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More than 30,000 theses and dissertations produced at the University of Arizona are included in the UA Theses and Dissertations collections. These items are available open access, and are full-text searchable. A small percentage of items are under embargo (restricted).

We have digitized the entire backfile of master's theses and doctoral dissertations that have been submitted to the University of Arizona Libraries - since 1895!

If you can't find the item you want in the repository and would like to check its digitization status, please email us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.

You can also refer to the Dissertations and Theses in the UA Libraries guide to find materials that are not available online.

Recent Submissions

• Development of Bioanalytical Assays Using Scintillant Polymer-Core Silica-Shell Nanoparticles

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Ideal nanosensors of biomolecules are sensitive, selective, stable, minimally invasive, amenable to mass production with low-cost, and applicable for reproducible in vitro and in vivo analyses. The nano scintillation proximity assay (nanoSPA) presented here is based on a composite architecture of polystyrene-core and silica-shell nanoparticles, with a high surface area to volume ratio (ca. 2×107 m-1) and density of approximately 1.6 g/cm3. nanoSPA obviates the need for separation of bound from free radiolabeled molecules prior to measurements, with minimized complexity and maximized versatility. Selected β-emitter radioisotopes were utilized for the development of radioassays for analysis of biological processes using nanoSPA. 35S was employed for thiol/disulfide ratio analysis for the first time. Thiolresponsive nanoSPA was used for quantification of 33S-cysteine and 33S-cystine as models of 35S-thiol and 35S-disulfide. Synthetic samples of 33S-cysteine and 33S-cystine and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lysates were analyzed using thiolresponsive nanoSPA for evaluation of thiol/disulfide ratio as a measure of redox status of the sample. Limit of detection for 35S-thiol analysis was <1.1 pM (<1.1 nCi) with a signal to background ratio over 10-fold. 33P-labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATPγ33P) was utilized for the development of kinase activity assays. Three nanoSPA platforms were developed for kinase activity analysis including adsorption, binding, and immuno-nanoSPA that respond based on electrostatic non-specific adsorption, covalent binding, and antibody-antigen binding, respectively. Signal to background ratio up to 24 was observed using separation-free analyses with nanoSPA, compared to approximately 11.5 using liquid scintillation analysis after many washing steps. 3H emits the lowest energy β-particles and it was utilized with nanoSPA for development of saccharide sensors. Dynamic binding of 3H-D-glucose to nanoSPA functionalized with several monoboronic acids (monoBAs) and diboronic acids (diBAs) was evaluated. The signal to background ratio was up to 2.2-fold that must be improved. Further platforms may be developed based on phospholipid-nanoSPA with minimal nonspecific adsorption and more specificity.
• Aquatic and Riparian Connectivity in Arid Landscapes

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are of critical importance in arid environments, supporting a diverse suite of resident and migratory species over different life stages. Ecological connectivity is an important property in the functioning of these ecosystems, and a significant subject of interest for researchers,scientists,resource managers, practitioners and other stakeholders. Furthermore, a variety of perceptions exists on aquatic and riparian connectivity among stakeholders, and connectivity of these ecosystems in arid landscapes is a relatively unexplored subject. I focused on these issues in the US portion of the Madrean Archipelago by combining qualitative methods to capture the diversity of perspectives among experts and quantitative spatial analysis to capture the variety of factors that influence aquatic and riparian connectivity. I synthesized the resultant expert perspectives into a Connectivity Component-Dimension Framework that deconstructs aquatic and riparian connectivity into connectivity components and their dimensions. Using GIS and regression analysis, I applied this framework to a case study of the threatened Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) in the Cienega Creek basin in Arizona and created connectivity indices for this focal species. Some factors that emerged significant in this case study included elevation, fire hazard potential, and density of leopard frog sightings. This connectivity framework and the related indices provide customizable options for stakeholders to assess aquatic and riparian connectivity multidimensionally using readily available data. These tools can be used by stakeholders for exploratory analysis, assessment and visualization of aquatic and riparian connectivity, in arid landscapes, and beyond.
• Impact of Geographic Variation, Disability, Socioeconomic Status and Risk Adjustment on High-Risk Medication Use among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
• Examining Three Levels of Social Integration and Health in Minorities: A Bioecological Perspective

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
• Effects of Stress, Sleep Hygiene, and Exercise on Academic Engagement in Undergraduate Students

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
• Machine Reading for Scientific Discovery

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
• Supporting Parents as College Advisors: A Qualitative Study of First Generation College Students' Parents

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
• The Nature of the Vertical Distribution of Seismic Responses in Multi-Story Structures

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
This Ph.D. research investigates the vertical distribution of seismic responses and controlling seismic response patterns in multi-story reinforced concrete and steel structures. Seismic responses of buildings designed by conventional force-based or displacement-based approaches result in significant force demands compared to nominal design as observed in both experimental studies and earthquake simulations. Furthermore, force patterns suggest that the floor forces are predominantly controlled by higher modes especially when modal properties of buildings alter due to inelastic deformations. Therefore, actual force patterns experienced by buildings may not comply with the design code assumptions such as equivalent lateral force or response spectrum analysis. The main assumption in those methods, that the response of a building is dominated by the first mode excitation, may not be valid under strong earthquakes when inelastic deformations contribute significantly to the total response. Design code assumptions imply inelasticity to have same effects in all modes of response, though it may have significant effects on the demands associated with the first mode, higher modes may not be affected the same way. Further the distribution of seismic responses may differ for different types of lateral force resisting systems since each system possesses different response mechanisms such as formation of inelastic deformations. To better understand the distribution of seismic demands, response intensity measures obtained through nonlinear time history analysis are examined closely in terms of magnitude and shape along the height of buildings for different types of lateral force resisting systems in this study. This dissertation examines various types of buildings to address and shade light on those issues and observations mentioned above.
• Passive Strategies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Existing and Pursuing Leed® Certified Buildings in Arid Regions

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Energy efficiency in buildings is vital for the environment and sustainability. Edifices are responsible for significant energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. “LEED® provides a framework to create healthy, highly efficient and cost-saving green buildings” (10). This framework that LEED® developed and the variety of paths to achieve points for certification make it very easy to bypass the energy category and produce underachieving buildings regarding energy efficiency. I think to create sustainable structures it is essential to employ passive strategies, and this study will illustrate that some LEED® Certify Building rely more on active systems rather than passive systems. This research will also demonstrate through energy simulation that passive strategies minimized external loads due to climate and are very effective in a hot arid climate. These strategies are sustainable reduce energy consumption are cost effective and without risk of mechanical or user failure. Because of investigation, a check list was developed to aid designers create more efficient structure using passive strategies.
• Planetary Granular Topography: Slope Angles & Crater Concentric Ridges

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
In the first portion of this dissertation I examine the effect of gravitational acceleration on the angle of repose of granular features. To do this I have used HiRISE DTMs to compare the slipface angles of Martian sand dunes with those measured on Earth. In doing this I have found that the slopes of active dunes on Mars do not differ from their terrestrial counterparts, and as such I have concluded that gravitational acceleration does not effect the angle of repose. In the second, larger portion of this dissertation I examine the morphology and formation of Crater Concentric Ridges (CCRs). These features, formerly known as 'Lunar Concentric Dunes', are ridges oriented concentrically to fresh craters a few kilometers in diameter. Using LROC NAC data I have created a catalog of 77 craters that have these features in their ejecta blankets. Further, I have used this data to map and measure the CCRs around eight craters of varying diameters in order to analyze their distributions. I have also been able to characterize the morphology of these ridges and how that morphology changes with distance from the host crater. Using DTMs made from NAC images I have studied the three-dimensional topography of CCRs in order to fully describe the morphology of these features. This morphological analysis has allowed me to refute several hypotheses for the formation of these features, including the previously accepted ballistic impact sedimentation and erosion hypothesis. In order to formulate a new theory for the formation of these features I have created simulations of crater ejecta flowing over regolith using discrete element modeling. In these simulations I found that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities form at the interface between the ejecta and regolith. I posit that these instabilities are responsible for the formation of Crater Concentric Ridges. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the topography produced in my simulations strongly resembles that which I have measured and described around real lunar craters.
• Experimental and Flight Investigation of the Laminar Separation Bubble on an Oscillating X-56A Wing Section Near Stall

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
An investigation of laminar separation bubble behavior on an oscillating X-56A wing section has been performed experimentally at Reynolds number 200,000. Wind tunnel results along with Implicit Large Eddy Simulations (CFD) quantify the behavior of the laminar separation bubble. The oscillation parameters were selected based on a scaled flight vehicle at the University of Arizona. Wind tunnel results were validated against theory using static angle of attack sweeps and an unsteady case at an angle of attack of $\alpha = 10$ degrees. The static results show excellent agreement between the experimental data, Thin Airfoil Theory, a computational vortex lattice method (XFLR5), and CFD results in both pressure coefficient and lift coefficient. The unsteady validation case of $\alpha=10$ degrees (nondimensional plunging frequency of $k = \frac{\pi f c}{U_{\infty}}=0.7$, where $f$ is the dimensional plunging frequency, $c$ is the wing section chord, and $U_{\infty}$ is the free-stream velocity, and nondimensional plunging amplitude $h = \frac{amplitude}{chord} = 3.2\%$) also showed agreement for comparison between the experiment, Theodorsen's theory (analytical solution to plunging wing sections), and CFD results. Pressure coefficient behaved similarly between the experiment and CFD with the laminar separation bubble changing pressures at similar times in the cycle. The lift coefficient was found to oscillate sinusoidally, achieving higher lift than the static case with no moment stall. Near static stall angle of attack ($\alpha=12$ degrees, where stall $\alpha=12.25$ degrees), Theodorsen's theory is no longer applicable. Oscillation parameters were $k=0.7$ and $h=4.8\%$ and effective angles of attack reached nearly $16$ degrees. The airfoil continued to produce lift past static stall at the consequence of a moment stall. Pressure measurements indicate that the laminar separation bubble is shed from the leading edge which was confirmed through 2D particle image velocimetry. The shedding behavior was modeled differently in the CFD simulation with a lack of free-stream turbulence. However, pressure coefficient and lift coefficient are in excellent agreement for over $75\%$ of the oscillation cycle. It is shown that the experimental setup is valid and the increased aerodynamic efficiency comes at the consequence of a moment stall for the high angle of attack case ($\alpha=12$ degrees). Additionally, free-flight tests have been completed including maiden flights of the 1/3 scale X-56A vehicle built at The University of Arizona. The flight vehicle is the motivation for the wind tunnel parameters. Flight instruments have been verified against previously collected data including pressure sensors, wing accelerometers (to track the motion), and a stand-alone constant temperature anemometry (CTA) system to measure free-stream turbulence. The instrumentation was flown on a stable platform to compare to historical data (1/5 scale Ximango) and is performing nearly 10 times as fast (data collection frequency) of the expected phenomenon occurring with the laminar separation bubble shedding on the 1/3 X-56A vehicle. This will need to be analyzed in future work as the laminar separation bubble is sensitive to free-stream turbulence conditions.
• Differential Impacts of Passive versus Active Irrigation on Semiarid Urban Forests

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Trees provide benefits to the urban environment and irrigation is common to support these ecosystem services. In dryland communities where water resources are limited, collection and retention of stormwater runoff is used to passively irrigate the urban forest. However, the effects of passive irrigation versus regular, controlled moisture inputs, or active irrigation, is largely unquantified. We monitored the ecohydrology of urban mesquite trees (Prosopis spp) under these contrasting irrigation regimes in semiarid Tucson, AZ. Measurements included soil moisture, sap flow, canopy greenness, and leaf-area index. We expected both irrigation types to provide additional deep (>20 cm) soil moisture compared to natural conditions, and that trees would depend on this deep soil moisture for transpiration and phenological activity. Results show that active irrigation supported higher soil moisture, sap flow, and greenness during the dry conditions of spring. Following summer rain, greenness was higher under passive irrigation, despite sustained elevated soil moisture under active irrigation. Deep soil moisture had only slightly stronger controls over mesquite productivity than shallow moisture, and these relationships were stronger in the spring, rather than summer months. Finally, passive irrigation generally failed to provide additional deep soil moisture, though treatments in closer proximity to impervious surfaces did provide wetter soil conditions. This research aims to contribute empirical observations of green infrastructure performance and improved understanding of urban forest function for watershed management and planning.
• Rationality and Resentment in the Egyptian Critique of Orientalism: The Example of Anouar Abdel-Malek and Ḥasan Ḥanafī

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Fifteen years before Edward Said published his seminal book Orientalism, Anouar Abdel-Malek (1924-2012), an Egyptian alumnus of the Sorbonne and a Sociologist in the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), had published his contentious article entitled “Orientalism in Crisis” in 1963. The essay placed Abdel-Malek as the first Arab thinker to critique Orientalism in a European language. In 1991, Ḥasan Ḥanafī (b. 1935), an Egyptian philosopher and Sorbonne graduate, published Introduction to the Science of Occidentalism. He presents the book as the first serious formation of an Eastern science capable of challenging Eurocentrism and countering Western Orientalism. The present study implements Partha Chatterjee’s (b. 1947) model of the three moments in the development of the Nationalist thought in India on Anouar Abdel-Malek and Ḥasan Ḥanafī in the context of restructuring the power relations between the East and the West. Chatterjee argued that nationalist thought in the colonial world, while seeking to liberate itself from the imperialist influence, remained a prisoner of the post-Enlightenment Western thought. It will be argued that Ḥasan Ḥanafī, who fits in the third moment, the moment of arrival, could not escape the Orientalist mode of knowledge. It will also be argued that Anouar Abdel-Malek, who fits in the third moment as well, has successfully managed to overcome the nationalist dilemma suggested by Chatterjee. The moment of arrival represents a fully developed ideology that embraces the different components of a nation.
• Mean Flow Structure of Swept Impinging Oblique Shock Boundary Layer Interactions

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
An experimental investigation has been conducted to assess the e↵ect of sweep on the mean flow structure of impinging oblique Shock/Boundary Layer Interactions (SBLIs), specifically focused surface flow visualization and mean wall pressures. Four shock generators are utilized with x-y plane deflection of ✓ = 12.5!, and x-z plane sweep angles of 15.0!, 22.5!, 30.0!, and 40.0!. The swept oblique shocks impinge upon the naturally turbulent Mach 2.3 boundary layer along the tunnel floor (Re✓ ⇡ 5000). The resultant SBLIs all exhibit significant separation, with a structure that grows in the spanwise direction. Surface flow visualization shows a quasi-infinite region of separation that is limited by corner e↵ects at the root and tip of the interaction. The rise in mean pressure near separation scales locally with cylindrical similarity suggesting the three-dimensional separation along the span obeys Free Interaction Concept. Local reattachment behavior is only mildly dependent upon span. Convention from literature states that when the flow features, such as separation and reattachment lines are parallel, the interaction scales cylindricalyly. Conversely, when these flow features diverge from each other, the interaction scales conically. Divergence of separation and reattachment lines indicated that the global shock structure scales cylindrically for shock generator sweep angles less than 22.5! and conically above this angle. Another wind tunnel configuration suggests that the incoming boundary layer can influence this behavior. Similar trends to compression ramp observations (Settles and Teng, 1984) are seen for the asymptotic behavior of the inception length near the root of the SBLI. This suggests a cylindrical/conical boundary similar to that found from the divergence of separation and reattachment lines. The root behavior was further investigated using a delta shock generator producing an inviscid shock similar to the shock generator with an x-z plane sweep angle of 22.5!. Surface flow visualization shows good agreement between the two shock generators at the separation line. The pressure at separation also appears to align between the two, but the delta span, which is limited by tunnel size, is not sufficient to generate a quasi-infinite region.
• Lossless Image Compression using Reversible Integer Wavelet Transforms and Convolutional Neural Networks

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Image compression is an area of data compression which looks to exploit various redundancies that exist within images to reduce storage and transmission requirements. In information critical applications such as professional photography, medical diagnostics, and remote sensing, lossless image compression may be used to ensure the original data can be restored at a later time. In this work, a lossless compression framework is proposed which incorporates Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to predict wavelet detail coefficients from coefficients within neighboring subbands. The main premise of the proposed framework is that information which can be recovered at the decoder via CNN prediction can be excluded from the compressed codestream, resulting in reduced file sizes. An end-to-end encoder and decoder is implemented to test the validity of the proposed, model and compression performance is compared with current state of the art methods.
• Gender Differences in Achievement Emotions: A Control-Value Theory Approach

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
The current study examines whether there are gender differences in general academic contexts within three achievement emotions: prospective outcome emotions, retrospective outcome emotions and activity emotions. I combined Pekrun’s control-value theory with the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire (AEQ) to assess participants’ achievement emotions. Discriminant function analysis revealed statistically and practically significant gender differences in prospective outcome emotions and activity emotions, but not in retrospective outcome emotions. Moreover, females scored higher on three achievement emotions: prospective outcome emotions, retrospective outcome emotions, and activity emotions than males in this study. The current study filled in the gap of prior studies which have not explored gender differences in three achievement emotions: prospective outcome emotions, retrospective outcome emotion and activity emotions, in general domains. Future studies could replicate the current study and explore if other factors would influence the impact of gender on achievement emotions, for example, culture and age. Additionally, researchers could try to apply achievement emotions to improve students’ academic performance.
• Spinning Records: How Hip-Hop is Used in the Tucson Community

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
The phenomenon of hip-hop began as a local musical practice in New York in the 1970s and from that local practice developed into a formally recognized musical genre, and furthermore, into a viable and distinct culture – a way of life – in its own right. Hip-hop has expanded its formerly narrowly-defined demographics and indoctrinated a broad cultural diversity of contributing artists to become a truly global musical and cultural phenomenon. Hip-hop culture is signaled, enacted, and expressed fundamentally through rapping, deejaying, graffiti, and dance. It was designed to accommodate and support dual identities for its practitioners, through both an acquired identity of affiliation within hip-hop and an identity of affiliation within the locale in which they develop and operate. The members of the Tucson, AZ hip-hop community, the subjects of this study, claim that what defines Tucson’s hip-hop is not how it sounds, but how it is used within the local hip-hop community as well as within the greater Tucson community. This study examines the relationships, symmetrical and asymmetrical, that exist between hip-hop and Tucson. Furthermore, I demonstrate how hip-hop deejays in Tucson serve a pivotal role in connecting the local hip-hop community to the greater Tucson community. Their idea of a hip-hop identity is fluid; therefore, through adaptable performance practice, they can achieve different aims at different times to satisfy different target audiences. Ultimately, what is most vital to their success, and by extension that of the hip-hop community in Tucson, in general, are their multipronged efforts to establish and maintain a strong sense of community through education, collaboration, and support of their fellow artists.
• Determination of Stress in Humans Using Data Fusion of Off-The-Shelf Wearable Sensors Data for Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Stress detection helps individuals understand their stress levels and advises them when to take a break from activities causing stress. Physical activities and environmental influences can affect a person’s stress levels. People with professions as first responders, pilots, and working parents with newborns are examples of people exposed to a large amount of stress. Acquisition and proper analysis of physiological data is helpful in managing stress. In this paper, the results from two sensors, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements, are fused to analyze stress in individuals; these sensors are noninvasive and wearable. Data from these sensors are collected simultaneously over a period of 25 minutes from 25 people which are undergoing a simulated stressor. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) are used as the classifiers while Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is used as the stress detection algorithm. The stress detection accuracy achieved varies with individuals and ranges from 87% to 95%. This approach of measuring stress is very suitable for real-time applications and can be used by practically anybody who wants to improve their performance.
• Socially Constructed Narratives for Exploring the Impacts of Air Pollutant Infiltration in Built Environments

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
This dissertation is an autoethnographic (self-guided) interdisciplinary process done by an empathetic entity (me) who noted a problem sorting out the effects of outdoor air pollutants that infiltrate indoors from those of other indoor pollutants. This problem is the lack of understanding by architects, planners, and other experts of relevant implications of their lack of attention to the infiltration of airborne dust indoors in the arid regions of Arizona. This systematic process of informed reflections is written in a continuous narrative, and breakouts or Vignettes. Each Vignette corresponds to a topic directly relevant to the research and contains the evidence that answers an inquiry followed by a reflection based on my experience and observations. In the study of arid lands, autoethnographic Vignettes provide an alternative approach for taking a scientific point of view to reveal complex interactions between the natural and built environments for arid regions and other regions that may experience drier and warmer climatic conditions in the future.
• Statistical Methods for Next Generation Sequencing Data

(The University of Arizona., 2018)
Statistical genetics is a scientific field concerned with the development of statistical methods for drawing inferences from genetic data. Research in statistical genetics generally involves developing theory or methodology to support research in one of three related areas: population genetics, genetic epidemiology and quantitative genetics. This dissertation is an ensemble of my research work in statistical genetics, including three projects with varying focuses. The first project applies a rare variant region-based test to identify sets of common or rare variants aggregated in and around genes associated with Dravet Syndrome. The second project proposes a score-based test to investigate the association for a set of rare variants and ordinal traits. The third project describes an implement of dimensionality reduction method in genotype data for population inference.