• Validating a Geographic Image Retrieval System

      Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 2000)
      This paper summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. By using an image as its interface, the prototype system addresses a troublesome aspect of traditional retrieval models, which require users to have complete knowledge of the low-level features of an image. In addition we describe an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects in an effort to address the scarcity of research evaluating performance of an algorithm against that of human beings. The results of the experiment indicate that the system could do as well as human subjects in accomplishing the tasks of similarity analysis and image categorization. We also found that under some circumstances texture features of an image are insufficient to represent a geographic image. We believe, however, that our image retrieval system provides a promising approach to integrating image processing techniques and information retrieval algorithms.
    • Verifying the proximity and size hypothesis for self-organizing maps

      Lin, Chienting; Chen, Hsinchun; Nunamaker, Jay F. (M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2000-12)
      The Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an unsupervised learning technique for summarizing high-dimensional data so that similar inputs are, in general, mapped close to one another. When applied to textual data, SOM has been shown to be able to group together related concepts in a data collection and to present major topics within the collection with larger regions. Research in which properties of SOM were validated, called the Proximity and Size Hypotheses,is presented through a user evaluation study. Building upon the previous research in automatic concept generation and classification, it is demonstrated that the Kohonen SOM was able to perform concept clustering effectively, based on its concept precision and recall7 scores as judged by human experts. A positive relationship between the size of an SOM region and the number of documents contained in the region is also demonstrated.
    • Viewer tagging in art museums: Comparisons to concepts and vocabularies of art museum visitors

      Kellogg Smith, Martha; Furner, Jonathan; Tennis, Joseph (dLIST, 2006)
      As one important experiment in the social or user-generated classification of online cultural heritage resources collections, art museums are leading the effort to elicit keyword descriptions of artwork images from online museum visitors. The motivations for having online viewers - presumably largely non-art-specialists - describe art images are (a) to generate keywords for image and object records in museum information retrieval systems in a cost-effective way and (b) to engage online visitors with the artworks and with each other by inviting visitors to express themselves and share their descriptions of artworks. This paper explores the question of how effective non-specialist art keyworders can be in capturing ("tagging") potentially useful concepts and terms for use in art information retrieval systems. To do this, the paper compares evidence from art museum visitor studies which describe how non-specialist art viewers react to and describe artworks and use museum-supplied information in their initial encounters with artworks. A theoretical model of artwork interpretation derived from art museum visitor research provides a framework with which to examine both the activity and the products of artwork tagging for image and information retrieval.
    • A Virtual Hyperbooks Model to Support Collaborative Learning

      Falquet, Gilles; Ziswiler, Jean-Claude; Aleven, Vincent; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kay, Judy; Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Pain, Helen; Verdejo, Felisa; Yacef, Kalina (University of Sydney, 2003)
      Learning by collaboratively writing scientific hyperbooks requires specific software tools. We present a model for creating, managing, and viewing hyperbooks. This model is comprised of a re-usable document repository (fragments repository), connected to a domain ontology. The model takes into account the notion of point of view, allowing a user to read the hyperbook according to a specific reading objective or to his or her profile. The model also includes an interface specification language for the creating different hypertext views of the hyperbook contents. The hyperbook model we propose is an example of virtual document model because the hyperdocuments the reader/writer actually sees are not stored but generated by assembling stored fragments according to an interface specification A purely declarative language allows the definition of the views that make up the interface of the hyperbook. We also present the architecture of a hyperbook management system which is based on a database management system and a hypertext view generation system for databases.
    • Virtual reference service evaluation: Adherence to RUSA behavioral guidelines and IFLA digital reference guidelines

      Shachaf, Pnina; Horowitz, Sarah M. (2007)
      This study evaluates the level of adherence to professional guidelines by virtual (e-mail) reference services. These professional guidelines are set up as standards to assure service quality; however, studies of virtual reference effectiveness rarely utilize these standards to measure reference success. This study evaluates and compares the level of adherence to two sets of professional guidelines that have been published by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and the American Library Association (ALA) Reference and User Services Association (RUSA). Analysis of 324 transactions from 54 libraries showed: 1) low levels of adherence to both sets of guidelines; 2) varied levels of adherence based on request types and user names on both sets of guidelines; 3) variation in institutional rank when different sets of guidelines were utilized; 4) no correlation between user satisfaction and adherence to either set of guidelines. The implications of this study for future research and practice lie not only in its provision of a systematic way to analyze transactions in light of the ideal professional standards, but also in providing an empirical benchmark for virtual reference services evaluation.
    • Virtual reference service evaluation: Adherence to RUSA behavioral guidelines and IFLA digital reference guidelines

      Shachaf, Pnina; Horowitz, Sarah M. (2007)
      This study evaluates the level of adherence to professional guidelines by virtual (e-mail) reference services. These professional guidelines are set up as standards to assure service quality; however, studies of virtual reference effectiveness rarely utilize these standards to measure reference success. This study evaluates and compares the level of adherence to two sets of professional guidelines that have been published by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and the American Library Association (ALA) Reference and User Services Association (RUSA). Analysis of 324 transactions from 54 libraries showed: 1) low levels of adherence to both sets of guidelines; 2) varied levels of adherence based on request types and user names on both sets of guidelines; 3) variation in institutional rank when different sets of guidelines were utilized; 4) no correlation between user satisfaction and adherence to either set of guidelines. The implications of this study for future research and practice lie not only in its provision of a systematic way to analyze transactions in light of the ideal professional standards, but also in providing an empirical benchmark for virtual reference services evaluation.
    • VIRTUAL REFERENCE SERVICES: IMPLEMENTATION OF PROFESSIONAL AND ETHICAL STANDARDS

      Shachaf, Pnina (2007-12)
      Virtual reference, which allows users to connect easily with librarians online, is becoming popular. Librarians answer thousands of questions every day over the Internet. As the service matures, professional associations publish standards that provide professional guidelines to improve the quality of the services. This article focuses attention on the quality of these e-services in light of professional and ethical standards in the field. It examines the extent to which librarians adhere to professional and ethical guidelines and the role that virtual reference plays in providing services to diverse user groups. First, it discusses adherence to the professional standards and shows that the professional behaviors of librarians vary depending on user, institution, and request types. Then, it discusses the extent to which librarians provide equitable online reference services to diverse users groups and the inconsistent findings from empirical research.
    • VIRTUAL REFERENCE SERVICES: IMPLEMENTATION OF PROFESSIONAL AND ETHICAL STANDARDS

      Shachaf, Pnina (2007-12)
      Virtual reference, which allows users to connect easily with librarians online, is becoming popular. Librarians answer thousands of questions every day over the Internet. As the service matures, professional associations publish standards that provide professional guidelines to improve the quality of the services. This article focuses attention on the quality of these e-services in light of professional and ethical standards in the field. It examines the extent to which librarians adhere to professional and ethical guidelines and the role that virtual reference plays in providing services to diverse user groups. First, it discusses adherence to the professional standards and shows that the professional behaviors of librarians vary depending on user, institution, and request types. Then, it discusses the extent to which librarians provide equitable online reference services to diverse users groups and the inconsistent findings from empirical research.
    • VirusPKT: A Search Tool For Assimilating Assorted Acquaintance For Viruses

      Jayanthi Manicassamy; P. Dhavachelvan; Department of Computer Science / Pondicherry University (Engg Journals Publications, 2009-11)
      Viruses utilize various means to circumvent the immune detection in the biological systems. Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the biological system of human and various other species. One common strategy for evasion and recognition of viruses is, through acquaintance in the systems by means of search engines. In this perspective a search tool have been developed to provide a wider comprehension about the structure and other details on viruses which have been narrated in this paper. This provides an adequate knowledge in evolution and building of viruses, its functions through information extraction from various websites. Apart from this, tool aim to automate the activities associated with it in a self-maintainable, selfsustainable, proactive one which has been evaluated through analysis made and have been discussed in this paper.
    • Visual Approaches to Teaching Classification

      Karpuk, Deborah J.; Breitenstein, Mikel (dLIST, 2004)
      Teaching classification extends beyond teaching any one classification system, but involves a variety of thinking approaches to the possibilities of how to organize. Teaching classification in the 21st century involves recognizing that the traditional parking of materials co-exists with more flexible ways of classifying new formats, objects, digital files, etc. Involving students in the logical and systematic underpinnings of various classification systems along with the technological advancements that offer new ways to organize and sort launches the thinking process. Classroom simulations serve to introduce students to a range of classification problems, including organization of objects and images along with discussions of user perspectives and anticipation of future use of the item. The group simulations and discussions surface new issues while presenting basic concepts through active participation.
    • Visual search and reading tasks using ClearType and regular displays: two experiments

      Dillon, Andrew; Kleinman, Lisa; Choi, Gil Ok; Bias, Randolph (ACM, 2006)
      Two experiments comparing user performance on ClearType and Regular displays are reported. In the first, 26 participants scanned a series of spreadsheets for target information. Speed of performance was significantly faster with ClearType. In the second experiment, 25 users read two articles for meaning. Reading speed was significantly faster for ClearType. In both experiments no differences in accuracy of performance or visual fatigue scores were observed. The data also reveal substantial individual differences in performance suggesting ClearType may not be universally beneficial to information workers.
    • Visual Universal Decimal Classification?

      Van der Linden, Erik-Jan; Van Wijk, Jerke J.; Cordeiro, Maria Inês (UDC Consortium, 2007)
      The authors presents a tool developed by the Dutch company Magna View that enables the visual representation of the content of the UDC Master Reference File (UDC MRF). The tool contains a pre-processed UDC MRF and allows visualization of, for instance, hierarchy levels, number of classes within a hierarchy and provides an overview of UDC number distribution across all fields of knowledge. The tool is aimed at users and developers who work with and utilize the UDC MRF and can benefit from different kinds of classification data representation.
    • Visualization of large category map for Internet browsing

      Yang, Christopher C.; Chen, Hsinchun; Hong, Kay (Elsevier, 2003-04)
      Information overload is a critical problem in World Wide Web. Category map developed based on Kohonenâ s selforganizing map (SOM) has been proven to be a promising browsing tool for the Web. The SOM algorithm automatically categorizes a large Internet information space into manageable sub-spaces. It compresses and transforms a complex information space into a two-dimensional graphical representation. Such graphical representation provides a user-friendly interface for users to explore the automatically generated mental model. However, as the amount of information increases, it is expected to increase the size of the category map accordingly in order to accommodate the important concepts in the information space. It results in increasing of visual load of the category map. Large pool of information is packed closely together on a limited size of displaying window, where local details are difficult to be clearly seen. In this paper, we propose the fisheye views and fractal views to support the visualization of category map. Fisheye views are developed based on the distortion approach while fractal views are developed based on the information reduction approach. The purpose of fisheye views are to enlarge the regions of interest and diminish the regions that are further away while maintaining the global structure. On the other hand, fractal views are an approximation mechanism to abstract complex objects and control the amount of information to be displayed. We have developed a prototype system and conducted a user evaluation to investigate the performance of fisheye views and fractal views. The results show that both fisheye views and fractal views significantly increase the effectiveness of visualizing category map. In addition, fractal views are significantly better than fisheye views but the combination of fractal views and fisheye views do not increase the performance compared to each individual technique.
    • Visualization of the Citation Impact Environments of Scientific Journals: An online mapping exercise

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2005)
      Aggregated journal-journal citation networks based on the Journal Citation Reports 2004 of the Science Citation Index (5968 journals) and the Social Science Citation Index (1712 journals) are made accessible from the perspective of any of these journals. A vectorspace model is used for normalization, and the results are brought online at http://www.leydesdorff.net/jcr04 as input-files for the visualization program Pajek. The user is thus able to analyze the citation environment in terms of links and graphs. Furthermore, the local impact of a journal is defined as its share of the total citations in the specific journal's citation environments; the vertical size of the nodes is varied proportionally to this citation impact. The horizontal size of each node can be used to provide the same information after correction for within-journal (self-)citations. In the "citing" environment, the equivalents of this measure can be considered as a citation activity index which maps how the relevant journal environment is perceived by the collective of authors of a given journal. As a policy application, the mechanism of interdisciplinary developments among the sciences is elaborated for the case of nanotechnology journals.
    • Visualization of the Citation Impact Environments of Scientific Journals: An online mapping exercise

      Leydesdorff, Loet (2006)
      Aggregated journal-journal citation networks based on the Journal Citation Reports 2004 of the Science Citation Index (5968 journals) and the Social Science Citation Index (1712 journals) are made accessible from the perspective of any of these journals. A vector-space model is used for normalization, and the results are brought online at http://www.leydesdorff.net/jcr04 as input-files for the visualization program Pajek. The user is thus able to analyze the citation environment in terms of links and graphs. Furthermore, the local impact of a journal is defined as its share of the total citations in the specific journal's citation environments; the vertical size of the nodes is varied proportionally to this citation impact. The horizontal size of each node can be used to provide the same information after correction for within-journal (self )citations. In the "citing" environment, the equivalents of this measure can be considered as a citation activity index which maps how the relevant journal environment is perceived by the collective of authors of a given journal. As a policy application, the mechanism of interdisciplinary developments among the sciences is elaborated for the case of nanotechnology journals.
    • Visualizing Similarity in Subject Term Co-Assignment

      Gabel, Jeff; Smiraglia, Richard P.; Breitenstein, Mikel; Loschko, Cheryl Lin (2009)
      The purpose of this research is to improve retrieval performance in systems that use assigned subject descriptors, such as library subject headings. We are looking for wider semantic boundaries surrounding summary headings assigned to documents by providing a means of identifying clustered headings that fall within the indexerâ s collective common perceptions of relevance. We are here experimenting with two techniques that can help increase both precision and recall. In earlier research citationâ chasing was employed to yield a fuller retrieval set than might have been found using subject headings alone. In the present study we are employing multiâ dimensional scaling to determine the best fit among works to which subject descriptors have been coâ assigned. A term co-occurrence matrix compiled from 19 LCSH subject headings assigned to works in the field of â language originâ is used to generate an MDS map of the semantic space. Two clusters emerge: language and languages, and evolution biology, sometimes termed evolingo. Results allow us to visualize how differing perceptions of indexers affect the semantic space surrounding assigned terms. In both cases - citation-chasing and term co-occurrence - and especially when combining the two techniques acting as thresholds for each other, it is possible to overcome the inverse relation between precision and recall.
    • Visualizing Social Informatics

      Moore, Tony Alex (2007)
      This is a submission to the 3rd Annual Social Informatics SIG Research Symposium: The Social Web, Social Computing and the Social Analysis of Computing. To date the no empirical research has been done to visualize the discipline of social informatics. This work presents the early stages of a domain analysis of social informatics in terms of its authors. The names of those most frequently cocited with Rob Kling from 1974 to 2007 were retrieved from Social Scisearch via Dialog. The top 48 authors were submitted to author cocitation analysis.
    • Visualizing Social Informaticss

      Moore, Tony Alex (2007)
      This is a submission to the 3rd Annual Social Informatics SIG Research Symposium: The Social Web, Social Computing and the Social Analysis of Computing. To date the no empirical research has been done to visualize the discipline of social informatics. This work presents the early stages of a domain analysis of social informatics in terms of its authors. The names of those most frequently cocited with Rob Kling from 1974 to 2007 were retrieved from Social Scisearch via Dialog. The top 48 authors were submitted to author cocitation analysis.
    • Voces en el silencio

      Civallero, Edgardo; UDC Consortium (2006-07)
      Latin American indigenous populations are fragile human miracles, trying to survive and perpetuate their menaced cultural heritage and way of life -including more than 250 languages- under the pressure of a predominantly Euro-American society. Their traditional knowledge is the product of centuries of experiences, and is mainly transmitted through oral and artistic expressions, unstable means mainly based on the correct use of memory. The collection of oral tradition and its management in libraries and archives is not widely spread in Latin America, even if there are some previous experiences on this issue. Oral-archiving techniques and tools have been highly developed and used with other social sectors all around the continent, but native peoples have been longly neglected or even forgotten. Meanwhile, with every old person who dies in the aboriginal communities, a whole library just vanishes. This paper is aimed at presenting a brief introduction to oral archives and indigenous knowledge in Latin America, emphasizing the urgent necessity of designing stronger and wider research policies for libraries, universities and governmental institutions. The author also presents some ideas and proposals, based in his own work (2002-2005) developing a network of libraries with sound collections in indigenous communities in northern Argentina.
    • We the people: One nation, a multicultural society (Correlates and predictors of the 'digital divide').

      Robbin, Alice (John Hopkins University Press, 2000)
      This article examines selected economic and social indicators of our multiracial and multiethnic society at the end of the twentieth century to provide an information base for wise decisions about effective library services. The statistical profile describes the demography, economic well-being, and education attainment of the principal racial and Hispanic origin groups. The data show that progress in our nation's well-being has occurred, but a great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals of equity and equality of opportunity.