• We the people: One nation, a multicultural society (Correlates and predictors of the 'digital divide').

      Robbin, Alice (John Hopkins University Press, 2000)
      This article examines selected economic and social indicators of our multiracial and multiethnic society at the end of the twentieth century to provide an information base for wise decisions about effective library services. The statistical profile describes the demography, economic well-being, and education attainment of the principal racial and Hispanic origin groups. The data show that progress in our nation's well-being has occurred, but a great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals of equity and equality of opportunity.
    • A Web 2.0 Enabled Content Management System for Rural Youth Photographers: Social Computing Supporting Community Empowerment

      Sandusky, Robert J.; Crowe, Jane (2007)
      A distributed coalition consisting of a Head Start program, its youth activities program development director, rural youth, an art gallery and its curators, a graphic designer, and a university department are collaborating to design, build, and populate a user controlled content management system to bring the youthsâ work to a global audience, enable computer mediated interaction, provide a venue for exploring artistic expression, and introduce information and communications technologies (ICTs) to the youth and other project participants. Using a project-based approach combined with implicitly constructed scenarios and the iterative and informal processes associated with free / libre / open source software development, the geographically and organizationally distributed project team created the first release of the Growing Tennessee Web site to coincide with a photo exhibition held at a not-for-profit art gallery. The project will build upon its previous accomplishments and introduce additional media and their supporting technologies to rural youth.
    • A Web 2.0 Enabled Content Management System for Rural Youth Photographers: Social Computing Supporting Community Empowerment

      Sandusky, Robert J.; Crowe, Jane (2007)
      A distributed coalition consisting of a Head Start program, its youth activities program development director, rural youth, an art gallery and its curators, a graphic designer, and a university department are collaborating to design, build, and populate a user controlled content management system to bring the youthsâ work to a global audience, enable computer mediated interaction, provide a venue for exploring artistic expression, and introduce information and communications technologies (ICTs) to the youth and other project participants. Using a project-based approach combined with implicitly constructed scenarios and the iterative and informal processes associated with free / libre / open source software development, the geographically and organizationally distributed project team created the first release of the Growing Tennessee Web site to coincide with a photo exhibition held at a not-for-profit art gallery. The project will build upon its previous accomplishments and introduce additional media and their supporting technologies to rural youth.
    • Web 2.0: A Social Informatics Perspective

      Allen, Jonathan P.; Rosenbaum, Howard; Shachaf, Pnina; Allen, Jonathan P.; Rosenbaum, Howard; Shachaf, Pnina (2007)
      This position paper argues that the Web 2.0 phenomenon is an important object of study for information systems research, and that a social informatics approach to understanding Web 2.0 is particularly relevant and useful. We discuss Wikipedia as an example of empirical research on Web 2.0 that can help bridge the divide between academic and popular discourse on new technology movements.
    • Web 2.0: A Social Informatics Perspective

      Allen, Jonathan P.; Rosenbaum, Howard; Shachaf, Pnina (2007)
      This position paper argues that the Web 2.0 phenomenon is an important object of study for information systems research, and that a social informatics approach to understanding Web 2.0 is particularly relevant and useful. We discuss Wikipedia as an example of empirical research on Web 2.0 that can help bridge the divide between academic and popular discourse on new technology movements.
    • Web access to social science journals in Latin America and the Spanish Caribbean â the case of CLACSO´s network

      Babini, Dominique (CLACSO - Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, 2007-07)
      Abstract Even if there exist great differences among countries of Latin America and the Spanish Caribbean, those countries share problems which need input from local and regional social science research in support of policy making, community actions, comparative research and university studies and teaching. The traditional system for dissemination of research results in printed publications has limited impact because of low average of copies printed for academic publications, prohibitive costs of regular mail to distribute printed publications, and lack of library budget to update social science collections. This is why the use ICT (information and communication technologies) provides an opportunity to change the way and time in which social science research results are transmitted to the scholarly and academic world and to society at large to ensure a reasonably effective dissemination of research results in the region, even if the process of democratization of Internet access is still very slow. CLACSO, Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, is a forty years old academic network gathering more than 180 university and ngo´s social science research centers and graduate programs in 21 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. These institutions are increasingly using the digital formats of their journals to accelerate dissemination of research results using the Web. This presentation describes how these social science institutions in Latin America and the Spanish Caribbean are experimenting with those diverse options to make their journals available in the Web: a simple promotion in the Web of the printed journal, or including the table of contents, with or without abstracts, some articles available online in full-text, or the complete printed journal available full-text in the institutional website and/or in regional portals. These portals are described, with emphasis in services provided by CLACSO´s portal. Since 1998 CLACSO has developed a portal using an open source virtual library software promoted by Unesco. This open access virtual library allows advanced search in metadata and in the full-text of journals, books, working documents and theses (www.clacso.org.ar/biblioteca/ingles). It started as a centralized virtual library and now is in a transition to becoming a network of social science virtual libraries updated by a working group of editors and librarians of CLACSO´s network in 21 countries of the region. The presentation describes activities undertaken by members and services provided by CLACSO´s central office: training, technical support and statistics so that each institution can have Web access to the general statistics (more than 100.000 visitors and 500.000 text requests each month) and to the individual statistics for each publication of their collection within this network of virtual libraries. This program receives support from CLACSO member institutes, the Swedish government (SIDA) and the Norwegian government (NORAD). "Nordic support to CLACSO's àrea de Información has revolutionized access to important research materials across a variety of different fields, opening a window onto Latin American social science for researchers, activists and public officials" External evaluation of CLACSO (ASDI, 2005)
    • Web impact factors for Iranian Universities

      Noruzi, Alireza (2005-04)
      This study investigates the Web Impact Factors (WIFs) for Iranian universities and introduces a new system of measurement. Counts of links to the web sites of Iranian universities were calculated from the output of AltaVista search engine. The WIFs for Iranian universities were calculated by dividing link page counts by the number of pages found in AltaVista for each university at a given point in time. These WIFs were then compared, to study the impact, visibility, and influence of Iranian university web sites. Overall, Iranian university web sites have a low inlink WIF. While specific features of sites may affect an institution's Web Impact Factor, there is a significant correlation between the proportion of English-language pages at an institution's site and the institution's backlink counts. This indicates that for linguistic reasons, Iranian (Persian-language) web sites may not attract the attention they deserve from the World Wide Web. This raises the possibility that information may be ignored due to linguistic and geographic barriers, and this should be taken into account in the development of the global Web.
    • Web Metrics Bibliography

      Coleman, Anita Sundaram; Neuhaus, Chris (2004)
      A review of the literature reveals that web metrics is a complex topic that can be found under many different terms and phrases: e-metrics, web site traffic measurement, web usage, web mining, online consumer/usage behavior, are just a few. Data mining, web analytics, knowledge data discovery, informetrics (bibliometrics and web-o-metrics) and business analytics are also relevant. â Metricsâ are measures and â analyticsâ are measurements of information, processes and data analysis from processes but web analytics is also becoming synonymous for e-metrics and web metrics. â Verticalizationâ is one of the newest trends in business web analytics/metrics; this means not just web traffic logging and analysis but has been broadened to include understanding and predicting customer behavior and customer relationship management. â Personalizationâ is considered fundamental to improving customer motivation, satisfaction and retention. What is the potential of web metrics for understanding educational use of the NSDL and measuring educational impact? As Einstein said, â Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.â What do we want to count for the NSDL how, and why? These are the questions that have motivated the creation of this bibliography. We hope it will be a useful starting point and reference document as we begin framing a plan of action for the NSDL in this important area. Status: This bibliography is a work in progress. When it is completed (target date: 08/30/04) it will be a selective, annotated bibliography on web metrics. Currently, the abstracts in this bibliography are often taken directly from the source articles or websites and are not annotations. Books and journals dealing with this topic are not yet included (with one exception); we plan to include at least other texts and journals in the final version. Acknowledgments: Chris Neuhaus jumpstarted this bibliography and Anita conducted a literature search in databases such as the ACM Digital Library besides editing it. In addition, we found the statements of the Webmetrics Workshop participants most helpful in preparing this bibliography and some of the references in the statements have been included here. We also acknowledge the labor of Shawn Nelson, SIRLS, University of Arizona, in locating the abstracts and articles/items listed in this bibliography. Your feedback and comments (especially critical comments and reader annotations about any of the items) will help to improve this selective, annotative bibliography and are greatly encouraged. Version: This is version 2 of the bibliography prepared by volunteers of the Educational Impact and Evaluation Standing Committee for the NSDL Webmetrics Workshop ( a joint workshop of the Technology Standing Committee and the EIESC), Aug. 2-3, Costa Mesa, CA. This version adds two tools mentioned at the workshop and includes citations to two papers that were distributed at the workshop as well. Version 1 of the bibliography, also a volunteer effort, was distributed as a paper copy to the 26 participants of the workshop. For details about the workshop, visit http://webmetrics.comm.nsdl.org/. This bibliography is being made available through DLIST, http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/.
    • Web page concept and design: getting a web site up and running - Module 6

      David, Lourdes T. (2002)
      This is Module 6 of the ICT for Library and Information Professionals (ICTLIP) Training Package for Developing Countries. This Package is intended to provide the knowledge and skills required to deal with the application of ICT to library and information services. It is meant for library and information personnel who may become trainers in the area. The Package has been developed by the UNESCO Asia & Pacific Regional Office with funding from the Japanese Fund in Trust for Communication and Information. It contains six modules: Module 1 - Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies Module 2 - Introduction to Integrated Library Systems Module 3 - Information Seeking in an Electronic Environment Module 4 - Database Design, and Information Storage and Retrieval Module 5 - The Internet as an Information Resource Module 6 - Web Page Concept and Design: Getting a Web Page Up and Running
    • Web Portal for Resource Sharing Among Medical Libraries in India

      Rathinasabapathy, G.; Ambuja, A; Raghavan, K. S.; Seetharama, S. (Medical Library Association of India & University of Madras, 2004)
      Human health care is heavily depending on the timely access to medical informtion. Since the serials/journals cover research and development news in the form of scientific articles, news items, new result of research, etc., meant for scientific community, the are proven prestigous communication vehicle amongst the scientists in the world. But, a number of surveys revealed that most relevant and frequently required medical journals are not available in most of the medical libraries in India. At present, there is no any union catalogue of medical periodicals available in India. Under the circumstances, this paper provides a conceptual plan of designing a web portal for sharing periodical holding details among medical libraries in India.
    • Web Presence and Impact Factors for Middle-Eastern Countries

      Noruzi, Alireza (Information Today, Inc., 2006-03)
      This study investigates the Web presence and Web Impact Factor (WIF) for country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) of Middle-Eastern countries, and sub-level domains (SLDs) related to education and academic institutions in these countries. Counts of links to the web sites of Middle-Eastern countries were calculated from the output of Yahoo search engine. In this study, we compute the WIF at two levels: top-level domains, and sub-level domains. The results show that the Middle-Eastern countries, apart from Turkey, Israel and Iran, have a low web presence. On the other hand, their web sites have a low inlink WIF. Specific features of sites may affect a countryâ s Web Impact Factor. For linguistic reasons, Middle-Eastern web sites (Persian, Kurdish, Turkish, Arabic, and Hebrew languages) may not receive and attract the attention that they deserve from the World Wide Web community.
    • Web Searching, Search Engines and Information Retrieval

      Lewandowski, Dirk (ISO Press, 2005)
      This article discusses Web search engines; mainly the challenges in indexing the World Wide Web, the user behaviour, and the ranking factors used by these engines. Ranking factors are divided into query-dependent and query-independent factors, the latter of which have become more and more important within recent years. The possibilities of these factors are limited, mainly of those that are based on the widely used link popularity measures. The article concludes with an overview of factors that should be considered to determine the quality of Web search engines.
    • Web-based Digital Resources for Small Animal Medicine Professionals

      Rathinasabapathy, G; Rajendran, L; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (e-Science World, 2009)
      The Internet which is also known as ‘Information Superhighway’, ‘Global Information Infrastructure’, ‘Cyberspace’, ‘Hyperspace’ etc., connects millions of computers in a web and makes almost immediate communication possible, irrespective of the location of its users. The Internet provides huge resources that are useful for veterinary and animal science professionals and the amount of accessible veterinary medicine information is increasing rapidly. Ideally, this could provide a formidable opportunity for Veterinarians to exchange and process veterinary medicine information with colleagues around the world from their desktop. Though the Internet offers virtually unlimited amount of information related to small animal medicine and surgery and provides a number of tools to access, it is useful in at least three aspects related to veterinary medicine and surgery viz., communication, education and research. This paper attempts to profile such important digital knowledge resources useful for small animal veterinary medicine professionals.
    • WebJunction: An Online Center for Learning and Training

      Kellison, Elizabeth (2005-01)
      This is a presentation in Session 7.1 on Friday, January 14, at the ALISE 2005 Conference. It is about WebJunction, "an online community where library staff meet to share ideas, solve problems, take online courses - and have fun." http://webjunction.org/
    • Weblog publishing behaviour of librarianship and information science students: a case study

      Tramullas, Jesus; Garrido, Piedad; University of Zaragoza (2011-03)
      Introduction. The ‘blogosphere’ is a space with digital information in which social networks form that offer countless application possibilities. In this technology-mediated context, it is feasible to study the performance and approaches of production, diffusion, relationship and use of information from different perspectives.. Method. Quantitative data were obtained through the regular examination of the blogs maintained by students and qualitative data were obtained from reports by the students and self-assessment questionnaires. Analysis. Simple counts of quantitative data were obtained, without further statistical analysis. The qualitative data were reviewed for insights into the motivations of students. Results. Given a free choice, most students adopted the Blogger platform for their blogs. Most blogs consisted of content reported from elsewhere and were not continued by the students following the end of the exercise. Conclusions. Students adopted an instrumental approach to the exercise, doing enough to complete the course requirements but not being sufficiently engaged to continue their blogs. Preliminary work based on basic competences is necessary in both collaboration processes and Web 2.0 technology to obtain satisfactory results in the use of Weblogs as teaching and learning tools.
    • Weblogs Content Classification Tools: performance evaluation

      Tramullas, Jesús; Garrido, Piedad (2006)
      Nowadays, weblogs or blogs are important tools for personal or workgroup websites publication. These tools give the necessary performances to create, edit, evaluate, publish and file digital contents, in the framework of a standarized workflow, and for managing the digital information life cycle. Nevertheless, these tools must be complemented with existence of technical funcionalities necessary to get a correct implantation and use. The aim of the work is to assess the way in which weblogs implement the technical solutions necessary to utilize correctly classification tools. The evaluation took into account let to extract a collection of conclusions of great interest to analize the state of art of the content classification tools integration and the weblogs management systems. As a general conclusion, it can be assured that the current generation of weblogs management systems do not offer all the desired performances for the classical classification tools, offering also a very heterogeneous scene.
    • What a Subject Search Interface Can Do

      Schallier, Wouter; McIlwaine, I.C. (UDC Consortium The Hague, 2004-12)
      K.U.Leuven University Library (Belgium) developed an experimental interface for subject search by UDC in the OPAC. The interface combines the search facilities of a classification with those of a word system, since it enables the end user to search by subject terms and to see these terms in the hierarchy of broader, parallel and more specific terms. This project should be seen as an important indication of the libraryâ s growing concern to present its information sources in a content-structured and user-friendly way. At the same time, it has to be situated in a new policy for knowledge organization, which aims to find a balance between the local and overall needs of a library network. Finally, this project comes at a moment when K.U.Leuven University Library is in full conversion to Aleph 500 software.
    • What can ICTs do? Perpsectives from the developing world

      Arunachalam, Subbiah; Kerner, Max; Muller, Thomas (Bohlau-Verlag, Koln, 2006)
      This chapter is from an invited presentation (15 pages long) given at the Aachen Colloquium on Click - A Split World, November 2004. It has appeared in the book [Gespaltene Welt? Technikzugange in der Wissensgesellschaft, edited by Max Kerner and Thomas Muller, and published by Bohlau Verlag, Koln, 2006] and is the author's final version. Introduction: I am asked to reflect on social and cultural consequences of technical development and try to answer a few questions: â ¢ In what different kind of ways access to knowledge is modified in an information technology-based society that is dominated by technical resources? â ¢ Does global exchange of information enable ubiquitous access to knowledge? â ¢ By which means do information technologies contribute to the solution or intensify global and local problems? â ¢ Which requirements arise from this problem for an IT-based society? I shall try to answer these questions from the point of view of a Third Worlder. Most other speakers at this colloquium are thinkers and experts known for their scholarship and academic achievements. I do not belong to the same league. I am not saying this out of humility; I am making a statement of fact. Then why am I here? Because I have felt the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the developing world and I have been working for many years to overcome the 1 deleterious consequences of ICTs in the context of the poor and the marginalized. I wish to share with you what I have learnt through working in the field. I am coming from India where we had a major election a few months ago. We are happy about the election for two reasons. One, contrary to what is happening in many parts of the developing world, democracy in India is vibrant and we have been holding free and fair elections consistently for more than 50 years. Two, despite outstanding achievements in the areas of high technology in general and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in particular, the ruling governments in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh belonging to two different parties have failed to return to power, largely because the rural poor voted against them. Thanks to rapid developments in indigenous capabilities combined with favorable policies by the governments in these two southern states of India, a number of IT industries and research laboratories â both Indian and multinational â sprung up, mainly in the capital cities Bangalore (referred to as the Silicon Valley of the East) and Hyderabad (half jocularly called Cyberabad). But these developments did not have a perceptible impact on the rural poor, who felt that they were neglected. What can information and communication technologies (ICTs) do to help the poor? Can they do anything at all? That is a question that dominates the development discourse. If poverty has been so persistent that we could not eliminate it with all our efforts till now, how can the use of ICTs make a difference? Poverty is much more than absence of money. Often generations in poverty lead people to a sense of utter hopelessness and deprive them of their sense of self-respect and dignity. They are deprived of access to essential assets and opportunities such as education, healthcare, employment, land and other natural resources, services, infrastructure and credit. They have little say in their polity and society. They are not empowered to participate in making the decisions that shape their lives. They become increasingly marginalized, excluded and vulnerable to exploitation. This exploitation manifests in several forms such as bonded labour, child labour, inadequate compensation for work if and when they get work, ill treatment and deprivation of basic rights. It will be naïve to believe that we can solve the problem of poverty by providing access to computers and telecommunication to the poor of the world.1 We have always lived in an unequal world, but now the gap between information â havesâ and â have-notsâ is widening fast. As Kofi Annan2 has noted, â there is a real danger that the worldâ s poor will be excluded from the emerging knowledge-based 2 global economy.â Virtually every new technology tends to exacerbate the inequalities that separate the rich from the poor. The last few years have seen many initiatives that deploy ICTs in rural communities in many developing countries. Many world leaders have spoken in glorious terms about the tremendous potential of these new technologies in transforming the lives of the poor. â Technology doesnâ t come after you deal with poverty, but is a tool you use to alleviate poverty,â says James D Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank. Says Mark Malloch Brown, Head of UNDP, â ICTs can help us reach the Millennium Development Goals including the goal of halving poverty by 2015.â It is mastery over technology that enabled the early adopters of industrial revolution technologies to colonize and exploit the rest of the world. If the developing countries fail to take advantage of the new ICTs, the consequences could be far more serious. If we want technology to work for the poor we must make special efforts. In this talk I will describe from my own personal experience two widely different programmes where we are attempting to bridge the gulf that divides the rich from the poor through innovative use of information and communication technologies. In the first part of my talk we will look at how we at the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) are trying to harness ICTs as part of a holistic strategy for alleviating poverty in rural India. I will show why the emphasis should be on people and the public commons approach rather than on technology. In the second part, we will look at how the advent of new technologies has opened up the possibility for making knowledge distribution in science and scholarship a level-playing field. Here again the public commons approach is the key to success.
    • What Can Searching Behavior Tell Us About the Difficulty of Information Tasks? A Study of Web Navigation

      Gwizdka, Jacek; Spence, Ian (American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T), 2006)
      Task has been recognized as an influential factor in information seeking behavior. An increasing number of studies are concentrating on the specific characteristics of the task as independent variables to explain associated information-seeking activities. This paper examines the relationships between operational measures of information search behavior, subjectively perceived post-task difficulty and objective task complexity in the context of factual information-seeking tasks on the web. A questiondriven, web-based information-finding study was conducted in a controlled experimental setting. The study participants performed nine search tasks of varying complexity. Subjective task difficulty was found to be correlated with many measures that characterize the searcherâ s activities. Four of those measures, the number of the unique web pages visited, the time spent on each page, the degree of deviation from the optimal path and the degree of the navigation pathâ s linearity, were found to be good predictors of subjective task difficulty. Objective task complexity was found to affect the relative importance of those predictors and to affect subjective assessment of task difficulty.