• Educating 21st century LIS professionals - The needs and expectations: A survey of Indian LIS professionals and alumni

      Varalakshmi,, R. S. R.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      LIS education focuses on developing manpower suitable to the demands of the contemporary information environment. There is need to audit the LIS curriculum for its relevance to the 21st century hybrid environment. This paper analyzes the opinions of young and experienced professionals on existing LIS coursesâ ability to meet the demand and increase employability. The paper proposes a general framework to overcome the lacunae.
    • Educating future knowledge-literate library and information science professionals

      Sarrafzadeh, Maryam; Hazeri, Afsaneh; Hochner, William "Bill"; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper reports the core findings of an international study that examined the perceptions of LIS community towards knowledge management inclusion in the LIS education. Taking the perspectives of members of international LIS communities, we try to identify the rationale for a paradigm shift in library education towards knowledge management. We also explore the perceptions of LIS community towards the nature and content of knowledge management program in the LIS education which best meets the challenges of the knowledge management work environment.
    • Education and training in electronic records management (ERM): The need for partnership building

      Johare, Rusnah; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The use of computers within the electronic environment has led to rapid and dynamic changes in the way governments and businesses operate. One of the significant outcomes of computerization is that managing electronic records now relies on IT and it needs to be integrated into the business processes of an organization. Therefore electronic records management (ERM) not only requires the involvement of key players in recordkeeping, such as records managers and archivists, but also IT personnel and administrators under a common shared responsibility to establish a credible electronic records management programme. According to McLeod, Hare and Johare (2004) managing records in the electronic environment is not only a major challenge but also increasingly a strategic issue for organizations in both the public and private sectors. They suggested that “a key factor in meeting both the challenge and addressing the strategic management is the provision of education and/or training for employees and potential employees (i.e students). In particular, providing this at the appropriate level of detail and in the appropriate areas of the subject, commensurate with roles and responsibilities so that these people can discharge, both effectively and efficiently, their responsibilities for managing records in the electronic environment”. Within this context, this paper examines the education and training opportunities on ERM worldwide and in Asia.
    • The education needs of information professionals for South East Asia in the digital era, with special attention to the needs of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Preliminary results of a Delphi study

      Tam, Lawrence Wai-Hong; Mills, John; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This paper reports the results of PhD research into the future needs of library professionals for educa-tion in the digital era with special consideration to the needs of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The research method used was a Delphi study and representatives from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and the United States were chosen as participants in the study. This paper outlines the special features of this method and why it was se-lected, how it was implemented and initial findings from the study. The research attempted to identify an ideal curriculum especially for use in the Hong Kong SAR, China, but also for consideration in other areas of South East Asia. It was conducted using the Delphi technique which is based upon the premise that a decision made by a group is more reliable and thus more desirable than a decision made by an individual.
    • Enhancing studentsâ learning and research with NTU libraryâ s innovative information literacy programmes

      Haji Harun, Akbar Hakim; Koh, Jean Ping-Hoon; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Library has been pioneering and initiating bibliographic instruction and information literacy programmes since the inception of the university as a technological institute back in 1981. The evolving academic and research landscape since then, coupled with technological advancements in the provision of information resources and services, has provided the impetus for NTU Library to develop a structured information literacy programme with the aim of enhancing studentsâ learning and research. The objectives of the programme developed are clearly stated and closely aligned to the universityâ s as well as the libraryâ s mission statements. This paper provides a historical perspective and traces the development of this programme over the years. A model of the programme as it is currently offered to students is presented. Discussion will focus on a number of aspects: information literacy standards consulted, identification of studentsâ learning outcomes, a spectrum of delivery mode and methodology, evolving and expanding content development, as well as, formative and summative feedback. The paper also looks at the enablers of the programme, which include librarians, library management, faculty members, schoolsâ administrative units, external instructors and trainers, and technology. The paper concludes with a look at the future of the libraryâ s information literacy programme beyond 2006 and will address crucial issues which impact upon the implementation and running of the programme across all schools in the university. Issues like profiling of students, matching programme type and delivery mode with these profiles, leveraging on emerging technologies as learning tools and integrating studentsâ assessments can be further researched. A deep insight and understanding of these issues will in return stimulate further the development by the library of a more innovative and creative information literacy programme for the university.
    • The establishment and development of Chinese cataloging standards in Taiwan since 1980 [in Chinese]

      Cheng, Heng-Hsiung; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The 1980s was a milestone decade in the history of libraries in Taiwan: computer technology began to be widely employed in libraries; collections began to be digitized; manual library operations were automated; in particular, the development of Chinese classification schemes, subject headings, and cataloging rules made tremendous progress. This paper highlights the achievements in Chinese cataloging rules made in Taiwan libraries since 1980. It describes the construction, features and applications of the Chinese cataloging rules in Taiwan, and discusses future challenges that Chinese cataloging faces and possible development strategies.
    • Establishment of DRMS [in Chinese]

      Zhang, S. H.; Dong, L.; Jiang, A. R.; Xing, C. X.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The paper introduces a general digital resource management system. It elaborates on the core design and components of the system. The general digital resource management system was developed based on the Fedora system, and incorporates the concept of virtual collections. The system is composed of seven models: rights management, collection management, resource access, resource tagging, interoperability, and customization.
    • Globalisation and education for the information management professions: Challenges for small countries

      Oliver, Gillian; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Globalisation raises many issues which are relevant to information management. These include the creation and implementation of international standards, records management, archives and library operational needs of multinational companies and international organisations, the transborder flow of information and the increasing international mobility of information management professionals. This paper considers the tensions that ensue from increasing globalisation in terms of small countries, specifically New Zealand, in terms of the provision of education for information management.
    • Has the market place for information professionals changed?

      Raghavan, K. S.; Agrawal, Nupur; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The focus of the information profession (LIS profession) has been and continues to be: providing access to and delivery of information needed by end-users. Until the arrival of the Internet and online era this activity was largely library-centered. But there is increasing ‘dis-intermediation’ and ‘deinstitutionalization’ of the process of information search, access and delivery. This has implications for manpower development programmes. The composition of the emerging information market also needs to be understood in order to design and implement appropriate manpower development programmes. Based on an examination of ‘market indicators’ this paper suggests that the ‘divide’ between products of educational programmes and the requirements of the market place needs to be bridged.
    • How is knowledge about the consumer of information being applied in the design and delivery of information products and services?

      Hepworth, Mark; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      This article looks at how the consumer of data, information and knowledge becomes increasingly important in relation to the design and development of electronic information products and services. In web based environment, where products are bought and sold, such services are increasingly being â tailoredâ to suit the individual and community they serve. However, current situation has meant that there is an increasing need to provide access to data, information and knowledge electronically. Reasons for this include the growing number of potential users who value and need information but cannot or may not want to be serviced face-to-face even when remote access to electronic resources has become prevalent. There is a need to create electronic environments that can relate to the complex cultural, sociological and psychological needs of the consumer. This paper provides an overview of current theories and knowledge about the information consumer. It is informed by the commoditization of information and communication tech-nologies (ICTs), products and services, the use and non-use of information in Library and In-formation Science (LIS) discipline, the need to create appropriate learning environments and lastly, the perception that all people should have equal access to such products and services and that society should be inclusive. Examples are also provided of how and where knowledge is applied, highlighting the importance of IB knowledge. The paper concludes that a deeper understanding is needs to be developed as current application of knowledge about the information consumer is rudimentary. There is a need to apply and test current knowledge.
    • Identification of technology trend on Indonesian patent documents and research reports on chemistry and metallurgy fields

      Rahayu, Endang Sri Rusmiyati; Hasibuan, Zainal A.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The aims of this study are: to identify technology trends by identifying core topics, prominence topics, and emerging topics; and to assess the overlap between research and development and patents on chemistry and metallurgy fields in Indonesia during 1993-1997. The technology trends are determined by measuring subject and keyword development on those fields. Co-words analysis is employed to measure the technology categories. The objects of this study are granted patents section C according to International Patent Classification (IPC) and research report documents which was collected from CD ROM of research reports on chemistry and metallurgy fields published by PDII-LIPI. Subjects analysis of patent document are measured based on the number of subclass in chemistry and metallurgy fields using IPC code of patent documents. Subjects analysis of research reports are measured based on the number of subclass in chemistry and metallurgy section using DDC21 system of research report documents. Co-words analysis is measured based on the co-occurrence frequencies of the keywords ap-peared in the research documents. The results showed that overlapping subject and keyword of patent documents and research report documents on chemistry and metallurgy fields in Indonesia during five years (1993 to 1997) was on the organic chemistry, especially on dyes and extraction. Another important subject in patent documents was human necessity, especially on pesticides, drugs, and detergents. The largest subject on research activities period was on food technology, especially on coconut oils, palm oils, and storage. Technology categories on research report documents show that there were no core top-ics of research activities in Indonesia during five years (1993 to 1997). The prominence topics were only on 1993 and 1996 namely fermentation process, storage processes, and drying apparatus. There were core topics, prominence topics and emerging topics on patent documents.
    • Identifying users' information needs: A case of SIDC library

      Lee, Jesse Han-Leng; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The Securities Industry Development Centre (SIDC) is the education and training arm of the Securities Commission (SC), and the SIDC Library serves both SC staff and the securities industry. The SIDC Library is a specialised library that has its resources focused on the capital market. Identifying usersâ information needs is a first step towards analysing the information needs of SIDC Library members and the SC staff. The study was motivated by the fact that an analysis of information needs help identify the SIDC Library resources for further development to ensure the delivery of information services matches usersâ needs. In this paper, we would like to share a study that was conducted to analyse how the SIDC Library services were tailored to meet the information needs of users. By studying this aspect, we will be able to see how the library defines and classifies its user types, and addresses issues impacting information services through proper operation planning and practices. The respondents for this paper were mainly SIDC Library members and SC staff. The result of the study is based on a collection of survey questionnaires, personal interviews and records of user requests for documents. From this study, a profile of user information needs was established; enabling the library management to identify, support and provide an efficient delivery mechanism for meeting usersâ information needs. This study helped SIDC librarians identify the kind of information that was needed and generated, and to support those which are not readily available by further developing a comprehensive new subject/collection of SIDC Library information resources. This will also provide an insight into the users' expectations on content resources and services of the SIDC Library, as well as for developing library user education programmes. Thus, the study of usersâ information needs is one tool that enables SIDC Librarians to discover, evaluate, implement, maintain and improve its management of information resources.
    • In search of giants: Fostering leadership education in LIS

      Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      It is generally acknowledged that university graduates in library and information science are generally expected to hold management positions at some point in their career. It is also understood that a key role managers play is that of leader and in particular, visionary. But current LIS programs in the Asia Pacific region tend to place little emphasis on leadership education. And the field in general suffers a handicap in this regard, due both to the negative stereotypes, real and perceived, that surround the profession. Librarians are perceived to be timid, bookish and retiring. Recently of course, librarianship has evolved to encompass a wide range of potential occupational roles under the all-encompassing label information professional. Nevertheless, information professionals still find themselves obscured by other more ap-parently alluring domains (computer science, life science, business administration). In this paper, we argue that a powerful means to inspire a visionary approach in LIS students, which will create capabilities for successful leadership and expose students to a more empowering view of the profession, is to consciously develop role models from the past and use them as teaching exemplars. We set ourselves the task of arguing the potential and value of infusing biographies of these figures into the curriculum. However, before moving to those tasks, we present some evidence to support our views as to the validity of our approach.
    • In-service training of librarians under the network environment [in Chinese]

      Zhang, Xiya; Zhou, Jingen; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      In view of the reality that traditional libraries are changing to modern ones and the printed information environment is challenged by the networked environment, the evolution of librarian positions and required corresponding qualifications in American academic libraries is reviewed. The librarian positions and qualifications of Chinese academic libraries are examined. The structure of librarians of Chinese academic libraries is analysed. The practice of in-service training of librarians in Qian Xuesen Library is introduced and a discussion is given on the needs and means of in-service training of librarians for academic libraries.
    • Individual learning and organizational learning in academic libraries

      Su, Sherry Shiuan; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Learning has been viewed as a continuous lifelong activity recently. Facing the changing information, academic librarians have increasing responsibilities for his/her own learning. The idea of developing learning skills has become widespread as well. This paper reviews the literature on individual learning and organizational learning in the libraries. Issues concerning librarians as learners; librariansâ work-based learning; and academic libraries and learning organization are discussed.
    • Information literacy education in the context of project work: Application of multiple intelligences and mediated learning

      Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Majid, Shaheen; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Information literacy (IL) has become a vital competency in the current knowledge society. For students, the key to becoming independent learners and future knowledge workers lies in being information literate. However, existing information literacy education approaches have not been very successful in equipping students with these crucial skills to ensure deep erudition and long-lasting retention. Hence, pedagogy becomes critical in information literacy education. This research hypothesises that (i) informa-tion literacy skills have a positive impact on the quality of studentsâ project work; (ii) students grasp in-formation literacy skills more effectively when their innate interests, such as that determined by their re-spective dominant intelligences, are stimulated and applied to their work; and (iii) students internalise what they learn when they are coached over an extended period of time, on how to apply their newly ac-quired information literacy skills, and thus exhibit greater retention of such knowledge and competen-cies. Consequently they would produce work of better quality. To verify these postulations, an informa-tion literacy course was designed for students undertaking project work to equip them with the necessary information literacy skills, by using two established pedagogical approaches â Gardnerâ s Theory of Mul-tiple Intelligences and Feuersteinâ s Mediated Learning Experience. Subsequently the quality of the pro-ject work between the experimental and control groups were compared. This on-going research seeks to identify a utilitarian and viable pedagogical methodology that makes the teaching and learning of infor-mation literacy skills more effective and long-lasting respectively.
    • Information needs of international students at a Malaysian University

      Safahieh, Hajar; Singh, Diljit; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      The number of students studying away from their home countries is increasing. These students face various challenges when studying abroad, including meeting their information needs. This study investigated the information needs of international students at the University of Malaya. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to 70 students, of whom 54 (77.1%) responded. It was found the main information needs were related to the university, the faculty, and their programs of study. The students used the library in attempting to meet their information needs, although the frequency of library usage was generally low. The main barriers in seeking information were language related, and unfamiliarity with the library or-ganization and mission. Language proficiency appeared to be a barrier in being able to meet the information needs. Although the majority of the students considered themselves to be computer and Internet literate, but that did not have a relationship on the problems they faced in meeting the information needs.
    • An interlibrary cooperation framework for digital libraries using P2P technology

      Shih, Wen-Chung; Yang, Chao-Tung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      InterLibrary Cooperation is an important activity of libraries. However, the emerging digital library architecture has not explicitly supported this requirement. In this paper, we propose an InterLibrary Cooperation Framework for digital libraries using P2P technology. An application of this framework to Faculty Publication Sharing System is presented. Besides, a reputation model based on data mining is utilized to provide libraries with incentives to join this framework.
    • The internet as an information source vs. level of satisfaction: Users' learning styles, perceptions, emotions and regression model at National Institutes of Technology in India

      Jange, Suresh; Sami, Lalitha K.; Angdi, Mallikarjun; Aeri, Jeetender R.; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      An attempt has been made to promote and optimize the use of the Internet as an information Source among engineering faculty and research scholars of National Institutes of Technology (NITs) in India. A total of 850 questionnaires and interview schedules were distributed to the faculty and research scholars of NITs in India, 665 questionnaires were duly obtained with a response rate of 78.24%. An attempt has been made to develop an instrument of acceptance of Internet technology known as Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) among faculty and Research scholars of National Institutes of Technology (NITs) in India using the original constructs i.e. Perceived Usefulness as â the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performanceâ , and Perceived Ease of Use as â the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effortâ . Thus, the Perceived Usefulness of Internet Technology, Perceived Ease of use, Experience of using Internet, attitude towards using Internet, Behavioral Intention to use Internet, Perceived Complexity and actual System use using the Internet has been determined and thereby reflecting the Learning Style, Per-ceptions and Emotions of the focus groups. Further the research study encompasses independent vari-ables mainly Designation, Age, Qualification, Teaching and Research Experience and Formal Training of respondents. In this paper, efforts were made to examine the relationship between the variables Use of Internet (UOI) and Level of Satisfaction (LOS), as a two major dependent variables of the research study. The various dimensions included are quantification of these two variables. To evaluate multiple effects, a set of four variables i.e. age, teaching and research experience and level of satisfaction were put to Regression Analysis to see the multiple effects on variable Use of Internet. The variable LOS has emerged as the most affecting the dependent variable that means affecting the dependent variables i.e. Use of Internet. Thus, there is very high correlation between variables, Use of Internet and Level of satis-faction. The co-efficient of correlation is also statistically significant showing high positive correlation, which implies that higher the level of satisfaction, higher will be the use of Internet. This has resulted in coming out with a mathematical â regression model in which the results of regression analysis shows that, the four variables age, teaching and research experience and level of satisfaction put together explains 39 per cent of variance in variable Use of Internet (UOI).
    • Is there a role for professional associations in fostering research?

      Smith, Kerry; Harvey, Ross; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)
      Throughout the world professional associations in librarianship place considerable emphasis on the professional credentialing of their members. This normally means that educational and training courses of study offering a first professional qualification take up much of this activity. Since this first professional qualification does not normally require emphasis on the research process, but rather in obtaining the required skills and knowledge in order to practice librarianship, it is little wonder that the role of research in the pro-fession has not always been openly encouraged by its associations. Nevertheless, there is evidence that some associations are realizing that research and the research process needs to be better recognized, particularly as library professionals are increasingly undertaking higher level qualifications which include a research com-ponent. Yet if a research qualification is not always necessary for recognition as a professional librarian, the question needs to be asked: why should librarians bother to undertake the rigours of study to achieve it? The paper will discuss the importance or otherwise of research and its processes in the profession of librarianship and consider the role of the professional association in recognizing, enabling and promoting a research cul-ture amongst qualified professionals. The paper will particularly address the Australian context.