• S. R. Ranganathan's Postulates and Normative Principles: Applications in Specialized Databases Design, Indexing and Retrieval. Compiled by S. Neelameghan

      Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (Bangalore, India), 1997
      This is a scan of S.R. Ranganathan's Postulates and Normative Principles: Applications in Specialized Databases Design, Indexing and Retrieval, Compiled by A. Neelameghan. Foreword by S. Parthasarathy; Preface by S. Neelameghan; Chapter 1, Hidden Records of Classification; Chapter 2, Absolute Syntax and Structure of an Indexing and Switching Language; Chapter 3: Design of Depth Classification: Methodology; Chapter 4: Subject Heading and Facet Analysis; Chapter 5, S. R. Ranganathan's General Theory of Knowledge Classification in Designing, Indexing, and Retrieving from Specialised Databases. This is a title in the dLIST Classics project. © Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (SRELS). Permission for non-profit use granted by SRELS. To purchase reprints of this work, please visit Ess Ess Publications at http://www.essessreference.com/.
    • A Scalable Self-organizing Map Algorithm for Textual Classification: A Neural Network Approach to Thesaurus Generation

      Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun (1998)
      The rapid proliferation of textual and multimedia online databases, digital libraries, Internet servers, and intranet services has turned researchers' and practitioners' dream of creating an information-rich society into a nightmare of info-gluts. Many researchers believe that turning an info-glut into a useful digital library requires automated techniques for organizing and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents research in which we sought to develop a scaleable textual classification and categorization system based on the Kohonen's self-organizing feature map (SOM) algorithm. In our paper, we show how self-organization can be used for automatic thesaurus generation. Our proposed data structure and algorithm took advantage of the sparsity of coordinates in the document input vectors and reduced the SOM computational complexity by several order of magnitude. The proposed Scaleable SOM (SSOM) algorithm makes large-scale textual categorization tasks a possibility. Algorithmic intuition and the mathematical foundation of our research are presented in detail. We also describe three benchmarking experiments to examine the algorithm's performance at various scales: classification of electronic meeting comments, Internet homepages, and the Compendex collection.
    • Scale-independent Indicators and Research Evaluation

      Katz, J. Sylvan (2000)
      Does the size of institution or system affect the amount of recognition it receives, the impact it has on others and the degree to which it collaborates? Is it possible to optimise size to maximise recognition, impact and co-operation? This paper demonstrates that some conventional indicators used in research evaluation may fail to account for the non-linearity between size and performance. This can result in an over- and under-estimation of the research performance of both large and small institutions and nations. This paper shows that a power law relationships exists between recognition or impact and (a) the publishing size of scientific communities within an OECD science system and (b) the publishing size of a research community across OECD science systems or institutions in a science system. Also, a power law relationship exists between the amount of various types of collaboration and the ublishing size of institutions. It also shows that there are power law relationships between publishing size and HERD or number of researchers. The exponent of the power law is sometimes greater than 1.0 indicating the existence of a "Matthew effect". Other times it is less than 1.0 indicating an "inverse Matthew effect". A power law is the common signature of a scale-independent process that can be typified by a geometric fractal and other self-similar properties. A new class of scale-independent indicators is developed to overcome the inequity produced by some non-linear characteristics commonly measured when evaluating research performance.
    • Scholar-based Innovations in Publishing

      McKiernan, Gerry (2003-06)
      In recent years, a number of innovations have emerged that seek to provide sustainable alternatives to the predominant publishing paradigm. In this presentation, a variety of initiatives that exploit the inherent potential of the Web and other digital environments to offer open and enhanced access to the personal and collective scholarship of individuals, organizations, and nations are profiled. In its concluding section, the presentation focuses on the two major discipline-based repositories for library and information science scholarship,_ DLIST Archive: Digital Library of Information Science and Technology_ (http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/) and _E-LIS_ (http://eprints.rclis.org/ ), "an electronic open access archive for scientific or technical documents, published or unpublished, in Librarianship, Information Science and Technology, and related application activities." To expedite the adoption and further development of scholar-based innovations in publishing, librarians and other information specialists are encouraged to 'Lead By Example' by depositing their own scholarship within either or both these repositories.
    • Scholarly Communication in East and Southeast Asia: Traditions and Challenges

      Xia, Jingfeng (2006)
      This article outlines the tradition of scholarly communication in four East and Southeast Asian countries. It compares the similarities and differences in history and current conditions of research and publication practices in China, Japan, Korea, and Myanmar. It discovers that each country has its own characteristics of scholarly communication, making the world diverse and colorful.
    • Scholarly Editions, Historians' Archives and Digital Libraries: The Pragmatics and the Rhetoric of Digital Humanities Scholarship

      Dalbello, Marija (2006)
      This is a submission to the "Interrogating the social realities of information and communications systems pre-conference workshop, ASIST AM 2006." The development and current uses of digital libraries and digital environments supporting humanities scholarship will be analyzed through the agency of disciplinary communities that are primary users of these resources. The pioneering efforts of individual scholars and digital humanities initiatives are an integral part of the history of the first generation of digital libraries. Significant collections of primary source materials shaped by scholars themselves point to the social nature and disciplinary shaping of technological development, in which domain specialists have become technology innovators. The proposed paper will survey exemplary scholarly editing and archival projects of the first generation from the point of view of their developers. The paper will also present an analysis of the literature of the digital humanities field in relation to that development. Future trends of shaping collections of primary sources for user communities in the traditional disciplines will be discussed as well.
    • Scholarly Electronic Journals -- Trends and Academic Attitudes: A Research Proposal

      McEldowney, Philip (1995)
      The number of electronic journals has grown steadily in the 1990s. A large part of this increase has been in scholarly or academic electronic journals. Some academics are very aware of these trends in scholarly communication and participate actively in their production. Other academics remain unaware of these new trends. This study examines two related issues -- 1. What is the growth rate of these scholarly electronic journals? 2. What are the factors which affect acceptance or resistance toward electronic journals among academics? Is it possible to discover a difference between disciplines for these factors of acceptance or resistance? Information or answers to these issues will help academic librarians and researchers anticipate trends in serials collection and subscription, and help in financial planning and budgeting. Two methodologies are used: 1) the collection of numbers, and 2) the use of a survey. The research project will collect information on the number of scholarly electronic journals, newsletters, and other electronic communications, as they have changed over time, in order to show trends and growth rates. A questionnaire will be developed to provide information on the factors of acceptance or resistance among scholars toward electronic journals.
    • Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography, Version 59

      Bailey, Charles W. (University of Houston Libraries, 2005)
      The Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography presents selected English-language articles, books, and other printed and electronic sources that are useful in understanding scholarly electronic publishing efforts on the Internet. Most sources have been published between 1990 and the present; however, a limited number of key sources published prior to 1990 are also included. Where possible, links are provided to sources that are freely available on the Internet.
    • Scholarly Electronic Publishing on the Internet, the NREN, and the NII: Charting Possible Futures

      Bailey, Charles W. (1994)
      This paper examines how scholarly electronic publishing could be conducted on the Internet, the National Research and Education Network (NREN), and the National Information Infrastructure (NII); and it reviews existing proposals for change. It does not consider how the broader electronic publishing industry should be structured to distribute general interest magazines, popular fiction, or other nonscholarly material. Nor does it assume that print-based scholarly publishing efforts will disappear or radically diminish in the near-term future. Rather, it envisions network-based electronic publishing as initially augmenting conventional publishing efforts and then gradually displacing them.
    • Scholarly Journal Publishing

      Kraft, Donald H. (2006-11)
      These are the notes I used in my talk as panelist on the technical session/panel titled Competing Information Realities: Digital Libraries, Digital Repositories and the Commons, 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, Monday, 6 Nov. 2006 (1:30 - 3:00 pm), Austin, Texas; available in three versions: html, Microsoft Word, and Microsoft Powerpoint (10 slides). I am a scholar, an academic, and the society's journal editor (JASIS&T). I also played agent provocateur in order to represent the publishers' viewpoint.
    • Scholarly Journals From Science Periphery - Towards A Common Methodology For Evaluating Their Scientific Communicability?

      Maricic, Sinisa (2002)
      It is proposed in this article that scholarly journals from the science periphery can (and should) be assessed by their scientific communicability. The objective is to review the literature comprehensively and critically in order to suggest a simple method for reliable "stratification" of journals from the most to least appropriate for public funding support and for inclusion in international databases. The emphasis is on the neglected (Francis Narin's) principle of evaluation indeterminacy and on (Michael Moravcsik's) a strategy to bridge the communication gap between the mainstream and peripheral science communities.
    • Scholarly monographs on rock music: a bibliographic essay

      Berger, Monica; New York City College of Technology Library, City University of New York (Emerald Group Publishing, 2008)
      Purpose: This article is an overview of scholarly monographs on rock music from 1980 to the present. It provides an overview to the literature for practical purposes of collections development as well as giving the reader insight into key issues and trends related to a interdisciplinary topic that attracts scholars from many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach: This bibliographic essay, focusing on works related to American culture and of a general nature, includes an overview and historical background; a discussion of how music and ethnomusiciological scholars approach the topic; geographic approaches; literature on four key icons (Elvis, Dylan, Springsteen, and Madonna); American studies; subcultures and genres; other methodologies; and concludes by discussing notable recent works. Findings: The scholarly literature on rock incorporates a wide variety of approaches and methodologies. Many music-related scholars appropriate methodology from other disciplines and some non-music-related scholars use the formalistic analysis of music scholars. Authenticity is a major theme in the literature on rock. Originality/value: This essay covers the widest range of monographs on the topic, providing insight into not only the key scholars but also the diversity of approaches to the topic. The historical approach to the literature gives the reader a sense of how the academic discourse on rock has evolved. This essay is of interest to librarians, scholars of rock music, and others concerned with how American scholarship in the humanities and the social sciences has grown since the advent of cultural studies.
    • Scholarly Publishing and Open Access: Searching for Understanding of an Emerging IS Phenomenon

      Kennan, Mary Anne; Kautz, Karlheinz (2007)
      Scholarly publishing is concerned with the distribution of scholarly information through journals and conferences and other information media. As such scholarly publishing can be understood as a specific part of the information industry. With the advent of advanced information technologies many possible technologically enabled futures have been posited for scholarly publishing. This paper describes the current systems, processes and actors. While technological advancements appear to be enabling access to scholarly publications, economic conditions appear to limit access. In addition, a number of alternatives, such as open access are currently in play and there is uncertainty regarding the future of the scholarly publishing system. The system appears to be in the process of being reassembled. Conceptual models of the traditional, the electronic, and some possibilities for future developments in scholarly publishing are proposed, as are topics for future research in the information systems domain.
    • ScholarlyCommons@Penn: http://repository.upenn.edu/

      Kerbel, Sandra (2005-06)
      This presentation was made at a LITA panel on Institutional Repositories at the Annual ALA meeting in Chicago, IL on June 27, 2005.
    • School library challenge in Japan - LIPER-SL: Library and information professions and education renewal, School Library Research Group report

      Kasai, Yumiko; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Japanese school libraries have had issues and conflicts over their specialists for over 50 years. LIPER-SL sets a new hypothetical model of "The Information Specialist for School". A series of research examined the possibilities of this new professional and identified the gap between the ideal and reality. The present situation was analyzed through a national questionnaire followed by a focus group interview. The missions and functions of "The Information Specialist for School" were defined at the end of this research.
    • Science Foresight Project

      Katz, J. Sylvan; Stewart, Sally (2002-03)
      The aim of the Science Foresight Project was to design and assess a simple, objective and cost-effective technique to gather information about emerging short and long-term research developments, primarily in the physical and engineering sciences. International experts were objectively chosen using co-citation patterns in scientific and technical literature, and were invited to submit their predictions about emerging developments in their research fields. They were questioned about how the effects of various factors and driving forces might affect their predictions. The cost and time required to administer the questionnaire and collect the responses was minimised through the use of Internet and Web based technologies. A simple process was used to report the predictions; short excerpts from each prediction were used as the summary and each prediction was classified into one of ten categories of emerging developments. Authors from 114 papers (23.7%) responded, identifying a total of 190 short-term and 111 long-term predicted emerging developments. Expert responses were received from an international group of senior researchers between the ages of 36 and 55, mostly engaged in basic research in academic institutions. Some experts described specific emerging developments, some discussed broad emerging trends in their field and others described both. Emerging development categories such as Atomic & Stellar Matter, Biology & Biosphere, Biomedical & Clinical, Computers & Robotics and Genomics & Proteomics were closely aligned with conventional science areas while other categories such as Mathematical & Computational and Nano Science & Technology contained predictions from almost every area of science. The technique developed and applied here appears to constitute an efficient means of surveying the international research community in order to gain insights into common patterns that evolve from their collective research activities. Dynamically monitoring emerging research developments on a continuous basis could provide valuable information to policy makers, planners and researchers.
    • Science in India: On the Comments of Gupta and Garg (A Correspondence)

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (2003-02)
      This brief communication argues about the criteria to be used in evaluating the trend of scientific research, in India, and as presented by other authors on the subject.
    • Science shops: A kaleidoscope of science-society collaborations in Europe. Public Understanding of Science , 14 (2005), 353-372

      Leydesdorff, Loet; Ward, Janelle (2005)
      The science-shop model was initiated in the Netherlands in the 1970s. During the 1980s, the model spread throughout Europe, but without much coordination. The crucial idea behind the science shops involves a working relationship between knowledge-producing institutions like universities and citizen groups that need answers to relevant questions. More recently, the European Commission has funded a number of projects for taking stock of the results of science shops. Twenty-one in-depth case studies by seven science shops across Europe enable us to draw some conclusions about the variety of experiences in terms of differences among disciplines, nations, and formats of the historical institutionalization. The functions of science shops in the mediation of normative concerns with analytical perspectives can further be specified.
    • Scientific and Scholarly Classifications are not "Naïve": a Comment to Begthol (2003). Knowledge Organization, 31(1), 55-61.

      Hjørland, Birger; Nicolaisen, Jeppe (2004)
      In her paper Beghtol (2003) outlines how scholarly activities and research leads to classification systems which subsequently are disseminated in publications which are classified in information retrieval systems, retrieved by the users and again used in scholarly activities and so on. We think this model is correct and that its point is important. What we are reacting to is the fact that Beghtol describes the classifications developed by scholars as â naïveâ while she describes the classifications developed by librarians and information scientists as â professionalâ . We fear that this unfortunate terminology is rooted in deeply anchored misjudgments about the relationships between scientific and scholarly classification on the one side and LIS classifications on the other. Only a correction of this misjudgment may give us in the field of knowledge organization a chance to do a job that is not totally disrespected and disregarded by the rest of the intellectual world.
    • Scientific Communication and Cognitive Codification: Social Systems Theory and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2006-07)
      Forthcoming in 2007 in the European Journal of Social Theory 10 (3). The intellectual organization of the sciences cannot be appreciated sufficiently unless the cognitive dimension is considered as an independent source of variance. Cognitive structures interact and co-construct the organization of scholars and discourses into research programs, specialties, and disciplines. In the sociology of scientific knowledge and the sociology of translation, these heterogeneous sources of variance have been homogenized a priori in the concepts of practices and actor-networks. Practices and actor-networks, however, can be explained in terms of the self-organization of the cognitive code in scientific communication. The code selects knowledge claims by organizing them operationally in the various discourses; the claims can thus be stabilized and potentially globalized. Both the selecting codes and the variation in the knowledge claims remain constructed, but the different sub-dynamics can be expected to operate asymmetrically and to update with other frequencies.