Knowledge structures and the vocabulary of engineering novices. Presented at the Eighth International ISKO Conference, London, July 13-16, 2004.
AuthorColeman, Anita Sundaram
Local subject classificationcontrolled vocabularies
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CitationKnowledge structures and the vocabulary of engineering novices. Presented at the Eighth International ISKO Conference, London, July 13-16, 2004. 2004-07,
AbstractThis presentation is based on the refereed paper published in the ISKO 8 proceedings (see References for citation). It describes a study of the language used by undergraduate engineering students engaged in a civil engineering laboratory. Learnerâ s concepts and relationships in the area of soil consolidation were elicited in order to provide an understanding of the structural knowledge of novices and compare it with the knowledge structures of a human expert and a thesaurus tool. Concept maps and pathfinder networks were used to visualize and analyze the resultant knowledge structures of novice learners, expert, and tool. Results show that there is little similarity between the knowledge structures of the novice, the expert, and the tool. There is preliminary evidence that students with complex knowledge structures earn better grades thereby, encouraging collaborative research between instructional evaluation and knowledge organization in order to measure the educational impact of digital libraries (DL); for example, cause-effect relationships could be studied between the vocabularies used in browsing and other navigational systems in a DL and the educational outcomes achieved.
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Nine Principles of Knowledge Organization. Preprint of paper published in: Advances in Knowledge Organization, 1994, Vol. 4, pp 91-100. (Proceedings of the Third International ISKO Conference 20-24 June 1994 Copenhagen, Denmark).Hjørland, Birger (1994)The core problem in Information Science (IS) is in my opinion information seeking and "information retrieval", (IR), which is aimed at helping users become informed by helping them identify documents, which are the "best textual means to some end" (Wilson, 1968). Other problems, such as the design of information systems and knowledge organization (e.g. by classification and indexing) should be seen as means to that end. However, IS has ignored some fundamental problems, which questions the possibility of having a profession and a discipline trying to solve the above mentioned problems. Much research in IS has been based on certain problematic views of knowledge, and searched for principles of knowledge organization, which are independent of claims of subject-knowledge. In this paper, we shall look at the problems of knowledge organization based on a view of knowledge as a historical developed product in which principles of organization is tied to domain-specific criteria. The article is organized as an argumentation for nine principles on the organization of knowledge: Principle # 1: Naive-realistic perception of knowledge structures is not possible in more advanced sciences. The deepest principles on the organization on knowledge rest upon principles developed in and by scientific disciplines. Principle # 2: Categorizations and classifications should unite related subjects and separate unrelated subjects. In naive realism, subject relationships are based on similarity. Two things or subjects are seen as related if they are "alike", that is if they have common properties (descriptive terms) ascribed. Principle # 3 For practical purposes, knowledge can be organized in different ways, and with different levels of ambition: Principle # 4: Any given categorization should reflect the purpose of that categorization. It is very important to teach the student to find out the lie of the land and apply ad hoc classifications, pragmatic classifications or scientific classifications when each kind of classification is most appropriate. Principle # 5: Concrete scientific categorizations and classifications can always be questioned. Principle # 6: The concept of "polyrepresentation" (cf. Ingwersen, 1994) is important. Principle # 7: To a certain degree different arts and sciences could be understood as different ways of organizing the same phenomena. Principle # 8: The nature of disciplines varies. Principle # 9: The quality of the knowledge production in many disciplines is in great trouble
Reinventing the wheel of LIS education in India for managing knowledge in the knowledge eraRao, Shivarama; Khoo, C.; Singh, D.; Chaudhry, A.S. (School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 2006)The fast changing environment fueled by technology has caused a paradigm shift in the library and information science profession. While the traditional roles of the library and information professional in providing access to information continues to be important, the responsibilities of this group have extended beyond providing just access to helping in utilizing info in the right context at the right time. 'Knowledge' is considered to be the most valuable resource in organizations today. This implies not just access to info contained in documents but also implicit knowledge gained through human experience. Information professionals need to view themselves as performance support professionals.
Analyzing the role of knowledge organization in scholarly communication: An inquiry into the intellectual foundation of knowledge organizationAndersen, Jack (2004-03)In this dissertation I analyze the relationship between social organization and knowledge organization. This analysis is carried out on two levels. The first level consists of three chapters each examining particular perspectives of the relationship. First, in terms of an examination of how communication technologies have shaped forms of social organization. I argue how knowledge organization is constituted by social organization. Second, I further situate knowledge organization in light of Jurgen Habermas theory of the public sphere and argue that his theory can be viewed as a fundamental model of knowledge organization. Third, by drawing on various theories of genre and activity systems, I underpin the connection between social organization in scholarly communication by means of how indexing reflects and responds to the rhetorical activities of scholarly articles. I consider this as how knowledge organization can ascribe cognitive authority to documents. The texts are considered to constitute the mediating link between social organization and knowledge organization. I conclude that this relationship between social organization and knowledge organization must be understood and examined in order to fully account for the role knowledge organization in human activities based on document production and use such as scholarly communication.