• R & D in Continuing Education

      Black, Fiona; Dunn, Judy (Association for Library and Information Science Education, 2005-01)
      This is a PowerPoint presentation (20 slides) on Wednesday January 12, 2005 in Session 4.1: Continuing Education Programs in the U.S. and Canada, sponsored by the Continuing Education SIG at the 2005 ALISE Conference, Boston, MA. The presentation reviews issues of continuing education (CE) from different perspectives. By introducing the experience of the Dalhousie University's Library Science Program in CE, it discusses common problems and highlights some successes. It also advocates collaborative research with other LIS schools and with library associations.
    • Raising Reliability of Web Search Tool Research through Replication and Chaos Theory

      Nicholson, Scott (2000)
      Because the World Wide Web is a dynamic collection of information, the Web search tools (or "search engines") that index the Web are dynamic. Traditional information retrieval evaluation techniques may not provide reliable results when applied to the Web search tools. This study is the result of ten replications of the classic 1996 Ding and Marchionini Web search tool research. It explores the effects that replication can have on transforming unreliable results from one iteration into replicable and therefore reliable results after multiple iterations.
    • Ranking the Research Productivity of LIS Faculty and Schools: An Evaluation of Data Sources and Research Methods

      Meho, Lokman I.; Spurgin, Kristina M. (Wiley, 2005-10)
      This study evaluates the data sources and research methods used in earlier studies to rank the research productivity of Library and Information Science (LIS) faculty and schools. In doing so, the study identifies both tools and methods that generate more accurate publication count rankings as well as databases that should be taken into consideration when conducting comprehensive searches in the literature for research and curricular needs. With a list of 2,625 items published between 1982 and 2002 by 68 faculty members of 18 American Library Associationâ (ALA-) accredited LIS schools, hundreds of databases were searched. Results show that there are only 10 databases that provide significant coverage of the LIS indexed literature. Results also show that restricting the data sources to one, two, or even three databases leads to inaccurate rankings and erroneous conclusions. Because no database provides comprehensive coverage of the LIS literature, researchers must rely on a wide range of disciplinary and multidisciplinary databases for ranking and other research purposes. The study answers such questions as the following: Is the Association of Library and Information Science Educationâ s (ALISEâ s) directory of members a reliable tool to identify a complete list of faculty members at LIS schools? How many and which databases are needed in a multifile search to arrive at accurate publication count rankings? What coverage will be achieved using a certain number of databases? Which research areas are well covered by which databases? What alternative methods and tools are available to supplement gaps among databases? Did coverage performance of databases change over time? What counting method should be used when determining what and how many items each LIS faculty and school has published? The authors recommend advanced analysis of research productivity to provide a more detailed assessment of research productivity of authors and programs.
    • Rare Books Online

      Hubbard, John (1999)
    • A RDF-based Digital Library System

      Han, Yan (2005-08)
      This article first introduces the needs for a true interoperability environment that allows information and its context can be transfer across domains and applications. Then it describes an approach to build a RDF-based digital library system at the University of Arizona Libraries. The system architecture consists of a storage layer, a metadata management and semantic layer, a common service layer and an application layer. The system is an artifact of the RDF model and also uses an RDF database to facilitate internal management of information resources. The article presents background for a journal delivery project and reports the implementation of the journal application using Java Servlet technology. Issues about metadata management such as various metadata formats for specific communities, and MARC to DC mapping are discussed.
    • Re-Envisioning Libraries in the Information Society: A Critical Theory of Library Technology

      Pyati, Ajit (2007-06)
      Libraries have been involved in technological transformation for several decades, and are now increasingly associated with discourses surrounding the development of a global information society. The information society, however, remains a contested terrain, with a major focus on connectivity to ICTs, and is often linked with technological determinist and technocratic agendas. The library profession and field do not adequately theorize technology in a way that offers a progressive alternative to this dominant information society vision. In light of this context, this dissertation argues for the relevance of critical theory as a framework for guiding and analyzing library technology actions. This confluence of critical theory and library technology studies is named a “critical theory of library technology.” The framework is both a conceptual tool for re-envisioning the roles of libraries in relation to technology, as well as an analytical tool for exploring library technology decisions at various levels of impact. The open source software movement in libraries serves as test case in the application of this framework as a mode of analysis. Prominent library open source projects are discussed, and an in-depth, qualitative case study of Simon Fraser University Library in Canada, a library developing open source software for electronic resource management and electronic journal publishing, is undertaken. Interviews and documentary research are the main sources of data. Findings indicate that while the software projects are nominally open source, the co-developer communities remain limited. Best practices research will have to address areas related to the on-going community development and sustainability of these projects. However, in relation to the critical framework, the library emerges as a model of high investment in the technological skills of systems staff. The case presents a regional example of cooperation that is benefiting smaller client libraries in the regional consortia. Open source ideology, however, appears as just one of a variety of factors behind the deployment of these projects. In the case of the electronic journal publishing software project, an open source/open access ideological orientation is prominent, and the project presents a potentially new model for academic libraries in the support of electronic publishing services.
    • Reaching the Unreached: How Can We Use ICTs to Empower the Rural Poor in the Developing World through Enhanced Access to Relevant Information?

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (2002)
      Often funding agencies and donor governments face the question should they support ICT activities in their development projects. Should the money be invested in computers and communication devices or will it be better spent on food, shelter, health, and education? The choice need not be 'either or'. If used intelligently and innovatively, ICTs can form an integral component of development projects, as is shown by the award-winning Information Village project of M S Swaminathan Research Foundation. The important point to remember is that one does not have to use technology because it is there, but one uses it if there is a genuine advantage. In any development programme, people and their contexts should decide how one goes about implementing development interventions. The needs of the people and the best means to satisfy them should determine the whole programme. Often ICT-based development projects do not bring in the expected results because of undue emphasis placed on technology. Against this background, the factors that led to the success of the Pondicherry experience are analysed.
    • The Reader and the Librarian

      Riggins, "Scott" (2007)
      This paper explores the experience of reading from the readerâ s perspective, drawing on research conducted by Louise Rosenblatt and Catherine Sheldrick Ross. Rosenblattâ s transactional theory of reading is described and contrasted with contemporary library practices, and these different approaches serve to exemplify the poles of what she calls the efferent-aesthetic continuum. Library educators and practitioners tend to reside at one end of the continuum and emphasize goal-oriented searching with pre-defined needs and specifically articulated questions; at the other end we encounter the complex cognitive, emotional, imaginative, associative and experiential transactions that engage pleasure readers. The medium of the book is briefly examined, as are the purposive skills that can emerge from the practice of reading for pleasure. To better serve readers, the largest body of library users, it is incumbent upon the library profession to understand the detailed processes and characteristics that constitute the reading experience.
    • Readers' models of text structures: the case of academic articles

      Dillon, Andrew (1991)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (1991) Readers' models of text structures. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 35, 913-925. Abstract: Hypertext is often described as a liberating technology, freeing readers and authors from the constraints of "linear" paper document formats. However there is little evidence to support such a claim and theoretical work in the text analysis domain suggests that readers form a mental representation of a paper document's structure that facilitates non-serial reading. The present paper examines this concept empirically for academic articles with a view to making recommendations for the design of a hypertext database. The results show that experienced journal readers do indeed possess such a generic representation and can use this to organise isolated pieces of text into a more meaningful whole.This representation holds for text presented on screens. Implications for hypertext document design are discussed.
    • Reading from paper versus reading from screens

      Dillon, Andrew; McKnight, Cliff; Richardson, John (Oxford Journals, 1988)
      This paper reviews the literature on reading continuous text from VDUs. The focus is on the reported nature, and potential causes, of reading differences between paper and screens. The first section outlines the scope of the present review. Section 2 discusses the nature of the reported differences between reading from either presentation medium. Five broad differences have been identified suggesting that reading from VDUs is slower, less accurate, more fatiguing, decreases comprehension and is rated inferior by readers. Evidence for the existence of each of these differences is reviewed and conclusions are drawn. In Section 3, ten variables which have been proposed as potential causes of reading differences between paper and screen are reviewed. These include screen dynamics, display polarity, orientation, viewing angle and user characteristics. Recent evidence by Gould et al.11 is presented which suggests that the image quality of the screen display is the crucial factor and indicate that positive presentation, high resolution and anti-aliasing interactively affect performance by enhancing the quality of the displayed image. The implications of this work for screen presentation of text are presented.
    • Reading from paper versus screens: a critical review of the empirical literature

      Dillon, Andrew (1992)
      This item is not the definitive copy. Please use the following citation when referencing this material: Dillon, A. (1992) Reading from paper versus screens: a critical review of the empirical literature. Ergonomics, 35(10), 1297-1326. Abstract: The advent of widespread computer use in general and increasing developments in the domain of hypertext in particular have increased awareness of the issue of reading electronic text. To date the literature has been dominated by reference to work on overcoming speed deficits resulting from poor image quality but an emerging literature reveals a more complex set of variables at work. The present review considers the differences between the media in terms of outcomes and processes of reading and concludes that single variable explanations are insufficient to capture the range of issues involved in reading from screens.
    • Real Time Health Monitoring Using GPRS Technology

      Verulkar, Shubhangi M.; Limkar, Maruti; EXTC Department, K.C. College of Engg., Nerul, Mumbai University.; Electronics Department, Terna College of Engg., Nerul, Mumbai University (IJCSN Journal, 2012-06-01)
      Advances in sensor technology, personal mobile devices, and wireless broadband communications are enabling the development of an integrated personal mobile health monitoring system that can provide patients with a useful tool to assess their own health and manage their personal health information anytime and anywhere. Personal mobile devices, such as PDAs and mobile phones, are becoming more powerful integrated information management tools and play a major role in many people's lives. Here I focus on designing a Mobile health-monitoring system for people who stay alone at home or suffering from Heart Disease. This system presents a complete unified and mobile platform based connectivity solution for unobtrusive health monitoring. Developing a hardware which will sense heart rate and temperature of a patient, using Bluetooth modem all information lively transmitted to smart phone, from smart phone all information transmitted to server using GPRS. At server the received data compared with the standard threshold minimum and maximum value. The normal range of heart rate is 60 to 135 and the temperature of the patient is said to be normal above 95^F and below 104^F. If at all the rate increases above 145 or decreases below 55,it may be fatal and if it crossed this threshold limit then SMS will be sent to the relative of patient and Doctors along with measured values. The build-in GPS further provides the position information of the monitored person. The remote server not only collects physiological measurements but also tracks the position of the monitored person in real time. For transmitting data from Smartphone to the server using GPRS, here we need to create a website on data will be continuously transmitted from Smartphone to the website and from website data will be downloaded continuously on the server. Thus the system helps in tracking down the patient without getting the patient into any sort of communication. Undue mishaps can be avoided within the golden hours after a patient is struck with a heart attack.
    • Reasons for Competitive Intelligence Topics in Curriculum of Information and Library Schools

      Papik, Richard; Papik, Richard; Simon, Ingeborg (2007)
      The competitive intelligence topic is not only a popular and contemporary term; similarly as knowledge management, but also an important future concept of information positions development in labour markets. Competitive intelligence is also an analytical process of information on competition and markets via open sources; including by electronic sources and databases, vendors, and digital libraries. We can Also interpret that â intelligence is knowledge in actionâ . Information professionals have good and right information for forming of competitive intelligence professional status, which is so near positions of chief information officer or chief knowledge officer (CIO and CKO). To introduce LIS students with a content of CI is demanded, and why not to use new dimensions of information profession.
    • Reassembling scholarly publishing: Institutional repositories, open access, and the process of change

      Kennan, Mary Anne; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka; Toleman, Mark; Cater-Steel, Aileen; Roberts, Dave (The University of Southern Queensland, 2007)
      The domain of scholarly publishing is undergoing rapid change. Change has been instigated and produced by the Internet and open access systems â such as disciplinary and institutional repositories and open access journals. However traditional scholarly publishing is strengthening its hold over prestigious journals thus resisting change. How then does the change come about? An attempt at answering this question led us to examine an institutional repository initiative in a University. As we identified and followed the actors (researchers, research papers, reward systems, institutional repository technology, library staff, RQF, etc.) we saw the emergence of new publishing practices and the forces preserving the old ones. By adopting Actor Network Theory (ANT) we came to understand the materiality, relationality and ambiguity of processes of reassembling scholarly publishing. This paper presents preliminary results and thereby informs a wider debate and shaping of open access and scholarly publishing.
    • Recognizing a Change in World Science System

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Zhou, Ping; So, Min-ho; Park, Han (2006)
      English Abstract: Kingâ s (2004) â The scientific impact of nationsâ published in the Nature has provided the data for the comparison among nation-states in terms of their research performance with reference to their previous stages. This paper makes an attempt to do a new evaluation of the data from another perspective, which leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions. This paper found that there were newly emerging nations. While their national science systems grow endogenously, their publications and citation rates keep pace with the growth pattern. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly. Its axis is moving from North America first to Europe, but then increasingly to Asia. At the global level the rise of China and South Korea are perhaps the main effect because of the volumes.
    • Recognizing a change in World Science System. The Journal of Yeungnam Regional Development 35(2) (2006), 69-86.

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Zhou, Ping (2006)
      Kingâ s (2004) â The scientific impact of nationsâ published in the Nature has provided the data for the comparison among nation-states in terms of their research performance with reference to their previous stages. This paper makes an attempt to do a new evaluation of the data from another perspective, which leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions. This paper found that there were newly emerging nations. While their national science systems grow endogenously, their publications and citation rates keep pace with the growth pattern. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly. Its axis is moving from North America first to Europe, but then increasingly to Asia. At the global level the rise of China and South Korea are perhaps the main effect because of the volumes.
    • Recruiting and retaining an ethnically diverse workforce

      Kim, K.-Sun; Sin, S.-C. Joanna (2006)
      This is a presentation (21 slides) of a study conducted to identify effective strategies for recruiting and retaining students of color in LIS. Using a Web-based survey, the study collected data from librarians of color, enrolled in, or graduated from, ALA-accredited LIS programs. Suggestions were made to develop strategies for diverse LIS community and programs.
    • Redesign of Library Workflows: Experimental Models for Electronic Resource Description

      Calhoun, Karen (the Library of Congress, 2000)
      This paper explores the potential for and progress of a gradual transition from a highly centralized model for cataloging to an iterative, collaborative, and broadly distributed model for electronic resource description. The author's purpose is to alert library managers to some experiments underway and to help them conceptualize new methods for defining, planning, and leading the e-resource description process under moderate to severe time and staffing constraints. To build a coherent library system for discovery and retrieval of networked resources, librarians and technologists are experimenting with team-based efforts and new workflows for metadata creation. In an emerging new service model for e-resource description, metadata can come from selectors, public service librarians, information technology staff, authors, vendors, publishers, and catalogers. Arguing that e-resource description demands a level of cross-functional collaboration and creative problem-solving that is often constrained by libraries' functional organizational structures, the author calls for reuniting functional groups into virtual teams that can integrate the e-resource description process, speed up operations, and provide better service. The paper includes an examination of the traditional division of labor for producing catalogs and bibliographies, a discussion of experiments that deploy a widely distributed e-resource description process (e.g., the use of CORC at Cornell and Brown), and an exploration of the results of a brief study of selected ARL libraries' e-resource discovery systems.
    • Reducing Indeterminism In Consultation: A Cognitive Model of User/Librarian Interactions

      Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant (AAAI, 1987)
      In information facilities such as libraries, finding documents that are relevant to a user query is difficult because of the indeterminism involved in the process by which documents are indexed, and the latitude users have in choosing terms to express a query on a particular topic. Reference librarians play an important support role in coping with this indeterminism, focusing user queries through an interactive dialog. Based on thirty detailed observations of user/librarian interactions obtained through a field experiment, we have developed a computational model designed to simulate the reference librarian. The consultation includes two phases. The first is handle search, where the userâ s rough problem statement and a user stereotyping imposed by the librarian are used in determining the appropriate tools (handles). The second phase is document search, involving the search for documents within a chosen handle. We are collaborating with the university library for putting our model to use as an intelligent assistant for an online retrieval system.
    • REFERENCE ANALYSIS BASE ON A VECTORIAL SPACES MODEL: CONTEMPORANY HISTORY IN JAEN RESEARCH FOR 1990-1995

      Ortega Priego, Jose Luis (CINDOC, 2001-09)
      The spatial perfomance of the relationships there are among researchers in Contemporany History of Jaén for 1990-1995 through their behaviour in citing process is the objetive of this work. Through reference analysis bases on Vectorial Spaces Model (VSM) and displayed in a graphic thanks to Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) are obtained results about research fronts, who lead them, who made up them, and the "disciple/master" relationships there are among researchers.