards of service quality in libraries to serve the users with utmost care and diligence.
    • A Performance Systems Approach to Digital Publishing in Libraries

      McDonald, Robert H.; Thomas, Chuck (2006)
      Electronic performance support tools are used in many workplaces, but digital libraries have not evaluated their potential usefulness. In a pilot project, the Florida State University Libraries developed inexpensive performance support tools for three types of in-house digital publishing. This strategy improved productivity and quality control. (Author abstract)
    • Performance tags -- who's running the show?

      Tonkin, Emma; Tourte, Gregory J. L.; Zollers, Alla; Lussky, Joan (2008)
      We describe a pilot study which specifically examines the prevalence and characteristics of performance tags on several sites. Identifying post-coordination of tags as a useful step in the study of this phenomenon, as well as other approaches to leveraging tags based on text and/or sentiment analysis, we demonstrate an approach to automation of this process, postcoordinating (segmenting) terms by means of a probabilistic model based around Markov chains. The effectiveness of this approach to parsing is evaluated with respect to the wide range of constructions visible on various services. Several candidate approaches for the latter stages of automated classification are identified.
    • Performance works: Continuing to comprehend instantiation

      Smiraglia, Richard P.; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2007)
      Much work in knowledge organization (KO) is conceptual, which results in a theoretical framework that is itself largely conceptual. In some cases empirical methods have been employed as well for direct observation of phenomena. Direct observation provides a critical base point and a variety of empirical approaches have been used to good effect in KO. The phenomenon of instantiation has been examined to date almost entirely based on the analysis of data derived from empirical analysis. In the present paper we demonstrate the efficacy of the empirical model for category generation by taking one category of instantiationâ the performance workâ and submitting it to analytical scrutiny. Data from three analytical studies are reviewed and placed alongside evidence from datasets gathered for prior studies on instantiation. A performance work is realized in space and time, and thus exists spatiotemporally. The performance work might be derived from a precedent work, related to other works that are embedded, have adjunct documentation, and be accompanied by antecedent works. A naïve classification is derived empirically, a model follows rationally, and together with semiotic elements a partial typology is generated that represents the essential knowledge elements from which a KO schema for performance works might evolve.
    • The Perils of Strong Copyright: The American Library Association and Free Culture

      Griffey, Jason M. (2004-04)
      The current state of intellectual property law is labyrinthine in every sense: it is difficult to follow, full of blind alleys, and the only people who know the way through it are the ones who designed it in the first place. Pamela Samuelson notes in Towards a New Politics of Intellectual Property, “copyright industry groups have cultivated relationships with policy makers in the executive and legislative branches over a long period of time” (98) and these relationships have been used to maintain control over copyrighted materials far beyond the length of time of commercial success of said materials. James Boyle noted that “the ground rules of the information society are being laid down by lawyers (strike one) employed by the biggest players in the field (strike two) all with little public debate or press scrutiny.” (Boyle, “Sold Out”) My goal in this paper will be to examine the history of copyright, attempt to unite some of the disparate aspects of the open information meme, and finally to consider how this meme is being distributed (or not distributed) by academic librarians. I will also attempt to make prescriptive suggestions that might assist librarians in seeing the strengths of the Open Information memepool.
    • Persistent links, one solution to a common problem

      Bigwood, David (Houston Area League of PC Users, Inc. (HAL-PC), 1999-06)
      Discusses persistent links or PURLs as a tool for linking.
    • Personal Digital Collections on Museum Websites: Research in Progress

      Marty, Paul F. (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006."
    • Personal Information Management Strategies and Tactics Used by Senior Engineers

      Pikas, Christina K.; Grove, Andrew (American Society for Information Science and Technology, 2007)
      This paper reports the results of an exploratory qualitative study of how senior engineers in a research laboratory environment do personal information management (PIM). Responsive, semi-structured interviews were conducted with four senior engineers. Thirteen themes in four groupings emerged. The four groupings are: organization and retrieval, un-organized aspects, information keeping and preservation, and use of specialized tools. Themes not seen in other studies are: writing to remember and reporting to retrieve, and personal handbooks. The themes are described in detail. Implications for the design of information systems and future work are discussed.
    • Personal name identification in the practices of digital repositories

      Xia, Jingfeng (2006)
      This paper finds that the variations of authors' names have negatively affected the retrieval capability of digital repositories. Two possible solutions include using composite identifiers that combine author name, publication date, and author affiliation, and also asking authors to input the variants of their name, if any, at the time of depositing articles.
    • Perspectives on Education for Knowledge Management

      Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar; Higgins, Susan Ellen (2001)
      This paper looks at the state of education in knowledge management (KM). It reports findings from a study of knowledge management courses included in the curriculum of academic disciplines of business, computing, and information. Based on a review of course descriptions selected from web sites of universities in Australia, Canada, Singapore, UK, and USA, the paper describes levels of courses, curriculum areas and topics, and differences in emphasis in teaching knowledge management courses in different departments and schools.