• UDC and folksonomies

      Šauperl, Alenka (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      Social tagging systems, known as ‘folksonomies’, represent an important part of web resource discovery as they enable free and unrestricted browsing through information space. Folksonomies consisting of subject designators (tags) assigned by users, however, have one important drawback: they do not express semantic relationships either hierarchical or associative between tags. As a consequence, the use of tags to browse information resources requires moving from one resource to another, based on coincidence and not on the pre-established meaningful or logical connections that may exist between related resources. We suggest that the semantic structure of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) may be used in complementing and supporting tag-based browsing. In this work, two specific questions were investigated: (1) Are terms used as tags in folksonomies included in the UDC? and (2) Which facets of UDC match the characteristics of documents or information objects that are tagged in folksonomies? A collection of the most popular tags from Amazon, LibraryThing, Delicious and 43Things was investigated. The universal nature of UDC was examined through the universality of topics and facets covering diverse human interests which are at the same time interconnected and form a rich and intricate semantic structure. The results suggest that UDC-supported folksonomies could be implemented in resource discovery, in particular in library portals and catalogues.
    • Classificatory ontologies

      Prasad, A.R.D.; Madalli, Devika P. (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      Digital Libraries and Digital Repositories are data-intensive with large numbers of fulltext resources accessible online. Activities in the area of Semantic Web development recognize the significant part played by metadata and knowledge organization systems such as classification systems and thesauri in capturing and communicating ‘meaning’. We now have Web ontology standards, such as Simple Knowledge Organization Systems (SKOS), a common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Semantic Web. Standards such as SKOS are also meant to be used as a vehicle for deployment of knowledge organization systems that were not born digital (or XML/RDF) such as thesauri and bibliographic classifications. This paper attempts to present an application of the faceted classification scheme as enunciated by Ranganathan in developing ontologies. It further explores the issues in modelling the faceted scheme of Ranganathan using SKOS.
    • Round Table “UDC Editorial Perspectives”: a report

      Slavic, Aida; UDC Consortium (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The Round Table UDC Editorial Perspectives was a one-day meeting for members of the UDC Editorial Team and the UDC Advisory Board organized in The Hague on 28 October 2009 in conjunction with the UDC Seminar 2009 “Classification at a Crossroads: Multiple Directions to Usability”. The meeting was instigated as part of the UDC Consortium efforts to build closer cooperation with UDC specialists and editors of national editions worldwide and to encourage more active involvement and communication between members of the wider UDC editorial team. This was the first face-to-face meeting of the UDC collaborators to which all members of the Advisory Board, the Editorial Team and interested observers were invited to participate.
    • The practical value of classification summaries in information management and integration

      Rozman, Darija (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The author discusses the value and importance of using short extracts from classification tables to support subject access management. While detailed classification is time consuming, complex and costly, the classification of documents into broader classes is a simpler and easier way of achieving meaningful and useful subject organization. The paper outlines the role of this type of classification use in bibliographic listings, in the organization and representation of physical documents, in the presentation of web resources, in statistical reports in collection development and use, and, last but not least, in information integration in a networked environment. This approach of subject classification is illustrated by the Slovenian union catalogue COBISS/OPAC in which a standardized set of UDC codes is used. The author emphasizes the importance of this outline for the homogeneity and continuity of the use of UDC in Slovenia and explains how this may be weakened by the changes in the top level of UDC.
    • Using MARC classification format for UDC and mappings to other KO systems for an enriched authority file

      San Segundo, Rosa (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The USMARC classification format, developed in the early 1990s for the DDC and LCC systems, is also amenable for other classification systems. This paper presents a proposal for using the MARC classification format for UDC. There are advantages in using this format for the UDC data in an authority file, e.g., for the MRF records and records for combined notations as well. There has been a trend in library catalogues for subject interoperability between traditional classification systems such as the UDC, DDC, LCC and subject headings. An example with great impact is WebDewey, which offers interlinking between classification numbers, the alphabetical index of the tables and LCSH. Another example is the electronic version of LCC Plus, also including links to LCSH. Subject gateways built upon library authority files can support the interoperability between classification systems and subject headings. These gateways can be the backbone of a more universal access through hypertextual navigation structures supported by classification systems including UDC. To our knowledge, the MARC classification format has not yet been applied to the UDC and in this paper we are going to propose a solution supported by some examples.
    • The UDC Philosophy Revision: First Report

      Gnoli, Claudio (UDC Consortium, 2009-12)
      The author of this report has been charged by the UDC Consortium to study the possibility of a revision of class 1 Philosophy. Psychology, of the Universal Decimal Classification. In order to explore the situation and discuss possibilities of revising Class 1, an informal working group was formed at the beginning of 2009 by the author of this report. Members of the working group agreed that the revised class should have a fully faceted structure. One basic step in the revision study is to identify the facets needed to express the contents of philosophical knowledge appropriately. To this purpose, one starting point was provided by examination of the facets of philosophy in existing classifications, in particular BC2. The next steps will be to pay more attention to the details of classes and subclasses, and to the update of terminology and presentation of the schedule. All these components are expected to be included in a final proposal for revision of class 1.
    • VirusPKT: A Search Tool For Assimilating Assorted Acquaintance For Viruses

      Jayanthi Manicassamy; P. Dhavachelvan; Department of Computer Science / Pondicherry University (Engg Journals Publications, 2009-11)
      Viruses utilize various means to circumvent the immune detection in the biological systems. Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the biological system of human and various other species. One common strategy for evasion and recognition of viruses is, through acquaintance in the systems by means of search engines. In this perspective a search tool have been developed to provide a wider comprehension about the structure and other details on viruses which have been narrated in this paper. This provides an adequate knowledge in evolution and building of viruses, its functions through information extraction from various websites. Apart from this, tool aim to automate the activities associated with it in a self-maintainable, selfsustainable, proactive one which has been evaluated through analysis made and have been discussed in this paper.
    • Balancing Copyright Privileges in Law Journal Publication Agreements: An Empirical Study

      Keele, Benjamin J. (2009-09)
      This study examines forty-nine law journal publication agreements and finds that a minority of journals ask authors to transfer copyright. Most journals also permit author to self-archive articles with some conditions. The study recommends journals make their agreements publicly available and use licenses instead of copyright transfers.
    • Information Marketing through Library Liaison Programs in India: Perspectives and Concerns

      Manalan, Jesudoss; Babu, Preedip Balaji; Rani, B.S. Swaroop (SALIS, Chennai, 2009-07)
      This paper draws upon today’s information organizations – libraries, archives and museums and how these cultural entities should be equipped to manage and usher in change, keeping pace with the fast changing web environment to realize their mission, relevance and purpose. The information services industry is undergoing a turbulent phase in our times, wherein the information is produced, traded, repacked, copied, reproduced, rehashed and re-sold. While information products and services are conveyed through conventional ways, it is the liaison program – which takes the place of classical ways of marketing by becoming the brand ambassador of ‘information marketing.’ Library liaisons are trained and engaged in such a way that they take on the role of aggressive salesman to marshal information and to promote the library services and information literacy. It also examines the role of librarians in the emerging digital economy to envisage and foster academic and research activities in learning organizations through library liaisons maximizing better results as a knowledge nerve centre.
    • Libcitations: A Measure for Comparative Assessment of Book Publications in the Humanities and Social Sciences

      White, Howard D.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Yu, Hairong; Davis, Mari; Wilson, Concepción S.; Cole, Fletcher T. H. (H. W. Wilson, 2009-06)
      Bibliometric measures for evaluating research units in the book-oriented humanities and social sciences are underdeveloped relative to those available for journal-oriented science and technology. We therefore present a new measure designed for book-oriented fields: the â libcitation count.â This is a count of the libraries holding a given book, as reported in a national or international union catalog. As librarians decide what to acquire for the audiences they serve, they jointly constitute an instrument for gauging the cultural impact of books. Their decisions are informed by knowledge not only of audiences but also of the book world, e.g., the reputations of authors and the prestige of publishers. From libcitation counts, measures can be derived for comparing research units. Here, we imagine a matchup between the departments of history, philosophy, and political science at the University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney in Australia. We chose the 12 books from each department that had thehighest libcitation counts in the Libraries Australia union catalog during 2000â 2006. We present each bookâ s raw libcitation count, its rank within its LC class, and its LC-class normalized libcitation score. The latter is patterned on the item-oriented field normalized citation score used in evaluative bibliometrics. Summary statistics based on these measures allow the departments to be compared for cultural impact. Our work has implications for programs such as Excellence in Research for Australia and the Research Assessment Exercise in the United Kingdom. It also has implications for data mining in OCLCâ s WorldCat.
    • Controlling Access to and Use of Online Cultural Collections: A Survey of U.S. Archives, Libraries and Museums for IMLS DRAFT VERSION 4/7/2009

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2009-04)
      This report describes the results of an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) funded study to investigate the use of technological or policy tools to control patron access to or use of digital collections of cultural materials created by U.S. archives, libraries and museums. The technological and policy tools serve primarily to control copying or other reuses of digital materials. The study had the following goals: 1. Assess what technical and policy tools cultural institutions are employing to control access to and use of online digital collections. 2. Investigate motivations for controlling access to or use of collections (e.g., copyright, privacy, protecting traditional restrictions, income generation etc.). 3. Investigate discouragers to the implementation of access and use control systems (e.g., preference for open collections, lack of resources, institutional mission, etc.). 4. Gauge interest in implementing technical systems to control access to and use of collections. 5. Determine what types of assistance IMLS could provide. 6. Identify institutions with innovative controlled online collections for follow up case studies on policy, technical and managerial details.
    • Controlling Access to and Use of Online Cultural Collections: A Survey of U.S. Archives, Libraries and Museums for IMLS DRAFT VERSION 4/7/2009.

      Eschenfelder, Kristin R. (2009-04)
      This report describes the results of an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) funded study to investigate the use of technological or policy tools to control patron access to or use of digital collections of cultural materials created by U.S. archives, libraries and museums. The technological and policy tools serve primarily to control copying or other reuses of digital materials. The study had the following goals: 1. Assess what technical and policy tools cultural institutions are employing to control access to and use of online digital collections. 2. Investigate motivations for controlling access to or use of collections (e.g., copyright, privacy, protecting traditional restrictions, income generation etc.). 3. Investigate discouragers to the implementation of access and use control systems (e.g., preference for open collections, lack of resources, institutional mission, etc.). 4. Gauge interest in implementing technical systems to control access to and use of collections. 5. Determine what types of assistance IMLS could provide. 6. Identify institutions with innovative controlled online collections for follow up case studies on policy, technical and managerial details.
    • Open Access to Research Literature in India: Contemporary Scenario

      Das, Anup Kumar (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI), 2009-03)
      This paper discusses how Indian open access journals get international visibility with increased outreach through primary and secondary open access journal gateways and aggregators. This paper proposes a self-sustainability model and an international visibility model for open access journals as well as for open access journal publishers from developing countries.
    • Digital Archiving of Audio Content using WINISIS and Greenstone Software: A Manual for Community Radio Managers

      Rajasekharan, K.; Nafala, K. M.; Sen, B. K.; Das, Anup Kumar (UNESCO New Delhi, 2009-02)
      This self-instructional handbook is aimed at helping managers of community radio stations, FM radio stations, public service broadcasting agencies and any other organisations that deal with audio files in creating prototype archives of digital audio documents. In line with the needs of the community, the manual guides users in creating their proper archives with stable, free software like WINISIS, GenISIS and Greenstone. The book also mentions the URLs from where these software can be downloaded from. While free and open source software (FOSS) helps digital inclusion of citizens in developing countries by bringing within easy reach the socially useful applications, UNESCO's information processing tools help many grassroots institutions in disseminating information to local communities. Digital archive of a community radio station will be a kind of knowledge repository that contains collective wisdom of indigenous people, communities and institutions in the region. The South Asia sub-region is now at the nascent stage of community radio development, with the introduction of policy frameworks in India, Nepal and other countries. Community radio has a great development potential across the sub-region with ever increasing number of community radio stations. To maintain an archive of broadcasted contents is a legal obligation as a self-regulatory mechanism, however many stations are not equipped for doing this. Also community radio stations need to reuse and re-broadcast many of their archived contents. This publication has its genesis in the recommendations and proceedings of the UNESCO-supported two national events entitled respectively 'National Consultation on Community Radio for Practising and Potential Community Radio Operators in India' and 'National Consultation to Review Community Radio in Nepal', where community radio station managers felt the importance of archiving digital audio contents. This document can be considered as an authoritative self-instructional manual for digital archiving of multimedia contents and more specifically for community radio contents. The manual users may find it helpful in their daily work.
    • Tagging, Folksonomy and Art Museums: Early Experiments and Ongoing Research

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      Tagging has proven attractive to art museums as a means of enhancing the indexing of online collections. This paper examines the state of the art in tagging within museums and introduces the steve.museum research project, and its study of tagging behaviour and the relationship of the resulting folksonomy to professionally created museum documentation. A variety of research questions are proposed and methods for answering them discussed. Experiments implemented in the steve.museum research collaboration are discussed, preliminary results suggested, and further work described.
    • Old Stuff, New Tricks: How Archivists Are Making Special Collections Even More Special Using Web 2.0 Technologies

      Green, Jean L. Root; Lacher-Feldman, Jessica; Matienzo, Mark A.; Schindler, Amy C. (2009-01)
      A panel of trained archivists will discuss the use the spectrum of Web 2.0 tools and innovation as how it creates mechanisms to promote the access and use of archival and rare materials. They will discuss their own innovations in their own repositories, and some of the successful projects and tools being used today, as well as discussing the potential for creative collaboration between historians and archivists in academe using Web 2.0 tools and resources.
    • Tagging, Folksonomy and Art Museums: Results of steve.museum's research

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      Tagging has proven attractive to art museums as a means of enhancing access to on-line collections. The steve.museum research project studied tagging and the relationship of the resulting folksonomy to professionally created museum documentation. A variety of research questions were proposed, and methods for answering them explored. Works of art were assembled to be tagged, a tagger was deployed, and tagging encouraged. A folksonomy of 36,981 terms was gathered, comprising 11,944 terms in 31,031 term/work pairs. The analysis of the tagging of these works - and the assembled folksonomy - is reported here, and further work described. Tagging is shown to provide a significantly different vocabulary than museum documentation: 86% of tags were not found in museum documentation. The vast majority of tags - 88.2% - were assessed as Useful for searching by museum staff. Some users (46%) always contributed useful tags, while others (5.1%) never assigned a useful tag. Useful-ness increased dramatically when terms were assigned more than once. Activity for Registered Users was approximately twice that of Anonymous Users. The behaviour of individual supertaggers had far more influence on the resulting folksonomy than any interface variable. Relating tags to museum controlled-vocabularies proved problematic at best. Tagging by the public is shown to address works of art from a perspective different than that of museum documentation. User tags provide additional points of view to those in existing museums records. Within the context of art museums, user contributed tags could help reflect the breadth of approaches to works of art, and improve searching by offering access to alternative points of view. Tags offer another layer that supplements and complements the documentation provided by professional museum cataloguers.
    • The Rep Test and Other Sorting Tasks in ILS Research

      Edwards, Phillip; VanScoy, Amy (2009-01)
      How people make sense of the world around them via the categories they use is a question that social science researchers frequently attempt to address through their investigations (e.g., Spradley, 1970). One prevalent approach in organizational research is the rep grid method (Reger, 1990). This technique, based upon Kelly's (1955) role construct repertory test, asks participants to sort items (e.g., people, recent events, or artifacts) within a three-member group into subgroups based on participant-defined similarity and dissimilarity. The researcher's main task, therefore, is to inquire about the characteristics or conditions that each participant uses to sort these itemsâ what is similar among the paired items and what makes the pair different from the item that is excluded. Reger (1990) remarks that such an approach creates conditions in which "the researcher's frame of reference and worldview would not be imposed upon the respondent" (301). In information and library science (ILS) research, individuals' uses of categories for sense-making are viewed as being closely coupled to their interactions with available information resources, services, or systems. Sorting tasks are one general class of methods used to uncover the categories that users employ during these interactions. In information systems research, Tan and Hunter (2002) discuss qualitative and quantitative applications of the rep grid method. While other sorting tasks in ILS research do not explicitly share the same intellectual lineage as the rep grid method, the general approaches and outcomes are largely consistent. Kwasnik (1991) studied how users classify personal documents based on criteria other than document attributes. She asked participants to provide a 'guided tour' of an office location along with a document sorting process, and, in reflection, she notes that "people are able to articulate the process by which...decisions were made, and the data produced by this articulation lend themselves to analysis at a level which can yield general rules about the behaviour" (389). The qualitative analysis from Kwasnik's (1991) study can be contrasted with quantitative analyses of sort data used for guidance in the design of information displays (Carlyle, 2001) and interoperable metadata schema (Tennis, 2003).The rep grip method and other sorting tasks represent alternative approaches to direct questioning through standard qualitative interviewing. In this presentation, the authors will review various ways in which sorting techniques have been employed in ILS research, highlight how these methods are applied in their research (e.g., Edwards, forthcoming), suggest strategies for the inclusion of these tasks in study designs, and describe unique challenges encountered during data collection and analysis.
    • Studying Social Tagging and Folksonomy: A Review and Framework

      Trant, Jennifer (2009-01)
      This paper reviews research into social tagging and folksonomy (as reflected in about 180 sources published through December 2007). Methods of researching the contribution of social tagging and folksonomy are described, and outstanding research questions are presented. This is a new area of research, where theoretical perspectives and relevant research methods are only now being defined. This paper provides a framework for the study of folksonomy, tagging and social tagging systems. Three broad approaches are identified, focusing first, on the folksonomy itself (and the role of tags in indexing and retrieval); secondly, on tagging (and the behaviour of users); and thirdly, on the nature of social tagging systems (as socio-technical framewor
    • Melvil Deweyâ s Ingenious Notational System

      Green, Rebecca; Jacob, Elin K.; Kwasnik, Barbara (2009)
      Historically, the notational system of the Dewey Decimal Classification provided for non-institution-specific, relative location shelf arrangements, thus substantially reducing bibliographic classification effort. Today its decimal notation continues to provide the classification scheme with flexible granularity, is hospitable to expansion, expresses relationships, interfaces well with modern retrieval systems, and is internationally understood.