• Administrative policy as symbol system: Political conflict and the social construction of identity

      Robbin, Alice (Sage Publications, 2000-12)
      Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, formerly known as Statistical Policy Directive 15, is a classification system that governs the U.S. government's collection and presentation of data on race and ethnicity. The directive underwent a public evaluation between 1993 and 1997 to determine whether the racial and ethnic group categories should be revised. This article links theories of the role of the state in the social order and the social construction of identity to explain how conflictual political processes modify administrative policy. Two narratives on the debates over the reclassification of "Native Hawaiians" and the addition of a "multiracial" category illustrate recent political conflicts over group identities established by state agencies. The author argues that the main explanation for administrative policy changes was the responsiveness of state agencies to political demands of significantly mobilized groups with claims to state resources.
    • Adoption of Open Source Digital Library Software Packages: A Survey

      Jose, Sanjo; Manoj Kumar, K (INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad, 2007)
      Open source digital library packages are gaining popularity nowadays. To build a digital library under economical conditions open source software is preferable. This paper tries to identify the extent of adoption of open source digital library software packages in various organizations through an online survey. It lays down the findings from the survey.
    • Advances in Classification Research, Volume 17: Proceedings of the 17th ASIS&T SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop

      Furner, Jonathan; Tennis, Joseph T. (dLIST, 2006)
      Papers from the 17th ASIST&T Special Interest Group for Classification Research Workshop. The workshop ran November 4, 2006 in Austin, Texas.
    • Afghanistan Digital Library Initiative: Revitalizing an Integrated Library System

      Han, Yan; Rawan, Atifa (2007-12)
      This paper describes an Afghanistan digital library initiative of building an Integrated Library System (ILS) for Afghanistan universities and colleges based on open source software. As one of the goals of the Afghan eQuality Digital Libraries Alliance, the authors applied systems analysis approach, evaluated different open source ILS, and customized the selected software to accommodate users' needs. Improvements include Arabic/Persian language support, user interface changes, call number label printing and new ISBN-13 support. To our knowledge, the ILS is the first big academic libraries in the the world running on open source software.
    • Agricultural Research in India - A Profile Based on CAB Abstracts 1990-1994

      Arunachalam, Subbiah (1998)
      India's contribution to research in agriculture and related fields is assessed from an analysis of publications indexed in CAB Abstracts. CAB Abstracts indexed 51,761 papers, including about 48,300 journal articles, from more than 3,330 addresses in over 800 locations, spread over 30 states/ union territories of India, in the five years 1990-1994. CAB Abstracts has classified these papers into 22 major research areas and about 250 subfields. Plants of economic importance is the leading area of research in India, followed by Animal science. The largest number of papers published are in the three subfields, viz. Pests, pathogens and biogenic diseases of plants (8,898 papers), Plant breeding and genetics (5,675 papers) and Plant production (5,231 papers). A little over 63% of these papers were published by academic institutions. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, and the Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, have contributed more than 2370 papers each, not including papers published from other centres of these universities. Agricultural universities have published 16,555 papers and general universities 9,933. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research has accounted for 7,856 papers. Indian researchers have used more than 1950 journals from over 65 countries. About 77% of all journal articles were published in 483 Indian journals. In no other field did Indian researchers publish such a large percent of papers in Indian journals. Unlike in physics and materials science, Indian agricultural scientists have used letters journals only infrequently. Delhi, Ludhiana, Hissar and Bangalore are the leading centres of agricultural research, while Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu, Haryana and Karnataka are the states accounting for the largest number of papers. This report was prepared by the M.S. Swaminathan Research Institute and was submitted to NISSAT, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India in July 1998.
    • Aigaion: A Web-based Open Source Software for Managing the Bibliographic References

      Jose, Sanjo; Jayakanth, Francis (Department of Library and Information Science, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India, 2008)
      Publishing research papers is an integral part of a researcher's professional life. Every research article will invariably provide large number of citations/bibliographic references of the papers that are being cited in that article. All such citations are to be rendered in the citation style specified by a publisher and they should be accurate. Researchers, over a period of time, accumulate a large number of bibliographic references that are relevant to their research and cite relevant references in their own publications. Efficient management of bibliographic references is therefore an important task for every researcher and it will save considerable amount of researchers' time in locating the required citations and in the correct rendering of citation details. In this paper, we are reporting the features of Aigaion, a web-based, open-source software for reference management.
    • An Algorithmic Approach to Concept Exploration in a Large Knowledge Network (Automatic Thesaurus Consultation): Symbolic Branch-and-Bound Search vs. Connectionist Hopfield Net Activation

      Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun Dorbin (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 1995-06)
      This paper presents a framework for knowledge discovery and concept exploration. In order to enhance the concept exploration capability of knowledge-based systems and to alleviate the limitations of the manual browsing approach, we have developed two spreading activation-based algorithms for concept exploration in large, heterogeneous networks of concepts (e.g., multiple thesauri). One algorithm, which is based on the symbolic Al paradigm, performs a conventional branch-and-bound search on a semantic net representation to identify other highly relevant concepts (a serial, optimal search process). The second algorithm, which is based on the neural network approach, executes the Hopfield net parallel relaxation and convergence process to identify â convergentâ concepts for some initial queries (a parallel, heuristic search process). Both algorithms can be adopted for automatic, multiple-thesauri consultation. We tested these two algorithms on a large text-based knowledge network of about 13,000 nodes (terms) and 80,000 directed links in the area of computing technologies. This knowledge network was created from two external thesauri and one automatically generated thesaurus. We conducted experiments to compare the behaviors and performances of the two algorithms with the hypertext-like browsing process. Our experiment revealed that manual browsing achieved higher-term recall but lower-term precision in comparison to the algorithmic systems. However, it was also a much more laborious and cognitively demanding process. In document retrieval, there were no statistically significant differences in document recall and precision between the algorithms and the manual browsing process. In light of the effort required by the manual browsing process, our proposed algorithmic approach presents a viable option for efficiently traversing largescale, multiple thesauri (knowledge network).
    • ALIEP-2006 conference on Library Leadership at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore: A Summary Report

      Ghosh, Maitrayee (2006)
      This report outlines few selected presentations of the ALIEP 2006 conference based on the theme "Preparing Information Professionals for Leadership in the new age" held at the Executive centre, School of Information and communication, NTU, Singapore, during 3-6, April 2006. The four-day event provided both professional librarians and educators a unique opportunity to explore the collaborative agenda emerged due to pervasive convergence technologies in todayâ s knowledge society. The author, who was also a speaker provides an overview of the ALIEP- 2006 Asia Pacific discussion forum, which carried out a variety of program viz. industry updates, keynote sessions, Paper presentations, invited guests and local tours to national library, university libraries and national Archives of Singapore.
    • ALISE Academy: Mid-Career Faculty Workshop

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2009)
    • Alleviating Search Uncertainty through Concept Associations: Automatic Indexing, Co-Occurrence Analysis, and Parallel Computing

      Chen, Hsinchun; Martinez, Joanne; Kirchhoff, Amy; Ng, Tobun Dorbin; Schatz, Bruce R. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc, 1998)
      In this article, we report research on an algorithmic approach to alleviating search uncertainty in a large information space. Grounded on object filtering, automatic indexing, and co-occurrence analysis, we performed a large-scale experiment using a parallel supercomputer (SGI Power Challenge) to analyze 400,000/ abstracts in an INSPEC computer engineering collection. Two system-generated thesauri, one based on a combined object filtering and automatic indexing method, and the other based on automatic indexing only, were compared with the human-generated INSPEC subject thesaurus. Our user evaluation revealed that the system-generated thesauri were better than the INSPEC thesaurus in concept recall, but in concept precision the 3 thesauri were comparable. Our analysis also revealed that the terms suggested by the 3 thesauri were complementary and could be used to significantly increase â â varietyâ â in search terms and thereby reduce search uncertainty.
    • Alternative Fates for the STM Journal System

      Goodman, David (2004-06)
      The likely alternatives for Scientifc journal publishing under the various proposed systems of open access are presented. The prediction is made that the dominance of conventional journals will end between 2007 and 2009.
    • Alternative Perspectives in Library and Information Science: Issues of Race

      Peterson, Lorna (Association of Library and Information Science Education, 1996)
      Since the 1970s, most disciplines and schools of professional studies have developed their areas of curriculum, research, and theory construction by including race and ethnic studies. At the same time, library and information studies has lagged in providing a broader understanding of race and librarianship. Although attempts have been made to fill the racial-understanding gap, most of the work is characterized as exceptional/pioneer biography, with little attention given to broader social constructs of race and racism. This article explores how library and information science education falls short in contributing to the literature on race and racism. The current multicultural movement in library science is to be addressed.
    • America's pyramids: Presidents and their libraries

      Cox, Richard J. (Pergamon/Elsevier, 2002)
      This article explores the history, purpose and perspectives about the United States Presidential Libraries: and sections include how presidential papers before presidential libraries were handled; Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the origin of the presidential library; the presidential library system's evolution and the issues of presidential papers; the insider's view of presidential libraries; other's views on presidential libraries; and, the future of presidential libraries. The article closes by summarising and making a policy recommendation. It recomends the establishment of "a single Presidential Archives, housed in a facility run by the National Archives (although an empowered archival agency) in or nearby Washington, D.C. where the records of all subsequent Presidential administrations will be stored conveniently for researchers and the public. This facility should focus on records, with some space for small revolving exhibitions about the history and nature of the Presidency, but its primary purpose will be archival."
    • Analysis of Multiple Query Reformulations on the Web: The Interactive Information Retrieval Context

      Rieh, Soo Young; Xie, Hong Iris (2006)
      This preprint has been published in Information Processing & Management 42 (2006): 751-768. This study examines multiple query reformulations on the Web in the context of interactive information retrieval. The results indicate that query reformulation is the product of user interaction with the IR system as well as the cognitive, affective, and situation levels from the user side.
    • Analytical Scenario of Software Testing Using Simplistic Cost Model

      Bathla, Rajender; Kapil, Anil; Ph.D. Research Scholar Dept of Computer Science, India; Prof in Dept of Computer Sc & Eng, Hctm, Kaithal, 136027 India (IJCSN, 2012-02-15)
      Software can be tested either manually or automatically. The two approaches are complementary: automated testing can perform a huge number of tests in short time or period, whereas manual testing uses the knowledge of the testing engineer to target testing to the parts of the system that are assumed to be more error-prone. Despite this contemporary, tools for manual and automatic testing are usually different, leading to decreased productivity and reliability of the testing process. Auto Test is a testing tool that provides a “best of both worlds” strategy: it integrates developers’ test cases into an automated process of systematic contractdriven testing. This allows it to combine the benefits of both approaches while keeping a simple interface, and to treat the two types of tests in a unified fashion: evaluation of results is the same, coverage measures are added up, and both types of tests can be saved in the same format. The objective of this paper is to discuss the Importance of Automation tool with associate to software testing techniques in software engineering. In this paper we provide introduction of software testing and describe the CASE tools. The solution of this problem leads to the new approach of software development known as software testing in the IT world. Software Test Automation is the process of automating the steps of manual test cases using an automation tool or utility to shorten the testing life cycle with respect to time.
    • An Analytical Survey of Chat Reference Services

      Francoeur, Stephen; Baruch College (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2001)
      There has been in recent years a surge of interest about new software products that make it possible for libraries to offer assistance to online users via chat. Such software offers far more interactivity than instant messaging programs and allow for a richer experience for both librarian and user. Surveys chat reference services around the globe and analyzes trends in the provision of this new mode of assistance. Also presents discussion of why chat reference service is gathering attention as well as its limitations and drawbacks.
    • Analyzing and Understanding Cultural Differences: Experiences from Education in Library and Information Studies

      Iivonen, Mirja; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Parma, Maria; Poole-Kober, Evelyn M. (1998)
      In the paper the need to understand cultural differences is discussed. The authors show how cultural differences can be analyzed. They also describe how cultural information was exchanged and analyzed during the library and information studies course that was taught via the Internet simultanously in Finland and North Carolina. In addition, the authors discuss how libraries could use experiences of the common class when they act in a multicultural environment. In the paper, culture is defined to be a framework to our lives, something which affects our values, attitudes and behavior. In analyzing and understanding cultural differences it is important to pay attention to how members of various cultures see i) the nature of people, ii) a person's relationship to the external enviroment, iii) the person's relationship to other people, iv) the primary mode of the activity, v) people's orientation to space, and vi) the person's temporal orientation. These dimension will be explained in the paper. In addition, the authors pay attention to language and communication styles as a dimension of cultural differences. The paper describes differences in cultures of Finns, Sami People, North Carolians and Cherokee Indians. Sami People and Cherokee Indians were chosen to represent minor cultures in Finland and North Carolina. An interesting similarities can be found on the one hand between major cultures (Finland and North Carolina), and on the other hand between minor cultures (Sami and Cherokees). The authors propose that there are a few lessons learnt in the common class which can be useful also for libraries and librarians serving multicultural populations. They are i) to undertand people's behavior as a reflection of their cultural background, ii) to understand of differences in language and communication styles between cultures, iii) to understand that collaboration across cultural boundaries and sharing cultural informations occur together, and iv) to take advantage from the Internet in crossing cultural boundaries but not to forget that people have various attitudes toward the Internet and therefore some clients continue to prefer books and face-to-face interaction with library professionals. The authors emphasize that cross-cultural communication and collaboration does not occur effectively without understanding other cultures.
    • Analyzing the role of knowledge organization in scholarly communication: An inquiry into the intellectual foundation of knowledge organization

      Andersen, Jack (2004-03)
      In this dissertation I analyze the relationship between social organization and knowledge organization. This analysis is carried out on two levels. The first level consists of three chapters each examining particular perspectives of the relationship. First, in terms of an examination of how communication technologies have shaped forms of social organization. I argue how knowledge organization is constituted by social organization. Second, I further situate knowledge organization in light of Jurgen Habermas theory of the public sphere and argue that his theory can be viewed as a fundamental model of knowledge organization. Third, by drawing on various theories of genre and activity systems, I underpin the connection between social organization in scholarly communication by means of how indexing reflects and responds to the rhetorical activities of scholarly articles. I consider this as how knowledge organization can ascribe cognitive authority to documents. The texts are considered to constitute the mediating link between social organization and knowledge organization. I conclude that this relationship between social organization and knowledge organization must be understood and examined in order to fully account for the role knowledge organization in human activities based on document production and use such as scholarly communication.
    • Animal Biotechnology Knowledge Resources on the Internet: A Study

      Rathinasabapathy, G.; Mohana Sundari, T.; Rajendran, L.; Sivaselvam, S. N. (Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India, 2007)
      Information is a dynamic and inexhaustible source that affects all disciplines and Animal Biotechnology is no exception. The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing and production of materials by animals or aquatic species to provide goods and services, has yielded new and improved medicines for animals that help lower production costs and improve animal well being by fighting various diseases caused by bacteria and parasites. New and enhanced animal vaccines have also been developed through modern animal biotechnology techniques. For all these things, Animal biotechnologists require latest, authenticated and scholarly information. In this regard, the exponential growth of the Internet expands the wealth of knowledge resources available in all disciplines including animal biotechnology and the amount of biotechnology knowledge available on the web is staggering. The Internet connects them to organizations such as universities, colleges, research institutes and companies who are dealing with animal biotechnology and facilitates access to informal organizations such as special interest groups, email lists, news groups, blogs, etc. Databases such as Entrez Nucleotides, GenBank, RefSeq, CCDSD, TPAD, dbEST, dbGSS, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbSTS, UniVec, CDD, Entrez Proteins, MMDB, 3DDD are made available by NCBI across the cyberspace which facilitates 24/7 access to all those concerned with animal biotechnology. Gateway sites like AgBiotechNet, APHIS of USDA, ISB of Virginia Tech University opens the door of online documents and searchable databases pertaining to the development, testing and regulatory review of genetically modified plants, animals and other microorganisms. A number of factual databases, electronic journals, electronic books and other electronic documents are freely available across the Internet. It connects students, research scholars, academics, librarians, scientists and other category of professionals dealing with animal biotechnology. The opportunities provided by the Internet for interactive learning, up-to-date science news, scholarly contents, project funding guidance, audio-visual contents in the area of biotechnology are laudable.