• Deriving Ternarity

      Hammond, Michael; Department of Linguistics, The University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle, 1995)
      Introduction: Ternary stress patterns have posed a problem for a parametric metrical theory for some time. In this paper, it is argued that ternary systems can be derived in an explanatory fashion from binary systems. The basic idea is that ternary stress systems can be analyzed as binary stress systems if the theory of extrametricality is enriched. Two specific proposals regarding extrametricality are made. First, extrametricality must be tolerated not just at the edge of morphological and syntactic constituents, but also at the edge of phonological constituents. Second, extrametricality can be lost if adjacent feet are subminimal. The organization of this paper is as follows. First, the foot typology is briefly reviewed. Then the theory of extrametricality is presented. It is argued that regardless of the analysis of ternary systems, the theory of extrametricality must be enriched as outlined above. Four metrical systems are then considered: Cayuvava, Chugach, Winnebago, and Estonian. Each of these systems provides arguments for deriving ternarity as proposed here.
    • Eurhythmy or Clash in the English Rhythm Rule

      Hammond, Michael (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle, 1992)
      In this paper, I argue that the rhythm rule phenomenon in English is best treated in terms of a theory incorporating the notion "stress clash" (Hammond, 1988), rather than the notion "eurhythmy" (Hayes, 1984). There are three central arguments. First, it is argued that the eurhythmy theory is intrinsically undesirable as it requires a theory of universal grammar that countenances arbitrary counting. Second, it is shown that the eurhythmy theory makes incorrect predictions about the behavior of words with initial stressless syllables. Third, it is shown that the clash -based theory, as opposed to the eurhythmy theory, generalizes nicely to account for the Montana cowboy phenomenon. The organization of this paper is as follows. First, I review the traditional clash -based account of Liberman and Prince (1977). I go on to review the eurhythmy account of Hayes (1984). This includes three central claims /effects: the quadrisyllabic rule, the disyllabic rule, and the phrasal rule. It is next shown that each of these effects can be achieved with independently required principles and machinery and that there is no need for a specific theory of eurhythmy. The following notation will be used in this paper. An acute accent will denote the strongest stress in a domain; a circumflex marks an intermediate stress; a grave indicates less stress; and an unmarked vowel indicates even less or no stress.
    • There is no lexicon!

      Hammond, Michael; The University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle, 2000)