• Table of Contents and Introduction (Coyote Papers Volume 14, 2005)

      University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2005
    • Table of Contents, Introduction, and Abstracts (Coyote Papers Volume 16, 2008)

      University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2008
    • There is no lexicon!

      Hammond, Michael; The University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
    • Tone, intonation, stress and duration in Navajo

      Kidder, Emily; University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2008)
      The phenomena of tone, intonation, stress and duration interact on the phonetic level due to their shared use of the acoustic cues of pitch and segment length. The Navajo language, in which the existence of intonation and stress has been questioned by native speakers and scholars (McDonough, 2002), provides a unique system for studying this interaction, due to the presence of both phonemic tone and phonemic segment length. The variable nature of stress and intonation, as well as their status as linguistic universals has been debated among scholars of prosody (Connell and Ladd, 1990; Laniran, 1992; McDonough, 2002; Hayes, 1995). This paper discusses the interaction between these prosodic elements in Navajo, arguing that stress and intonation cannot be concretely identified, and positing a causal relationship between the presence of contrastive tone and length, the lack of stress and the lack of intonation.
    • Toward an OT Account of Yaqui Reduplication

      Haugen, Jason D.; Department of Linguistics, University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
    • Towards a Universal Account of Possessor Raising

      Castillo, Juan Carlos; University of Maryland (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
      This paper explores the nature of possessive relations in Universal Grammar, and their involvement in a syntactic process known as Possessor Raising or, as it is usually called in the Relational Grammar (RG) tradition, Possessor Ascension. Possessor Raising can be defined as the transformation that takes the D-structure possessor of a direct object in the sentence and assigns to it a surface grammatical relation (GR) to the verb of the sentence.
    • Tree maximization and the generalized extended projection principle

      Carnie, Andrew; Medeiros, David; University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2005)
      In this paper we argue that a number of unexplained and stipulative properties of the grammar (such as the Generalized Extended Projection Principle, Binary Branching, Labeling) find a functional explanation, if we view them as correlates of a general desire for the grammar to maximize trees in such a way that they result in a Fibonacci-like sequence of maximal categories.
    • Trisyllabic Shortening and Two Affix Classes

      Maye, Jessica; The University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
    • Two Umlaut-Heresies and their Claim to Orthodoxy

      Janda, Richard D. (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 1983)
    • Type Raised Children: Extending Categorial Grammar as a Theory of Acquisition

      Drozd, Kenneth F.; University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 1989)
      Acquisitionists in the 1960's and 1970's have interpreted the semantic and syntactic patterns evident in children's two -word combinations under one of three analyses. These consist of (i) combinations of closed classes of constant terms (pivots) with a set of open class forms (Braine 1963), (ii) a set of surface structures reduced by transformations from underlying structures displaying semantic relations (Bloom 1970), or (iii) a child's attempts to find positional patterns for salient conceptual categories (Bowerman 1973; Braine 1976). Each of these approaches sets out to explain an isolated set of semantic or syntactic regularities observed in childrens' early two word utterances. Missing from each of these analyses, with the exception of Bloom (1970), is a description of how the syntax and semantics of these utterances are related. In addition, all of these analyses neither describe what kind of linguistic knowledge children use in creating two -word utterances or how this knowledge prepares children to be able to create more complex utterances. Consequently, each analysis fails to characterize the production of two-word utterances as a necessary stage in the development of adult linguistic competence. A categorial approach to acquisition offers a precise representation of the linguistic knowledge underlying these early lexical combinations as well as of the stages a child experiences during the language acquisition process. Categorial grammars assume that combinatorial possibilities for linguistic categories, restricted to being either functors or arguments, are specified in their lexical descriptions rather than in phrase markers or subcategorization frames familiar from phrase structure grammars. Linguistic competence is defined, in part, as knowledge of linguistic functions and the range of arguments they may apply to. Lexical categories are partially ordered by their complexity, a notion which provides a procedure for determining the sequence of stages of language acquisition. The linguistic knowledge responsible for creating early two-word combinations, then, is defined as knowledge of an elementary order of categorial complexity which is also required for creating and interpreting more complex utterances of the language. Lexical categories and their combinations are assigned corresponding semantic values, thereby offering a principled method of simultaneously encoding both the semantic and lexical properties of categories used by children, a method which is unavailable in current phrase structure accounts. In sum, the categorial analysis proposed in this paper makes interesting and specific predictions about the nature of children's grammatical competence as well as the nature of the acquisition sequence. In this paper, I am concerned with showing how a categorial grammar can be manipulated to describe the syntactic patterns underlying Pivot Grammars (Braine 1963) as well as those patterns implicit in children's first attempts at combining nouns, verbs, adjectives, auxiliaries and additive conjunctions cross-linguistically. In Section 1, I present Braine's (1963) original description of Pivot Grammars as well as evidence against Braine's analysis made by Bloom (1970) and Bowerman (1973). 1 propose a categorial grammar which describes the properties of pivot constructions cross-linguistically and which places pivot constructions within the acquisition sequence as a distinct utterance class. The acquisition sequence is based on the notion of categorial complexity, a measure by which children may infer complex categories from simpler ones already productive in the grammar. In Section 2, I extend the categorial analysis to include those utterance types incorrectly predicted by Braine's analysis not to occur at the pivot grammar stage, namely V+N combinations and N+N combinations encoding possession and location (Bloom 1970, Bowerman 1973). 1 show that this class of utterances, which has different properties than pivot constructions, is nonetheless a product of the same order of complexity attributed to Pivot Grammars. ln Section 3, 1 show that the sequence of auxiliary and additive conjunction acquisition corresponds to the sequence of orders of complexity predicted by the categorical grammar of the first section. I summarize the results of my analysis in the final section.
    • An ultrasound study of coarticulation and vowel assimilation in Korean

      Yun, Gwanhi; University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2005)
      Ultrasound imaging experiments were conducted to study vowel-to-vowel coarticulation patterns involving the environment of vowel assimilation in Korean. Results showed that anticipatory coarticulatory effects occur and that vowel assimilation is truly phonological and that the degree of coarticulation is stronger in assimilated words than in non-assimilated words. These results imply that phonological rules might directly influence coarticulation in a phonology-phonetics unified grammar.
    • A unification of Indo-European aktionsart and Navajo verb theme categories

      Racy, Sumayya; University of Arizona (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2008)
      In this paper, I explore verb theme categories in Navajo in general, and their relation to Indo-European Aktionsart in particular. Midgette (1995) argues that we should not consider Navajo verb theme categories to be the same sort of property as Indo-European Aktionsart, both because there are more verb theme categories than there are Aktionsarts, and because Aktionsart is part of the lexical semantics of a verb, while verb theme categories are derived through morphological processes. I suggest, however, that we may in fact view these as related phenomena. In making the case for a unified treatment of Navajo verb themes and Indo-European Aktionsart, I appeal to arguments from Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz, 1993), from non-lexical Aktionsart (Harley, 1999), and from varied approaches to word building (Marantz, 2001; Arad, 2003).
    • A Unified Theory of Final Consonant Deletion in Early Child Speech

      Ohala, Diane (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 1992)
    • Unifying Labeling under Minimal Search in "Single-" and "Multiple-Specifier" Configurations

      Epstein, Samuel D.; Kitahara, Hisatsugu; Seely, T. Daniel; The University of Michigan; Keio University; Eastern Michigan University (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2020)
      Building on recent proposals of Chomsky (2013, 2015), we explore a definition of minimal search that allows an elegant (since simple) analysis of multiple nominative subjects in Japanese, and the absence of such subjects in English. We propose an analysis yielding these results unifying labeling under minimal search in single- and multiple-specifier configurations.
    • Using Coh-Metrix to assess differences between English language varieties

      Hall, Charles; McCarthy, Philip M.; Lewis, Gwyneth A.; Lee, Debra S.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Department of Psychology, University of Memphis; Department of English, University of Memphis; CEELI Institute, the Czech Republic (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2007)
      This study examined differences between the written, national language varieties of the United States and Great Britain, specifically in texts regarding the topic of Law. The few previous studies that have dealt with differences between the dialects of the United States and Great Britain have focused on shallow-level features, such as lexis, subject-verb agreement, and even orthography. In contrast, this study uses the computational tool, Coh-Metrix, to distinguish British from American discourse features within one highly similar genre, Anglo-American legal cases. We conducted a discriminant function analysis along five indices of cohesion on a specially constructed corpus to show those differences in over 400 American and English/Welsh legal cases. Our results suggest substantial differences between the language varieties, casting doubt on previous generalizations about British and American writing that predict that the national varieties would vary more by genre than by language variety. Our results also offer guidance to materials developers of legal English for international purposes (such as in the E.U.) and drafters of international legal documents for producing effective and appropriate materials.
    • What Does Diachrony Say About English Tough-Constructions?

      Goh, Gwang-Yoon; The Ohio State University (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
      Introduction (1) English tough-constructions (TCs, e.g., Bill is easy to please, Mary is hard to work with) have caused considerable controversy about their correct analysis and this controversy can be roughly described by two main types of analyses. The first type, which can be called "strong connectivity" analysis, assumes syntactic connectivity between the tough-subject (i.e., the subject of the main clause in a tough-sentence) and the gap in the infinitival phrase/clause. Thus, studies along this line argue that the tough-subject is not the true subject of the tough-adjective but is generated as the object of a verb or preposition in the infinitival phrase/clause and moved to the subject position (Postal 1971, Postal & Ross 1971, Berman 1973, Postal 1974, Comrie & Matthews 1990, etc.)(2). This position is supported by the well-known fact that typical toughadjectives such as easy, hard, and difficult generally have no or little semantic effect on their subjects. On the other hand, the second type, which can be called "weak connectivity" analysis, argues that there is no syntactic connectivity between the tough-subject and the gap and that toughadjectives subcategorize for an infinitival phrase with a gap. Thus, early transformational studies such as Ross (1967: 231), Akmajian (1972), and Lasnik & Fiengo (1974) say that the object of the complement of a tough-adjective has been deleted. Government-Binding (GB) theory, for example, Chomsky (1977: 102-110, 1981: 308-314), proposes the movement of an empty operator that binds the trace in the object position and is coindexed with the subject. Furthermore, although no movement of an empty operator is posited, the analysis of HeadDriven Phrase Structure Grammar is similar to that of GB theory in that it does not assume syntactic connectivity. Thus, Pollard & Sag (1994) analyze TCs as a lexical fact about some special predicates and assume that such predicates as easy, difficult, take, and cost subcategorize for infinitive complements containing an accusative NP gap which is coindexed with the subject. Even though the second type of approach has long been more favored by current syntactic frameworks, it is not clear whether there is sufficient empirical evidence to support this more dominant, second type of analysis ( cf. Jones 1983 )(3). Since synchronic linguistics doesn't seem to be able to resolve this controversy one way or the other, what then does the diachrony of the relevant parts of English grammar say about the analysis of TCs? Does diachrony argue for any particular position?
    • "Y" Defends Cyclicity

      Denham, Kristin (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 1992)
      In this paper, I show that there are necessarily cyclic strata in English, using data from a Southeastern United States dialect (hereafter SUS) in which there are special rules of yinsertion and y-deletion. Cole (1990) argues that cyclic rules are unnecessary, and offers alternative proposals for others' cyclic analyses of a variety of problems in several languages. The analysis presented here, however, requires cyclic rule application, thus refuting Cole's claim that cyclicity may be eliminated.
    • Yes-no Ii questions in Russian: Interaction of syntax and phonology?

      Rudnitskaya, E.; The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2000)
      In this paper, I look at yes-no questions in Russian with the question clitic Ii. I address the question of interaction of syntax and phonology in the derivation of these questions. I show that the phonological operation Prosodic Inversion is involved is required for the derivation of Ii questions. That is, syntactic movement alone cannot derive 1 W li questions. My derivation of li questions involves two steps: the syntactic step of the focused phrase preposing and the phonological step of Prosodic Inversion. It also accounts for the fact that the host of li must be the focus of the question. Li is both a focus particle and a question particle, and, as such, it has strong [+FOC] and [+Q] features. Li is base-generated in Foe. Li's [+FOC] feature attracts the focused phrase preposing to SpecFocP. Then li moves to C and gets inverted with the first PWd of SpecFocP.
    • Yes/No Questions in the Yaqui Indian Language

      Escalante, Fernando (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 1983)
      In this paper I will analyze two types of interrogative sentence structures in the Arizona dialect of the Yaqui Indian language. The first type of question sentence is the one that is usually answered by heewi 'yes' or e'e 'no', or something similar. The other type is the question that requires information and cannot be answered heewi or e'e. I will discuss the characteristics of each kind of Q-sentence such as intonation, tags, and special particles. Finally I will discuss their differences, what they both have in common, and how they fit together.
    • Yidiny Coordination Reduction and Syntactic Ergativity

      Frazier, Michael; Northwestern University (University of Arizona Linguistics Circle (Tucson, Arizona), 2012)
      I present an analysis of a typologically unusual pattern of coordination reduction in Yidiny, a Pama-Nyungan language (Dixon 1977). Yidiny shows two dissociated patterns of syntactic ergativity, one that is dependent upon surface morphological features and another indifferent to them. Because within a single language syntactically ergative phenomena can dissociate, there must be at least two possible, though related, routes to syntactic ergativity. I propose that syntactic ergativity can occur in a language either because of an operation yielding prominence of the internal argument of a transitive verb in the syntax, or because of the interaction of syntactic mechanisms with case-marking.