• Exploring Holistic Approaches to the Characterization of Particles in the Environment

      Anhalt, Ashley; Peterson, Tawnya; Tratnyek, Paul; Needoba, Joseph; Mather, Amanda (2011-11-04)
      Most of the main determinants of water quality either consist of, or are controlled by, particles. Previous water quality research has focused on particular particles in isolation or in binary combinations. In this project, we are taking a holistic approach to the characterization of the particle load in water, focusing on the collective properties of the particles rather than individual components. Because the characterization of particles is often time-consuming, applying an informatics-based approach could speed up the evaluation of water quality and the assessment of treatment effectiveness. Further, the breadth of potential changes that could be detected using this multiplex approach may far surpass the abilities of current approaches to monitor threats to water quality. Among the instruments capable of rapidly detecting and manipulating cells is imaging flow cytometry, which distinguishes cell shape and unique fluorescence properties associated with cell types. Sets of images and corresponding data from a 1.5-year time series of samples from the Columbia River were studied and the different particle properties analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis) was applied in order to reduce the number of variables and identify patterns in particle characteristics when compared to environmental data collected from the observation station. The first three principal components were extracted and the dominant characteristics identified: the most prominent variables are particle size, particle color, and fluorescent qualities (transparency and phytoplankton pigments). Further work will relate these top principal components to specific environmental factors that determine water quality.
    • Finding Family Health Solutions within the Bhutanese Refugee Community

      Demers, Deirdre; Heckert, Karen A.; Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health (2011-11-04)
    • The Influence of the Built Environment on the Use of Greenspace and Wellbeing

      Zuniga Teran, Adriana; Arid Lands Resource Sciences (2014-11-07)
    • Knowledge is Empowering Utilizing 21st Century Library Services to Build Annotated Bibliographic Databases that Connect Native American Communities with Environmental Health Information

      Ruddle, David (2013-11-08)
      Is it possible for a student to create an information resource that helps someone in need? In a two month span, the student author conducted research into the availability of environmental articles and collected over 250 academic papers and grey literature. Library tools and services provided by The University of Arizona Libraries on Southwestern Environmental and Health Issues specifically targeting Native American communities were used to near exclusivity. Locating articles for the database was done quicker than expected by a Library Science student (the author) who had some previous familiarity with academic databases such as PubMED™ and Web of Science™. The database itself was designed in Drupal as a Deep Web (not public) Internet project and completed before schedule. Over the course of this research it was discovered that by properly utilizing library resources its possible for motivated students at the collegiate level to create a database of articles that could aid underserved groups with their understanding of desired specialized issues.
    • Laced with Uncertainty: The Impact of Shoe Gear Fastening on Dorsal Shear Stress

      Owl, Joshua; Marin, Ivan; Enriquez, Ana; Armstrong, David; Najafi, Bijan (2016-02-24)
    • Lampung Language Revitalization Program Evaluation

      Putra, Kristian Adi; Second Language Acquisition and Teaching (SLAT) Graduate Interdisciplinary Program (2016-02-24)
      This project was aimed at evaluating the implementation of Lampung language revitalization program in educational settings in Indonesia. The result of this project was used as input for the improvement of the design of the program and for the formulation of language planning and policies that could effectively support the success of the program. Lampung language is an indigenous language primarily spoken in the Province of Lampung, Indonesia. The language has two dialects: Lampung Api and Lampung Nyo. In 2000, Lampung Api had 827,000 speakers, and Lampung Nyo had 180,000 speakers (Lewis, et.al, 2015). In spite of these figures, native Lampung ethnics under 20 years old commonly do not speak the language anymore both at home and outside, as they prefer speaking in Indonesian. Gunarwan (1994) even predicted that in 75 – 100 years, the language could be extinct. Since 1997, the language has been taught for 2 hours a week in grade 1 – 12. However, the result has never been evaluated, although the trend of diglossia remains strong and more massive. This study, then, tried to fill this gap.
    • Modeling Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment

      Anhalt, Ashley; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Arnold, Robert; Rojas, Mario; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2012-11-09)
      Civilization is dependent on wastewater treatment plants. However, many conventional wastewater treatment processes only partially remove trace organics that result from human use, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupters. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) can be used to remove chemicals that may remain in the treated wastewater. AOP is an enhanced alternative to the traditional water treatment processes because it turns water contaminants into carbon dioxide (CO2), as opposed to simply transporting the contaminants across the different treatment phases. In order to model this process, one proposed idea uses ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the unwanted organic compounds. Previous mathematical models have been developed to simulate the UV/H2O2 process, however, the model employed in this work has advanced beyond previous efforts. Our UV/H2O2 model aims to characterize the mechanism and kinetics behind the decomposition of nonylphenol (NP) and p-cresol (PC), two chemicals in wastewater that serve as surrogates for endocrine disrupters. The model demonstrates agreement between experimental results and AOP simulations accounting for light intensity, pH, hydrogen peroxide levels, and concentrations of other radical scavengers. Our goal is to improve an already robust UV/H2O2 AOP model by taking into account spatial variations of radical concentrations. Our results take into account time and space, and show significant improvement in the accuracy of the model. This broadens the applications of this model and consequently, the degradation of organic contaminants is predictable over a wide range of conditions. The potential for polishing conventionally treated wastewater is evident.
    • Modeling of nucleation rate of supersaturated calcium sulfate solutions

      Jonathas, David; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2012-11-09)
    • Modeling the Effect of Shocks and Stresses on the Reliability of Networks with Radial Topologies

      Mangal, Kunal; Larsen, Alexandra; Chryst, Breanne; Rojo, Javier; University of Arizona; Centenary College; University of Utah; Rice University (2011-11-04)
      We consider the impact that various shocks and stresses have on the reliability of networks with radial topology, such as an electrical power grid. We incorporate the effects of aging, geographical risk, and local dependence between components into a model of overall system reliability. We also simulate how the system fares under extreme weather events, such as hurricanes. Our model gives a flexible and general understanding of how outside forces affect network reliability and can be adapted to a range of specific uses. We run a simulation using this model which yields realistic results.
    • More than a Classroom: Learners Voices - How should Iskashitaa use our ESL Classes as a Space to Increase Self-Sufficiency, Language Acquisition and as a Bridge to the Community for our Adult Refugee Students?

      Zaleski, Kathryn N.; Language, Reading and Culture; Department of Teaching, Learning and Sociocultural Studies (2011-11-04)
      What are Iskashitaa Refugee Harvesting Network’s roles and objectives in teaching English as a Second Language to adult refugees in the Tucson community? How can we create a classroom environment that builds their language acquisition while promoting self-sufficiency? To inquire into these questions, interviews were conducted with adult refugee students who attend the classes, anecdotal records were kept of the ESL teachers’ weekly reflections and classroom observations were performed. Iskashitaa’s ESL classes should provide a space for English language acquisition, assisting in the acculturation process through introducing material that is based on life-skills, with the teachers serving as a cultural broker, advocate and friend and finally, introducing the adult refugees to the community through volunteer activities with Iskashitaa. There is a need for more inquiry and discussion about the pre-literate refugee population, especially in effective teaching strategies, curriculum ideas and a better understanding of literacy practices within the home. These are matters that merit a larger discussion by people who work in education and with refugees, as feedback would be beneficial from all who work with refugees and can recommend what they have observed, experienced and envision to help in the language acquisition, self-sufficiency and acculturation process for refugees.
    • Morphological examination of the relationship between astrocyte-like glia and neuronal synapses in Drosophila

      Liu, Kendra; MacNamee, Sarah; Gerhard, Stephen; Fetter, Richard; Cardona, Albert; Tolbert, Leslie; Oland, Lynne; University of Arizona Department of Neuroscience; Undergraduate Program in Neuroscience and Cognitive Science; HHMI Janelia Research Campus; et al. (2016-02-24)
      The nervous system is composed of two types of cells: neurons and glia. In neuronal circuits, neurons communicate through synapses and glia play a crucial modulatory role. To modulate chemical reuptake, glia send processes close to synapses and many glia directly appose or ensheathe a synapse. This structural motif is one of the elements often included in describing a vertebrate tripartite synapse, which includes a bidirectional functional neuron-glia relationship. The exact nature of this neuron-glia communication is not well understood. In the invertebrate fruit fly, we have also found that particular neurons and glia also have a bidirectional functional relationship. This allows us to ask new questions about glial morphology. Throughout multiple images, I identified particular neuronal synapses and surrounding glia. After creating a 3D reconstruction, I measured the distance between a particular neuronal synapse and its closest glial process. Interestingly, the neuronal synapses were not directly apposed or ensheathed by glia, and the distance to the closest glial process varied one-hundred-fold. With variable distance, functional communication is consistently present. These findings provide important insight into invertebrate neuron-glia communication, and offer new avenues to investigate the structural neuron-glia relationships that are required for reciprocal signaling between the two cell classes.
    • Navigating Love and Money: Lessons from Ukraine

      Anderson, Nadina; Department of Sociology (2016-02-24)
    • Non-parents recover faster than parents following divorce

      Rojo-Wissar, Darlynn M.; Dawson, Spencer C.; Davidson, Ryan D.; Sbarra, David A.; Beck, Connie J.A.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (2013-11-08)
    • Noninvasive Genetics - A Powerful Tool for Wildlife Management

      Naidu, Ashwin; Smythe, Lindsay; Thompson, Ron; Culver, Melanie; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma, Arizona; Borderlands Research Institute, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas; U.S. Geological Survey - Arizona Co-operative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Tucson, Arizona (2012-11-09)
    • Notch house Design Build Collaboration Project: House VII

      Durrett, Tasanee; College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture (2016-02-24)
      Architecture has the power to create an inclusive society where everyone feels as if they have a voice and responsibility to a sustainable future. With collaboration and dedication, architectural design can have a huge impact on the living conditions of underrepresented communities. Working through the Drachman Design Build Coalition, the scope of the project involves designing and constructing an affordable dwelling for a low-income family in the city of Tucson, Arizona. The overall mission of building affordable housing is to provide under-served families with housing opportunities that would not be otherwise. The house will be designed as a 2-3 bedroom dwelling with 2 bathrooms, and indoor living space, outdoor living area, and a carport. Through research and physical observation, potential sites were explored, sustainable strategies were learned, and affordable housing techniques were studied. Many iterations of housing models were developed based on information gained from local books and journals written on traditional southwestern housing designs. The Notch House starts to develop as a sustainable affordable housing project designed in response to underrepresented families in Tucson.
    • A novel strategy to attenuate the inhibitory effects of nitrite on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process

      Li, Guangbin; Vilcherrez, David; Carvajal-Arroyo, Jose Maria; Puyol, D.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.; Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering (2014-11-07)
    • Passivation of III-V Semiconductor Surfaces

      Contreras, Yissel; Muscat, Anthony; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona (2013-11-08)
      Computer processor chips of the last generation are based on silicon, modified to achieve maximum charge mobility to enable fast switching speeds at low power. III-V semiconductors have charge mobilities that are much higher than that of silicon making them suitable candidates for boosting the performance of new electronic devices. However, III-V semiconductors oxidize rapidly in air after oxide etching and the poor quality of the resulting oxide limits device performance. Our goal is to design a liquid-phase process flow to etch the oxide and passivate the surface of III-V semiconductors and to understand the mechanism of layer formation.Self-assembled monolayers of 1-eicosanethiol (ET) dissolved in ethanol, IPA, chloroform, and toluene were deposited on clean InSb(100) surfaces. The InSb passivated surfaces were characterized after 0 to 60 min of exposure to air. Ellipsometry measurements showed a starting overlayer thickness (due to ET, oxides, or both) of about 20 Å in chloroform and from 32 to 35 Å in alcohols and toluene. Surface composition analysis of InSb with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after passivation with 0.1 mM ET in ethanol confirmed the presence of ET and showed that oxygen in the Auger region is below detection limits up to 3 min after the passivation. Our results show that a thiol layer on top of a non-oxidized or low-oxide semiconductor surface slows oxygen diffusion in comparison to a surface with no thiol present, making this a promising passivation method of III-V semiconductors.
    • Plant fiber reinforced geopolymer - A green and high performance cementitious material

      Chen, Rui; Ahmari, Saeed; Gregory, Mark; Zhang, Lianyang; Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics (2011-11-04)
    • Pollen Foraging Bees Don't Learn Unsaturated Floral Color

      Newman, China Rae; Papaj, Dan; Russell, Avery; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Entomology and Insect Science (2016-02-24)
      We investigated whether bees have an innate preference for flowers with saturated pigments and whether experience altered any preference. Preference could be a result of reward quality varying by color morph and/or responses to the petals, anthers, or their combination. Consequently, we gave bees experience on one of four floral configurations created from two color morphs of Solanum tridynanum. We subsequently tested learned preference using an array of all four configurations. Changes in preference as a result of experience were not mediated by anthers, only by petals. Bees that first experienced configurations with purple petals subsequently preferred configurations with purple petals, relative to naïve bees. However, bees that first experienced white petals showed no subsequent change in preference relative to naïve bees. Surprisingly, naïve bees showed no preference for any particular floral configuration. Rather than an innate preference for flowers with more saturated colors, bees are less able to develop a preference for unsaturated types. Because individuals are more able to develop a preference for saturated flowers, these flowers experience greater visitation, and thus greater pollination success, over unsaturated types.